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Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 2014
86 Seiten, Note: "A"
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Theoretical / Conceptual Framework
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.8 Organization of the Study
1.9 Explanation of Key Terms
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Theoretical Literature
2.3 Empirical Literature
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Qualitative Research Approach
3.3 Research Setting
3.4 Data Collection Methods
3.4.1 Procedure of Data Collection
3.5 Sampling Procedures and Sample Size
3.5.1 Population / Target Group
3.5.2 Sample Size
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques
3.7 Validity and Reliability
3.8 Ethical Considerations
CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2.1 The Range of Measurement Items on the Questionnaire
4.3 Informal Discussions
4.3.1 Students’ Self-reported Participation on learner disciplinary measures (N = 200)
4.4 Data Interpretation
4.4.1 Analysis of disciplinary behavior
4.4.2 Compromising Differences
4.4.3 Effective Discipline Coping Strategies
4.5 Preventive Discipline Model
4.6 Supportive Discipline Model
4.7 Corrective Discipline Model
CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of research findings
5.3.1 Research Objective
5.3.2 Research Objective
5.3.3 Research Objective
5.4.1 Educators-learners scheduled forum
5.4.2 Internal school workshops
5.4.3 Skill initiative program
5.4.4 School behavior governing models
5.4.5 Character growth and instilling of values
5.4.6 Model good behavior
5.4.7 Proactive discipline strategies
5.5 Recommendations for further research
Figure 1. Conceptual frame work
Figure 2. Sirisia District (Kenya)
Figure 3. Arumeru District (Tanzania)
Figure 4. Summary of proactive discipline strategies (Original)
Table 1. Overview of Study Parameters
Table 2. Identifying the connection of students’ disciplinary measures against poor academic performance
Table 3. Identifying teachers experiences of disciplinary measures contribution on academic performance
Table 4. Identifying the effectiveness of discipline measures adopted by teachers that can enhance moral discipline
Table 5. Identifying the connection of students’ disciplinary measures against poor academic performance
Chart 1. Whether disciplinary measures can contribute to behavior change
Chart 2. Relationship between behavior change and improved academic performance
Chart 3. Whether there is significance of corrective, supportive and preventive disciplinary models on academic improvements among students
Chart 4. Whether there are specific disciplinary measures in your school?
Chart 5. Suggesting any disciplinary measures which teachers think should be taken to correct students’ existing misbehavior in their schools
Chart 6. Whether there is any relationship between behavior change and improved academic performance
Teachers with effective school management strategies establish expectation guidelines and rules for behavior during school sessions. The essential component from students is what comes out of them after class instructions. However, the goal of teachers is to provide proactive interventions to potentially disruptive behaviors by clearly explaining to students how they ought to conduct themselves. In the Tanzania ‘Habari Leo’ (Today’s News) Newspaper of July 9th 2014, it was confirmed that two secondary school students were jailed for six year after killing their teacher (2014:4). However, in the Tanzania Daily News, Newspaper of July 9 2014, diplomats from US shared a light moment with school children in Pemba, encouraging an alternative form of discipline for children instead of corporal punishment (2014:15). Nevertheless, the study on behaviorist models by Ormrod (2008:2) revealed that; most other early behaviorists such as Pavlov, Skinner and Piaget alleged that Stimulus-Response (S-R) connections were acquired only gradually, primarily through practice. He further explained the seemingly gradual learning of complex behaviors by proposing that such behaviors are actually composed of many tiny S-R connections. With each practical trial, more and more appropriate S-R connections are formed, thus leading to slow, augmentable changes observed in overall performance. However, many teachers globally make the mistake of starting the school year with a poor discipline plan which allows students quickly to assess the situation and realize what they will be allowed to get away with on the basis of what they ought to attain.
Ward (2007:2) observed that school-wide disciplinary policies are normally considered to react onto rather than to avert perilous and disorderly behaviors. By contrast, the study of Holland (2008:675) confirms that school-wide practices that include policies, behavioral support teams, staff development, data-based decision making, structure and routine, and family/community involvement greatly enhance a school’s potential to provide an environment safe for studies. Furthermore, punishing problem behaviors without a positive school-wide system of support was associated with increased aggression, vandalism, truancy, tardiness, and students’ school drop outs. Once the school sets a precedence of allowing a lot of disruptions, it can be very hard to start better school management and discipline techniques.
