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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF Figures
LIST OF PLATES
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Justification of the Study
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
1.6 Limitations of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Forest Policy And Agroforestry
2.2 The Terminology of Forest Product and NWFPs / Agroforestry Products in Management
2.3 Plantation Agroforestry / Forestry as a Tool of Development
2.4 The Concept Agroforestry Practices
2.5 Agroforestry Practices
2.6 Types of Agroforestry Systems
3.1 Study Area
3.1.1 Description And Locations Study Area
3.2 Sources Of Data
3.3 Categories of Respondent
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
3.5 Validation of the Questionnaire
3.6 Sampling Procedure and Sample Size
3.7 Analytical Techniques
3.8 Multiple Linear Regression Model
3.9 Hypothesis Testing
3.10 Descriptive Statistics
4.0 Presentation of Results
4.1 Demographic Information
4.2 Non Demographic Factors
5.1 Marketing of Agroforestry Product and Policy
6.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
6.1 Summary of Major Findings
Table 1: An Excerpt of Some Common Species in South West from Distribution in the Collection, Processing and Marketing of NTFPs by Ecological Zones
Table 2: Natural Forest Types and Areas within Forest Reserves in Oyo State
Table 3: Demographic Information of the Agroforestry Farmer in Oyo Study Area
Table 4: Nature of Farming System as a Function of Income
Table 5: Types of Agroforestry and Nature of Farming System
Table 6: An Excerpt of Annual Revenue Report for Forestry Department
Table 7: Problems Militating against Marketability of Agroforestry Product Development
Table 8: Incentives for Impacting Agroforestry Product Development
Table 9: Challenges Facing Agroforestry Product Development
Table 10: Combined Regression Anova Results for Tested Policy Incentives, Problems / Constraints and Challenges in the Study Sites
Table 11: Income (Price) from Agroforestry Cultivation (in Naira) Government Congo = 21/2 (Kobi Owu); Standard Measurement
Table 12: Farm Size as a Function of Income
Table 13: The Number of Agroforestry Fruits Available in the Market of the Sampled Area
Table 14: Identified Agroforestry Arable Crops (Taungya-Agrisilvicultural System) in the Area of Study
Table 15: Distribution Channel as a Function of Farm Size of Respondent
Figure l : Map of Oyo state showing marketing zones for Agroforestry product in three selected local Government Area As The study
Figure 2: Price (income) Trends for Agroforestry Product of the Respondent Sampled
Figure 3: Showing Tropical Log FOB Price Trends
Figure 4: Percentage of farmer who spare tree for Agroforestry product in the surveyed LGA indicating their various purposes
Figure 5: Percentage of respondents benefits enjoyed from Agroforestry Product in the surveyed LGA with non-monetary value
Figure 6: Percentage respondents distribution of most important function of Agroforestry product in the surveyed LGA
Figure 7: Showing Percentage of problems facing Marketing of Agroforestry Products
Figure 8: Showing Marketing channel of Agroforestry Products in the Study Area
Plate 1: Group discussion with the Oloja and marketers in Ogbomosho
Plate 2: Meeting held with the head of farmers at Ijaiye and in Oja Agbe in Akinyele LGA
Plate 3: the investigator and forest guard on interrogation talk with an agroforestry farmer on nature of farming system practice
Plate 4: Agroforesstry product trading is often done by poor women
Plate 5: Showing bad rural road network encroached with gully erosion from farm gate to the market distribution channels
Plate 6: Questionnaire administration by the researcher and research assistant to producer with a rear view of temporary agroforestry producer storage shed and marketers involved in local method in processing cassava flour (garri)
Plate 7: local processing of cassava in Oluyole LGA
Plate 8: Palmoil Processing is done by crude method using family labour in Oluyole LGA
Plate 9: The author poses on an almost dilapidated walkway bridge often transverse by farmer to supply their agroforestry produce
Plate 10: Market Bound: The head of farmer confirm that this load of firewood will be traded in the local market
Plate 11: Local processing and preservation of cassava flour allow for efficient removal of toxic carcinogen though storage facilities are poor
This study was carried out to analyse marketing policies for Agroforestry product development in three purposively selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Akinyele, Oluyole and Ogbomosho in Oyo state, Nigeria. The respondents for the research study were grouped into head of farmers, forestry officers, a combination of men and women youth, custodians of tradition and marketers of the products.