Mbiti (1997:37) also observed that the African traditional approach viewed punishment as instilling fear and pain on administering discipline. In other words, punishment was a disciplinary measure to bring about and sustain discipline. According to some education psychology researchers like Kounin & Gordon, there is evidence that punishment can successfully reduce or eliminate undesirable behavior (Ormrod, 1990:21). Currently, the use of punishment as a means of behavior control is widespread in most secondary schools. One probable reason for the frequent use of punishment as a disciplinary measure is that it tends to decrease or eliminate undesirable behaviors which inhibit academic achievements of learners.
Nonetheless, it is hardly simple to get along due to intentional indiscipline measures on the school ground. While students ought to refrain from involving into immoral behavior and follow the school motto, most schools have not been able to have merits based on scheduled routine of infusing behavior change in teenagers. Sarah (2011:8) for example, argues that gossip and social gap are some of the behavior problems among girls that need to be sternly addressed by disciplinary stakeholders. In this context of moral decline experienced from learners, if however, the school act in contempt and does not treat all students equitably, it will be labeled as unfair distribution of justice and students will not be keen to follow the rules of the school.
In the laws of Kenya, school discipline is regulated in the Education Act L.N 40 of 1972 and L.N. 56 of 2001.These regulations have been established by school authorities as the regulation for school discipline and they affect both public and private secondary schools. According to Griffin (1996:56) discipline is a significant ingredient in the design of a prosperous academic and industrious school community. However, for schools to enforce discipline, they have improvised policies and regulations to govern students’ behavior patterns in order to attain desired academic objectives. Breaching of those policies may lead school authority to enact important disciplinary measures, for instance, expulsion, suspension, banned from attending several classroom lessons or being given farm activities on the school compound. Nonetheless, learners are informed that whenever punitive measures are taken, as from the present, painted picture of total disorder marked by demonstrations, destruction of property and sadly murder experienced in both countries (Kenya & Tanzania), the objective is certainly to reform impending behavior patterns.
Govender (2011:3635) assumes that, the school as a behavior amendment institution has a role to deal with disruptions with as little intermission as it ought to be. When there is a school disruption caused by learners, it is imperative that teachers deal with those students involved immediately and with as little interruption of the school academic momentum as possible. As a teacher, with more experience of behavior dynamism and good training on managerial principles, it is significant to use aptitude when strategizing measures to discipline naughty students. The study by Shitandi (2013:45) confirms that confrontations between students and teachers have at several points been reported in most of the Kenyan and Tanzanian secondary schools. However, this critical area of indiscipline may have been forfeited in many schools and disregarded by most school administrations. Studies by Gibbs (2011:984) shows that emotional sentiments may be the best contributing factors for students’ misbehavior. In regard to the latter, teachers have to be cautious on how to stop disruptions with petty emotions. Sometimes all it takes is for everyone to have a good laugh to get things back on track in a school. Many times, however, teachers confuse good humor experienced from learners with sarcasm. Idemudia et al (2013:521) observed that while humor can quickly diffuse a situation, sarcasm may harm teacher’s collaborative relationship with students involved. Secondary schools within Sirisia and Arumeru districts are neither exempted from indiscipline cases. These indiscipline cases have been experienced by the researcher in the forms of strikes, demonstrations, destruction of property, absconding class attendances and intentional school absences.
The problem of students’ misbehavior against good academic performance in both Tanzania and Kenya secondary schools is projected as a contemporary predicament that may turn into crisis if it is not properly addressed. Several secondary schools in both districts have of recent encountered massive strikes within the years 2007 and 2013 leading to closure of the affected schools, suspending and expelling some of the students by the education authorities. Due to this undesirable situation of indiscipline, the researcher has been indebted to carry out this study.
The research was guided by the following objectives:-
To establish the effectiveness of disciplinary measures applied in secondary schools in relation to academic performance.
- To identify the connection of students’ disciplinary measures against poor academic performance.
- To identify teachers’ experiences of disciplinary measures’ contribution on academic performance
- To identify how effective discipline measures adopted by teachers can enhance moral discipline.
- What is the experience of teachers on disciplinary measures that can lead to improved academic performance in both Arumeru, and Sirisia district secondary school students?
- How effective are disciplinary measures on the academic performance of the students, within Arumeru and Sirisia districts secondary schools?
- How effective are forms of disciplinary measures adopted by teachers on the students’ academic achievements?