Structured Questionunaires were designed for the study. A total of 156 questionunaires out of the targetted 180 respondents were successfully retrieved; while data obtained from a few forest officials (forest guards and Zonal Co-ordinators) were used to justify actual findings to eliminate sceptism observed in demographic data collection.
The regression results revealed that there is significant relationship between lack of marketing policy and Agroforestry product development. This analysis however, was made possible when related policies on supply, pricing incentives, distribution among several militating factors were considered . In three local Government Areas in Oyo state sampled, a significant relationship with strong marked effects was observed between the variables considered but very weak marked effects between them at (p<0.005).
The price trends of Agroforestry product follows a cyclical pattern as depicted by sharp price increase in the periods of short supply and price decrease in a glut situation.
The channel of distribution showed that bad rural road network could be rightly connected to poor road network linking most of the villages. The persistent fuel scarcity and its consequent hike in price is also affecting the channel of distribution. The insufficient vehincles that ply this poor raod network further aggravates the problem of distribution channels. Findings evidently revealed that the middlemen dominated the channel of distribution with percentage of 70.51%.
The Results Obtained showed that the major factors affecting the product development were prominent problems related to lack of storage facitity, bad rural road network, lack of appropriate financial incentive to farmers, lack of electricity, pest and diseases in crops among several others and were contant factors throughout the study.
Based on these findings, recommendations were offered on ways of legislating marketing policies in order to encourage Agroforestry product development.
To God be the glory, power and honour. And to my sweet mother, father and all well wishers.
I acknowledge the Lord Almighty who has called me to greatness until i find an habitation for Him in the fields of the wood and sent me to preserve lives by a great deliverance (Psalm. 132:5-6; Gen. 45:7)
I also acknowledge my supervisor, Dr. B. O. Agbeja for his meticulous insight and his candid assistance in this project and Dr.I.Azeez for his valuable assistance and contribution as Co-supervisor.
My special thanks go to African Network for Agroforestry Education for granting me the fellowship in carrying out this project successively.
I remain thankful to my other lecturers; staff and student who in no little measure have challenge my strong interest in this project. These include Prof. L. Popoola (Head of Department) Prof. J.S.A. Osho, Prof. S. O. Bada, Prof. S. K. Adeyoju, , Dr. O. Oni, Dr. S. O. Jimoh, , Dr.Oluwadare and Dr.P. Adesoye.
I will forever remain indebted to my dear parents Mr. G. Ajayi, Mrs. E. Ajayi and my brothers and sisters both by birth and my uncles and aunts and all well wishers. I sincerely appreciate all of you.
I can not fail to comment on my spiritual oversight, Pastor Olubi Johnson and Mummy Sarah Johnson, Pastor Ranti Oyedele and other Pastors whose names are withheld, for their instant nourishment in the word of God in season and out of season. I will forever appreciate their fatherly and motherly counsel.
My sincere greeting goes to my classmate who counted me worthy of being their representative during the course of this programme. I saw this as a great priviledge and honour to serve you all. Our stay together would not have been perfect if not for your candid support and encouragement in times of great need. More so, I can’t but mention at this point a few of my classmate in the same unit together; the likes of BABS (often seen as my twin by most without any apparent resemblance), Mr Moise (the Cameroonian so fond of me), and of course Mr Opii (the ancient man of the class vast with many political history of the country to date). To others whose names are withheld, I say to you all that you have been very dear to my heart.
Justice will not be done to this project without the notable assistant of Mr. Ishabiyi, (Zonal Forestry Programme Officer) Ibadan Zone, Mr. Adekola (Deputy director State Forestry),Mr. Moradeyo (State Forestry) Mr. Oyinloye (FRIN), Mr. Idumah Forest Economist (FRIN). You have all contributed to making this project a success.