The behaviorist learning theory developed by Ormrod (2008:2) will be used in this research. The theory indicates that, a habit may be formed by one association replacing or supplanting another when or if a continuous disturbing stimulus produces activities by which it is set up for. Nonetheless, the self efficacy theory by Beamount (2013:360) is also significant. The theory is defined as the belief in one’s abilities to attain a particular goal based on their own actions .Thus; self-efficacy is based on a person’s beliefs and on their expectations with regard to a desired outcome. Elimination of undesirable acts or response is best achieved by the substitution for them afterwards, the previous responses are forgotten.
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Fig: 1. Conceptual frame work
Behavior Changing Strategies:
Preventive Discipline Model Corrective Discipline Model Supportive Discipline Model
The study would be useful to educators in providing disciplinary strategies which can necessarily boost academic performance. The outcome of the study would guide educational curriculum developers and policy makers in the ministry of education towards formulating better students’ disciplinary policies to deal with secondary school students’ indiscipline cases purposely for achieving better academic performance.
The research was conducted on disciplinary stakeholders in both Sirisia and Arumeru district secondary schools.
Fig. 2 Sirisia District (Kenya) retrieved from; www.google.com/maps
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Fig. 3 Arumeru District (Tanzania) retrieved from www.google.com/maps
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This study involved 20 Discipline Executing Masters, and 200 Students. Due to financial constraints, limited secondary schools in both districts and distance barrier, the study was, in the convenience level, conducted in 20 selected secondary schools (10 from each district) to characterize the remaining schools. Data was obtained from the following school categories:
(a) Single boarding
(b) Mixed day
(c) Mixed boarding
The study is organized basically around disciplinary issues, modes of punishment, teachers’ role in academic achievements and theories adopted on behavior change. The academic resources include books from recognized authors, Magazines, Journals from different globally research based universities and agencies.
Punishment: the penalty the student must pay for breaking the school rules.
Corporal Punishment: the use of force to cause pain, but not injury, for the purpose of correction of behavior.
Guidance: the process of providing in-depth course into solving a problem.
Disciplinary measures: established rules and regulations that have been developed by the school to moderate behavior.
Motivation: A direct influence provided to someone for a certain need.
This chapter includes the background of the study, the problem statement, research objectives, research questions, scope/limitations of study, the significance and definitions of terms used in this study.
The chapter examines the relevant literature resources that had been done in the past with regard to the topic addressing on how disciplinary measures contribute to better academic performance among secondary school students. These literature reviews have further been divided into theoretical and empirical literature. Under theoretical literature, assessments of discipline variables have been subsequently dealt with. However, in the empirical literature, the other data findings have been taken into considerations on how they are interactively related to the topic under study.
Sultan (2012:25) suggests the moral reasoning model which profoundly confirms ethical actions among learners. For particular students, a warning is set in the form of explanations of the teachers teaching policy set to the class. Cristol (2011:7) correctly contends on ‘transformative outcome perspective.’ Closer collaborative community strategy over indiscipline could develop better learning connections involving teachers and students. The study of Idemudia (2013) analogizes Pavlovian conditioning theory on behavior change. On the latter, psychological theory which explains antisocial behavior and personality advocate teachers, to teach facilitative skills and designate time for students to apply them for example, via student-led seminars on problem solving or problem-solving groups. ‘The upward mobility,’ as a subsequent result of learning provided by Parry et al (2013:64) significantly focuses on three disciplinary reviews: cultural, moral and academic.
The assumption of Gorard (2010:45) is significant on approving parental interventions in the matters concerning school disciplinary measures. In his study on the effective school running, it was found that school administrators have a role in shaping naughty learners to get back on the academic track. However, still in lieu to the latter, Ondero and Croll (2011:17), while reviewing on factors associated with fluctuation of school performance, they provide suggestive frequent checking on the moral status of learners in schools.
The case of school disciplinary measure has been mostly discussed by many scholars (Hocket 2012). These academic scholars have focused on this issue from different angles of their studies. Some have pointed at the issue from the classroom perspective where as others have overhauled the issue on the school in its entirety. Focusing on imperative curriculums for Quaker schools in Kenya, Hocket (2012:8) holds on peace strategies as being part of immoral behavior inhibition. Teachers with effective classroom management strategies establish expectations, guidelines and rules for behavior change during the first few months of school. Clearly explaining expectations is, according to Brown (2013-2014:12) an essential component to ‘preventative discipline’. Brereton (2008:465) confirms that the goal of preventative discipline is to provide proactive interventions to potential disruptive behaviors by clearly explaining to students what misbehavior contributes in their academic achieving efforts.