I remain grateful to my bossom friends Dayo Okunade, Sola Jayesimi, Sam Ogunbode, Bro. Sunday Popoola, Bro. Teju (Positive), Mrs. Bukola Olajide, Sis. Dotun Ononuga, Folake, Kayode Solagbade, Seun, Bro. Biola Mudasiru (the computer engineer), Bro Ikponmwosa Osawe (Prayo), Bro. Yemi Ranti, Dr. Yemi, Dentist (Mrs) Ajayi and a host of many others whose names are hereby withheld.
Forests/Agroforestry is of considerable importance in the economic, social and physical life of the Nigerian populace. If properly conserved and managed they will provide indefinite renewable resources of products which are indispensable to the growth of the economy. Stated in general terms the object of policy should therefore be the provision of physical and socio-economic environment which would lead to the attainment of those goals of production, protection, and amenity that are within the financial and physical capacity and necessary for welfare of its people.
Marketing enables the agroforestry producer to step out of a subsistence straitjacket and grow produce for sale. Correspondingly, it permits a large proportion of a country’s population to live in cities and buy their food nearby. Marketing also provides an incentive to farmers to grow produce for export. In this way it gives the farmers more income and earns foreign exchange to pay for imports.
Elements which make up an efficient marketing system include function and services, agencies and channels, the enterprises of which they are composed, and the support frame within which they operate.
Effective marketing structures are generally flexible in operation and allow much scope for local knowledge and experience. Market conditions are continually changing: large numbers of producers and consumers are intimately concerned, and the interests of these two groups and of the people who earn a living from marketing often appear to conflict. So agroforestry marketing problems are frequently in the public eye. Many of these problems are solved by spontaneous action within a flexible economic system. Sometimes, however, there will be a call for government intervention. To handle this well, a government must have its own competent information and policy analysis service at hand, and should not be over influenced by temporary political pressures. A range of such problems has been illustrated from experience in the tropical countries; lines of action have been discussed.
Marketing is vital in ensuring that agroforestry products reach consumers in good condition and are presented in a convenient way. In the development of a commercial economy, production itself must be adapted to market requirements. For this reason, research on market outlets is the first step in commercial production. Assurance of a continuing channel to favourable outlet is needed for its continuance and growth.
The primary function of forestry service is therefore to increase and sustain the productivity of the forest resource base through development and adoption of proper management. While defining broadly the concept of sustainability, Holmberg and Sandbrook (1992), advise that each generation should leave to the succeeding one a stock of quality of life (trees, environmental quality, food, fodder, etc.) and assets (including the technical wherewithal) no less than those which they inherited. Hence, sustainable development rejects policies and practices that destroy or deplete the productive base supporting current living standards and ensures that future generations would have good prospects and less risk than theirs. The core of Ibadan, settled in the nineteenth century, is still inhabited by farmers, traders and craftsmen living in large compounds based on common descent. The case for improved marketing as a necessary impetus for development was succinctly put by Abbot, when he said `any plan of economy development that aims at diminishing the poverty of agricultural population, reducing consumer food prices, earning more foreign exchange or eliminating economic waste, has therefore to pay special attention to the development of efficient marketing for food and agricultural products.’ Agroforestry should be recognized as land use option in which trees provide both products and environmental services (Adegeye and Ditto, 1982; Adekanye, 1988; ICRAF, 1997). Policy instruments should therefore be put in place to provide the physical and social-economic environment which would positively impact the use and management of forests. An identified problem in this direction is the agroforestry product marketing structure and hence the need for policy analyses in this direction. Agroforestry marketing is complicated by the diverse nature of the products to be handled, their perishability, the scattered nature of agricultural production and; in most tropical countries, the very large number of production units. Hence, agroforestry marketing demands initial decision making skill. But sometimes government intervention is inevitable. Also worthy of note is that many agroforestry product marketing problems are solved by spontaneous action within a flexible economic system. For such intervention to be effective, competent information and policy analysis service, which should not be influenced by temporary political pressures is imperative. Oyo State is among a few states in the South-Western Nigeria that are endowed with a productive high forest. Forests are of prime importance in the development of the state.