The most basic component to preventative discipline is a concise outline about classroom expectations for students as well as for teachers; students need to know what is expected of them in the class. Such guidelines, based on the study of Lewis (2011:135) piercing in the heart of managerial skills, includes rules regarding talking, homework or language use in the classroom.
Nonetheless, the study of Murberg (2010:515), in the realm of personal attribute over academic discipline argues that passive classroom behavior indicates malfunctioning of brain activities that can possibly lead to poor academic performance. With the focal view on bullying in schools, Rigby (2012:340) dissents from supporting the former strategies of preventive discipline by indicating that even the best laid preventative discipline strategies may occasionally fail throughout the school year if they have poor dissemination. Further, the study on ‘systems theory’ and occurrence of transaction between parties by Lun (2011:368) on supportive discipline asserts that when a teacher offers a verbal warning or a suggestion for correcting behavior while a student is disobeying an established school rule, the teacher is remarkably using supportive discipline. As it may be with Golkar (2012:770), supportive discipline is distinct from punishment in that it provides a student with evocative options for correcting behavior before an outcome is necessary. For example, if a student is wandering around the school after a teacher has announced it is time for them to be in the class, the teacher may say, ‘I made the announcement that it is time to be in your classes. They should however get in their classes so that they can get started or the teacher may hold them after class.’ Noting from the latter, the student has been given the option to accept or avoid further punishment; this notion according to Lun (2011:367) concisely consents that behavior has been redirected through a teacher's supportive regulation strategy.
Reminders, redirection and nonverbal communication are all examples of supportive discipline. However, corrective approach, on disciplinary measures is significantly considered on behavior reforms. Where there is malfunction to redirect his/her behavior after repeated attempts at supportive discipline, a teacher may decide on a corrective discipline strategy (Golkar 2012:772). Corrective discipline has an implication on a set of consequences given to students following contravention. A study of Indrisano (2013:40) provides a wide degree of variation among corrective discipline strategies; some may be more effective than others. For example, engaging in a verbal dispute with a student is a corrective discipline technique, but it may escalate unpredictable situation and undermine the authority of a teacher over students.
With high school students, most of them know how they are supposed to do things. For instance, early in the year, teachers have to however, consider using a class session to facilitate the students to develop their own code of conduct. The comment on students self determination offered by Butcher (2013:28) imply a culture fostered for refraining from significantly academic inhibitive behavior and seek for education improvement. The culture to counter the disruptive nature of, for instance, phones; some instructors have enlisted help in developing their school policies. The phones are not only an interruption to other students, but also to the learning concentration and focus.
The study on discipline in the context of academic development by Holland (2008: 672) asserts behavior management allegations which presume that there is no one best behavior teaching approach, rather, the choice of a pedagogical method or a particular instructional move should be determined by what the desired results imply and thus what kind of help and experience the learners need. When the learning goal requires information cast in a helpful way, then the significant part is situated within that teaching objective against other disruptive behavior.
Clearly, then, an effective teacher not only demonstrates skill in all three roles for instance, teaching, coaching and planning but also understands when they should be used, in what combinations, and for how long (Bagaka 2011:822). The teaching objective flows from the mission and learning priorities because, there are moments when direct telling can be efficient and effective. However, when learning goals highlight understanding and knowledge transfer, we would logically expect to see an emphasis in the school on facilitation of students’ corrective behavior toward a positive performance. Warren (2012:394) is suggestive on extensive reading over a variety of academic disciplines that may impact behavior rehabilitation. Given the learning goals that have behavior priority, then, what is the best use of inherently limited class time, in terms of teacher and learner roles? What should teachers and learners be doing inside class and outside class to best accomplish those disciplinary aims? What form of interaction between learners and in what equilibrium of time offers the greatest probability of achieving the various explicit results related to undertaking other than punishment? What are the highest expected actions we as teachers can take to cause important changes in learners?