It is in view of the importance of Agroforestry or forestry sector in Oyo State that this study becomes necessary as it seeks to bridge the gaps in forest exploitation and regeneration. Marketing of agroforestry products is crucial for increasing available money in the farming sector, and thus achieving food security (Regional Land Management Unit, 2001). Unfortunately, there is little information and experience on the dynamics of marketing policies for Agroforestry in Oyo state as well as in the whole Nigeria.
Today’s successful marketing in a changing world goes beyond only selling or advertising. But, in fact, marketing occurs both before and after selling event. Marketing combines many activities – Marketing research, product development, distribution, pricing, advertising, personal selling, and others – designed to sense, serve, and satisfy consumer needs while meeting the organization’s goals. Similarly, marketing operates within a dynamic global environment and marketers are wrestling with the growth of non profit marketing, increased global competition, a sluggish world economy, a call for greater social responsibility, and a host of other economic, political, and social challenges. However, these challenges also offer marketing opportunities.
In Nigeria, there are inconsistencies in marketing policies as a result of instability in the governance. This however, is the bane of changes in the prices of agricultural products and fibre. The consequence of these anomalies is inflationary trends that have adversely affected the economic development in Nigeria. Yet there are virtually various types of tropical forest ecosystem from which agroforestry products like fruits, vegetables, fodder, medicines, oils, nuts, fibres, fuel wood and timber that can contribute immensely to the economic development of Nigeria. These marketable products may be found to satisfy several desires of buyers. In a situation where the marketing concept stresses the importance of customers and emphasizes that marketing activities begin and end with them. In attempting to satisfy customers, businesses must consider not only short-run, immediate needs but also broad, long-term desires. Trying to satisfy customer’s current needs by sacrificing their long term desires will only create future dissatisfaction. (Dibb and Co.,1991). Recent studies included Nigeria among the important actors for the world’s forest but like most developing countries still borne with myriad of market imperfections ranging from low sales, poor quality of wood supply, high cost of wood, price fluctuations, inadequacy of machines, lack of competition amongst sellers, poor market structure and channels. This has made enterprise un-expanding owing largely to failure sound marketing policies.
The study will therefore focus on Marketing policies influences on Agroforestry product development in Oyo State with a view to developing this sector of the state economy.
The pauperization of a large part of the population has been charted by a series of four Consumer Expenditure. Surveys conducted by the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) in 1980, 1985, 1992 and 1996 (FOS, K – 1999a). The consumer expenditure surveys indicated that poverty is most widespread in the rural areas even after taking into account the higher proportion of our consumption (such as farm produce consumed within the household) in the rural areas.
In any market, it is the buyer who ultimately judges the quality of a forest product or service. Farmers must therefore follow the market and accept that product preferences can change over time as a result of changes in the market or in harvesting and processing costs. Apart from these, changes in government regulations and the introduction of product certification may also impose market anomalies. In long term investment like forestry, it is the farmer who carries the market uncertainly through the rotation unless they are able to forward sell by entering into secure long term leases or by selling the property rights of their forest prior to maturity.
One of the first facts about Nigerian cities is that they lack official recognition by the Nigerian government. Also worthy of note is that Nigeria is perhaps the only country where there is no distinction between urban and rural local governments and where the needs of cities are treated as if they are the same as those of villages and hamlets. No city in Nigeria is incorporated as such and many of them are merged with rural areas in the same undifferentiated system of 774 local governments (Op cit 1999a). Thus, being a rural business in the other Nations, agroforestry product marketing demands a national attention in Nigeria.
Therefore, being aware of the existing market opportunities, and considering how these may change overtime, provides valuable information that can guide planning design and easy management. Although government and industry spend a great deal of time trying to predict future markets for forest products and services, past experience would suggest that these predictions be looked upon with caution. Farmers might do well to respect their own judgements as to how they see international trade negotiations, government policy, and intergovernmental agreements on environmental issues, forest certification and consumer trends influencing the supply and demand of forest products and services in the future.