Based on findings provided by Puja (2010:75) on the moral judgment ability, it is suggested that social rules are subjective agreements that can be challenged and further be changed. It may be important to set up behavior problem issues and inquiry for discussion. A major goal of intervention involves the development and deepening of student understanding over their actions. For instance, the study conducted in Bangladesh by Chia (2011:836) on smoking behavior, stresses on appropriate measures to be put in place on those learners found using drugs such as cigarettes, bhang or whatsoever. School facilitators however, should in urgency select confrontational issues to explore and debate, significant investigations to conduct, and challenging problems to tackle. Felesena (2013:41) nevertheless, urges schools to have progressive discipline policies that in that sense could assist in habitual behavior reform. With these intellectual behavior interventions, as the substance for understanding, the educators’ role should be to ensure that students generate, test, probe, and adjust ideas via peer feedback and demonstrate salient educational expectations.
The study on self justification in learners and victimization as being a thread to ethical management by Lowell (2011:21) presupposes learners self esteem as one of the best contributing factor of insurgency. However, successful academic developments in the school setting have to ensure that there is also corrective behavior input strategies. It is advisably that learners need to undergo guidance in making behavior meaningful in the society. The understanding of behavior by an expert simply cannot only be passed on verbally but also it is trying to become models. Thus, the learner's responsibility is to actively try to construct meaning and make sense of things, and the educators’ role is to assist this behavior construction process. However, this may be a basic misconception about facilitative instruction, which Ho’mle (2012:321) refers to as human dignity that involves the process of behavior rehabilitation based on learners self perception. Just because all related corrective behavior content isn't being didactically taught doesn't mean that the content isn't being learned namely, through student attempts to use what they have thus ‘far encountered’ in and out of class concerning moral laxity. The study that was qualitatively conducted in South Africa by Govender (2011:3634) on moral reasoning deliberated on how children acquire morality. Findings revealed that social learning theorists believe that children learn morality by being rewarded or punished for various kinds of behavior
Teachers as being stakeholders in behavior and academic reform have the active role of refraining from excessive classroom instruction instead; they nevertheless, provide appropriate reinforcements on the condition of the act. Thus, a facilitative role relocates the teacher from being only an observant on the stage to being a guide of the students from mostly telling to eliciting the making of meaning in the students’ moral upstanding. Shitandi (2013:42) however, presupposes that ‘performance differences’ were as a result of indiscipline cases that occurred in Nyamira county schools. The state of misbehavior as for Gibbs et al (2013:979) requires joint efforts of educators and parents in fostering positive and encouraging prevalent positive performance in secondary schools. A facilitator moderates discussions and guides inquiry without being an intrusive or directive participant. Instead of giving talks and answers, facilitators question, clarify, and comment on the behavior processes and the state of inquisition received from learners. The open-ended nature of inquiry-based learning can be unsettling, especially to dutiful students who have come to expect clear directions from the teacher. Examining autistic spectrum disorder in the inclusion class in Columbia exceptionality, McIntosh (2012:78) assumes that negative student teacher relationships significantly promote disruptive behavior. Teachers nonetheless have the duty of modeling and encouraging the use of strategies and habits of mind when learners encounter difficulties in the course of their inquiry, and responding to questions. However, the qualitative studies conducted on aggression management in Australian schools by Kidman (2009:33) support corrective behavior model that encourage students to engage into learning connections with teachers.
Unlike traditional instruction in which the teacher takes the center stage, Whitlock (2010:86) proposing to the latter, asserts that disciplinary moral quest should be an inclusive component in the classroom curriculum that seek to progressively develop student autonomy in lifetime. In the researcher’s analysis of the latter, the contribution by Canter (2004:13) about assertion on students’ behavior morality is significant in the fact that, teachers attempting to craft a queer behavior theory, and examining emergent queer manners pedagogy would however reduce students’ messy processes of learning. In other words, the latter indicates that behavior change would possibly enable teachers to work at making students to become increasingly needed in the society. The outcome typically comes about through a systematic process during which teacher directions and support are gradually enlarged. Here are specific ways in which teachers promote growing discipline independence: Gender consideration is crucial in the matter of academics.