In 1899, the first forest reserve in Nigeria named Gambari Forest Reserve was constituted and located in the Oyo State. In 1985, Abu found out that agroforestry practice in Gambari forest reserve Area of Oyo State Nigeria provided an annual income of N941.55 per farm.
Although, conflicts do come between cultivating trees and raising agricultural crops, many agroforestry system allow farmers to integrate trees in to their farming systems and in some cases the trees increase overall farm productivity (Gregersen et al 1989; Raintree 1991). But regrettably economic policy still discriminates seriously against agriculture and forestry in most developing countries by shifting the domestic terms of trade against the sector. What this does is to cause farmers and policy makers a like to undervalue the land and other natural resources. It is no wonder, then, that farmers do not attempt to develop their productive potential instead set out to mine them and move on (shifting cultivation).
Similarly, government interventions in provision of agroforestry products negates market emergence: the consequences of these policies should be high on our research agenda. It was not until the late 1990 that the Government farmer’s orgnisation and private sector together established a new quality modus operandi. Nigeria has now been attracted to the concept of adding value to its cocoabean by processing them locally for export as butter, cake and powder. Several factories were built often with loans or help in form of export subsidies from countries supplying the equipment. One operates successfully under the previous Marketing Board but many failed, not least because of their inherent dependence on subsidies. Apart from this, products of agroforestry system has been the major source of sustainability for both rural and urban markets. It is therefore pertinent to develop measures that will further enhance them.
The emphasis is on assisting farmers identify who may value the forest products and services they can provide, what specification may affect the reward farmers may receive and what marketing mechanisms exist for the sale (Rowan and Peter, 2005). Like commercial farming, there are many factors other than simply the price paid for the product that affect the profit the forest grower makes. These include cost of production, the ability to gain market access, harvesting and transport cost and the impact of harvesting on other values. Because farmers are often small producers of forest products, they have traditionally had difficulty accessing market or achieving similar prices to those received by industrial growers.
Development of the agroforestry product must be preceded by studies on inventory of the useful species; ecological adaptation on large areas, economic profitability, and development technologies (regeneration harvest etc) in accordance with sustainable forest management. It had also been realised that producers and their associations need to find a suitable, better organised and networked markets for their products. They need to increase production. There is therefore the need for market and enterprise development for agroforestry products (Smart, 1999, Scrase, 1999, Van der Maesen, 1999).
Table 1: An Excerpt of Some Common Species in South West from Distribution Pattern in the Collection, Processing and Marketing of NTFPS by Ecological Zones (FORMECU, 1994).
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
The general objective is to analyse market policies with a view to strengthening agroforestry products development in Oyo State of Nigeria.
The specific objectives include:
i. To review the marketing policies and its impacts on Agroforestry products in Oyo State
ii. To determine the trends in prices of Agroforestry products.
iii. To identify various channels available for production, distribution and exchange of Agroforestry products
The following hypotheses which are set in a null form will be tested
1. Ho: the opportunity cost of leaving farmland use is not the same as multiple land use.
2. Ho: integrated food tree crops are not as profitable as forest trees/agroforestry products
3. Ho: the market price of agricultural/ forestry product is not as profitable as agroforestry products
The greatest constraint to the study was that there are no marketing policies on ground so indirect implications of policy on distribution, pricing and supply were considered. Worthy of note was also the problem of establishing a standard unit of measurement. For instance, some farmers sold their non-timber forest produce (NTFP) in bags, some use cups to sell theirs. Trailer load/handful measurement is sometimes used. It was not easy to reconcile the different measurement techniques.
It was very difficult to obtain data on actual income owed to scepticism displayed by some respondents until they were convinced that such data were only required for their benefit and would not be divulged or used against them as most of them presupposed.
The inability of the study to cover all the targeted respondents owe to limited time imposed on the study. The study therefore was only limited to three Local Government Areas known to have been involved in Agroforestry practices even though findings revealed this not to have been fully adopted as a system.
The reviewed paper limited its scope to identified Agroforestry product in the state defined as: ‘‘all products derived from integrated trees and shrubs with crops”.
The difficulties of obtaining less formal or ‘grey’ literature relevant to the study site because small and large respondents were from single research study site. Though local government Areas Marketing Associations were heavily relied upon for policy analysis.
According to the Population Reference Bureau (1997), the total population of Nigerians is 107.1 million. Nigeria is a big country in Africa that needs a national forest policy because of the diverse nature of vegetation, which consists of forest resources, Agriculture, wildlife. Such national policy may be observed in the practices of marketers who set basic policies to guide their marketing operations. According to Nwokoye (1997), a marketing policy is a specification of a course of action to be followed under a given set of circumstances usually of a recurring nature. A more visible set of marketing policies is the conditions of sale or terms of sale, which the seller usually circulates to his customers.
Montalembert, (1995) argues that the effectiveness of future efforts in the conservation and wise development of forests depends on the ability to establish a coherent policy environment in support of the activities in the forests and to ensure that forests are fully recognized as a valid, competitive land use option wherever appropriate. Increasing sustainability and targeting small-scale farmers, who constitute the bulk of the farming population are the principal policy issues directed toward agricultural development. However, agricultural development policies and programmes aimed at improving the sector directly or indirectly depend on land. Therefore, the availability of land and its productivity has become an area of emphasis. Globally, of the 13,422 million hectares of earth’s surface, agricultural land comprises about 4868.3 million hectares (36.3%). The arable land including land under permanent crop is 1444 million hectares (29.7%) of agricultural land Joshi, (1995). In the world, average arable land per farm is 1.28ha. Specifically, the average arable land per farm in Nigeria is a thing of concern in the face of demographic and environmental pressure. About 36 percent of the land area of the country is devoted to agriculture NEST, (1991) and the average arable land per farm is about 1.08 hectare World Bank (1996). A land consolidation policy is strongly advocated, such as cooperative farming, so as to pool resources together and consequently benefit from economies of scale by the cooperating farmers. Forestry in Nigeria, and elsewhere throughout the world, has suddenly been thrust into the spotlight of public concerns. The reasons for this new attention vary, but public anxiety about what is happening in the forest- is widespread and growing. It is time to consider fundamental changes, in established forestry policies.
Changes that would strengthen the right of users may prove more helpful than increasing governmental regulation. This is not to suggest that governmental intervention and regulation is unnecessary. Forestry give rise to many market imperfections, that cannot, as a practical matter, be corrected through improved property rights, and will continue to call for regulatory instruments. Examples range from externalities relating to bio-diversity and the global climatic effects of forest management to the transaction cost of reconciling competing interests.
According to Idumah (2002), this urge to fight hunger and produce more food, for example, has resulted into high rate of deforestation (through shifting cultivation farming system), cultivation of marginal land and soil erosion. Trees are felled indiscriminate while fragile land is subjected to over grazing and seasonal burning. To conquer forestry therefore especially at the rural level requires action to expand poor people’s opportunities, empower them and increase their security. One viable and sustainable land use management technique is Agroforestry.
However, Oseni and Umeh (1988) said due to population pressure, economic growth, poor management and inappropriate policies over the past four decades, Nigeria's forests have become rapidly degraded and reduced in area. Under Nigerian constitution, forestry is a state subject, that is, the various state governments in Nigeria own and manages the forest estates. Consequently, each state government enunciates its own forest policy and this only caters for the limited viewpoint foreseen by each state government.
The Terminology of Forest product and nwfps /Agroforestry products in Management
Historically, a wide range of products from forest have been used by people. However, the development of forest management has focused on timber, thereby marginalizing other products. Forest management has come to mean timber management FAO, (2001).