The study on gender differences conducted in Nigeria schools by Onuaha (2013:5318) provides an insight on how thinking ability may be affected by early sexual practices. He further proposes that students should be encouraged to set personal learning performance goals related to the overall desired results. However, the quantified study conducted in the district of Muzaffarnagar secondary schools, on relationship adjustment by Choudhary, and Srivastava (2011:129) confirm that terms of punishment should determine the ‘value patterns’, teaching and learning partnership that should further, seek higher academic attainments in learners. On this aspect of relationships, the study conducted in American secondary schools by Mucci (2014:8) on teacher’s responses towards behavior is of paramount significance. Findings revealed that there is a need for teachers to offer suggestive alternatives which can tune the learner onto the right moral and academic focus. Students should for this reason be given appropriate choices over the processes of learning of behavior from their peers for example, working in groups versus working alone. As one of the training strategies of behavior management, it is authentic; as Beamount (2013:360) terms it, expect students to regularly self-assess their conduct and their progress toward explicit goals.
Nevertheless, the research by Mwahombela (2010:402) conducted in Tanzania on corporal punishment, revealed the negative impression over some disciplinary measures. His findings established the banning of this corrective behavior strategy to be used in schools. According to Mwahombela, complains over corporal punishment were raised as follows:
‘‘I missed assembly’’ ‘‘I didn’t finish physics notes, he is so harsh, he’s a male, does not like jokes, we were punished’’ ‘‘my heart goes fast, I am just afraid of sticks, I try not to make mistakes’’, ‘‘last Monday we didn’t collect the specimen during biology, I got four strokes, it hurt me in my heart. It was in front of friends’’ ‘‘we didn’t pass our exams so most of the class was punished’’ (comments from Form Three and Form Four secondary students in Tanzania regarding corporal punishment).
Opposed on the latter reiteration, Cristol (2011:7) correctly contends on ‘transformative outcome perspective.’ Closer collaborative community strategy over indiscipline could develop better learning connections involving teachers and students. Even Idemudia (2013:5210) analogizes Pavlovian conditioning theory on behavior change. On the latter psychological theory which explains antisocial behavior and personality advocate teachers, to teach facilitative skills and designate time for students to apply them for example, via student-led seminars on problem solving or problem-solving groups. Students further have to exercise learning of ethical competencies as being the moral virtues. They have to view moral judgment from the positive side of their academic developments while still in school (Medina et al 2013:718).
McCauley et al (2013:1883) is of the issues of correcting gender violence, and students dating as a means of maximizing academic focus for better performance. It is of decisive values to observe students performance heightening. Subsequently, Merwe (2011:4) concurs on students’ non school punctuality, late arrival and lack of attention in class to have an instantaneous correction. However, his concern is about decision-making for the most appropriate punishment against the background of the bill of rights disciplinary measures which may be regarded as unreasonable when: disciplinary measures are excessive and administered in a careless way; causes physical or psychological pain or harm; there is no clear reason for the punitive measure; and they are not suitable for the age group. Concerning the latter view, Shin (2008:14) on cross cultural students’ behavior and ways of management in USA, and Korea asserts that any punishment has a purpose of enhancing a positive classroom climate characterized by active and competitive harmonious interaction.
Teachers who are, on the other hand, referred to as coaches have an intention of maximizing performance and develop the discipline of students. Similarly, Kenyan researchers such as Bojuwoye et al (2013:5256) confirms that influence of school disciplinary panel has a significant role in motivating learners to positively change in academic performance. Nonetheless, Clarke (2011:23) critically thinks that it is misguiding for anyone to presume that performance will however, improve when teachers adjust teaching strategies where there is lack of behavior correction. The teacher perceived as a facilitator, focuses all efforts on getting the learner to reach a performance standard by designing desired ‘transfer proficiency’ and the self-discipline needed for school learners. Guthrie (2012:250) describes this goal and the implications for teaching by observing that learners, for the sake of knowledge transfer, ought to take responsibility of what they have internalized in that process of learning.
Since what is learned is skill in performance, not knowledge of facts and formulas, the mode of teaching should mostly not be informative. Instead; coaching students must be parallel to the training that is done to impart discipline skills. Charles (1998:17) presumes that, a teacher however, may not teach simply by telling or giving the learner a canon to follow, but he/she trains by assisting the learner through models to do, to go through the right motions, and to organize a sequence of acts in the correct fashion. Further, he/she corrects faulty performance again and again and insists on repetition of the performance until it achieves a measure of perfection. Only in this way can skill in individual student’s behavior management be reached, and the ability to think critically, to judge and discriminate actions could be developed.
Forschungsarbeit, 17 Seiten
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Forschungsarbeit, 17 Seiten
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 19 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 84 Seiten
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