The timber focus has arisen as wood has increasingly been seen as the major economic crop from forest. This change in perception has arisen for a number of causes:
- Historically important NWFPs – such as rubble, chicle, and gum copal have been substituted by synthesize alternatives;
- Domestication of NWFPs – such as oil palm, rubber, and cocoa which are now grown in large – scale plantations as agricultural crops, rather than harvested from the natural forests and
- Institutional lack of regard for local people and their dependence on NWFPs for subsistence and enterprise.
The recognition of the role of NWFPs in community level livelihood has been important in stimulating interest to bring NWFPs back into forest management. There is currently a lot of interest in NWFPs amongst conservationists, foresters, development workers and indigenous people’s groups. They are interested in the potential of NWFPs for:
- Income generation for rural development;
- More equitable sharing of the benefits of forests; and
- Sharing forest management with local people
Development of NWFPs for subsistence or commercial should ideally be based on sustainable exploitation of the products. This kind of information can be gained from a number of sources, including formal knowledge collected from indigenous people as well as formal scientific investigations. Formal resource assessment of NWFPs in developing countries is relatively new and has received little attention to date. Researchers and practitioners have developed methodologies, but typically tailored to specific local situations and particular resource species, and often based on timber inventory methods. There is a need to consolidate this experience to promote common, appropriate and reliable methodologies. Biometrically sound approaches are vital in ensuring statistically reliable data on which to base management.
Plantation Agroforestry/Forestry as a Tool for Development
Plantation forestry in the tropics can significantly aid economic development. Plantation development was adopted in Nigeria as available alternative to natural regeneration following the unsatisfactory results from studies conducted on the success or otherwise of various natural regeneration techniques. According to Bada (1990), many of these plantations have exhibited higher growth rates and greater timber yield than the natural forest. It is very clear that greater reliance will be placed in the future on the establishment of more plantations.
Technology development can assist in the generation of small and medium-scale agroprocessing for sustainable livelihoods in poorer communities because of the backward links to agriculture and forward links to processing. However, despite substantial support from donor agencies, past performance has revealed that failures are linked to shortcomings such as operational problems or inadequate application of appropriate procedures.
The value of tree-growing on tropical farms for subsistence uses, commercial sale and environmental stability has long been argued, but failure of many agroforestry programmes has been attributed to ‘market failures’.
Non-grain starch staple food crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam, cocoyam and cooking banana/plantain) provide important sources of income and food security in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The accurate determination of the needs and opportunities in non-grain starch staples post-harvest systems is essential if research and development are to be correctly targeted and have impact.
Forestry specialists in the past have paid too little, if any, attention to trees and shrubs outside of specifically designated forest areas. Throughout arid Africa, governments have established areas of land set aside to be managed by technical services for forest (wood products) or wildlife resources: gazetted forests, classified forests, various types of reserves, parks, etc. Agroforestry takes place outside of these boundaries and includes trees that have regenerated naturally as well as those that are intentionally planted. The goals of land and resource management for agroforestry systems can vary greatly as long as trees and shrubs are integrated with crops and/or animals. This definition of agroforestry includes a broad range of activities from hunting-gathering systems involving minimal technological input, to intensive intercropping patterns where trees are established, pruned, and harvested according to carefully controlled production schedule.
Concept of Agroforestry practice
Agro-forestry: This is a concept that harmonies agriculture with forestry and pastoralism. It is a very promising way to link food production with improved forest management. Agro-forestry systems and practices contribute to a wide range of goods and services for livelihood. Trees provide fuelwood, food, shelter, drug, cash income, raw materials and improvement of soil fertility for crop growth. In threatened areas like the arid and semi-arid regions and degraded lands, agro-forestry increases soil fertility and land productivity for food and fuelwood production. Agro-forestry practices offer practical ways of applying various specialized knowledge skills to the development of sustainable rural production systems.
Sylvopastoralism is another area of sustainable livelihood in forestry. This has to do with planting trees on range land pastures. Trees and shrubs contribute to the sylvopastoral system by direct provision of fodder and through improvement of pastures grown beneath them. The practices in semi-arid and arid regions also conserve the environment, increase crop yield, enhance the provision of fuelwood and check the problems of overgrazing the fragile environment of the endangered regions.
Food production: Forest areas represent the single largest reservoir of genetic diversity, a resource of great importance to future agricultural production. At the farm level, trees improve the micro-climate by reducing sedimentation, improving water quality, reducing the incidence of flooding, and may even enhance water availability down stream. The most direct link between forestry and food availability is the good items produced by trees. Food is produced from fruits, leaves and roots of trees and shrubs, either growing naturally in the wild or domesticated and cultivated on farms and around the home. Fruit is produced from fruits, leaves and roots of trees and shrubs, either growing naturally in the wild or domesticated and cultivated on farms and around the home. Fruit trees in forestry which have provided means of sustainable livelihoods include Pterocarpus species (Winged Fruit- Osun) Irvingia gabonensis (Bush Mango – Ogbono), Irvingia wombulu (Bush mango, Ogbono – Bitter), Treculia africana (African Bread Fruit), Dacroides edulis (African pear, Igbo – Ube), Garcinia cola (Bitter Cola), Anonna muricata (sour sop), and Pentaclethra macryo-phylla (Oil Bean Tree) to mention a few.
Agro Forestry Practices
Some vital elements that have aggravated the poverty situation in rural Nigeria are deforestation, growing scarcity of tree products and environmental degradation that have also created serious problems for rural land use. The quest for survival and food production has led to adoption of farming purposes that are so inimical to soil conservation, slash and burn systems etc. These have not only destroyed the ecosystem but have equally reduced soil fertility and food production.
To mitigate these threats to the rural economy, agroforestry which is a land use system that incorporates the planting of trees, shrubs, palms and bamboos on the same land as agricultural crops or livestock/wildlife is a viable option. Agroforestry is not only practiced for economic reasons but also for environmental ones, to replenish wood stock while upgrading land through diminishing erosion, water loss and other natural phenomenon (Current, et al 1995). The system includes managing natural regrowth, seedling, planting and maintaining trees as border planting; interplanting in agricultural crops, wood lots and home gardens. The objective of agroforestry is to create sustainable land management strategies which increase the overall yields of the land and which are also compatible with the environment and local cultural principles (Onumadu, et al, 2000). Agroforestry as a system has the potentials not only to increase food, fuel and income for farmers or holders on marginal lands but also to help stop destruction of world’s forestland and so it is productive and environmentally sound.
Types of Agroforestry Systems
Ffolliot and Thames (1983) identified the following agroforestry systems:
i. Agri-silviculture – the management of land for crops and forest products (fruits, fodder, latex, wood, etc.).
ii. Silvo-pastorium – this involves the establishment of forestry for wood and raising of livestock.
iii. Agri-silvopastorium – the establishment of land for arable crops, forest product and livestock.
iv. Multipurpose forestry system – this deals with production of forest trees for leaves, forest and wood.
v. Alley farming – A special form of agri-silvopastorium that is component and arrangement – specific.
vi. Farm – wildlife management: a special form of Agroforestry that incorporates crop cultivation and wildlife management on the same farm land.
The practice of farm wildlife management is a new concept that aims at carefully controlling wild animals on the farm so that the multi-purpose trees, food crops and the wildlife can co-exist. Common example is the co-existence of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck) and food crops such as sugar cane, rice and cassava. The farmer harvests the grasscutter while the food crops are growing. This is the practice in some towns and village in the Republic of Benin. In the Bacita sugar cane plantation in Nigeria, the sugarcane and grasscutter co-exist and are harvested simultaneously.
This practice has latently existed but investigations to perfect the new concept involve intensive research. Such research investigations have been going on at Kainji Lake Research Institute (presently NIFFR) New Bussa and the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan.
The list of agroforestry is inexhaustible. Young (1989) noted that there are hundreds possibly thousands of Agroforestry systems but only 20 distinct practices for contributing degradation in various ecological zones and regions.
Onumadu et al. (2000) enumerated various agroforestry principles and their main characteristics which include: improved fallow, taungya, alley cropping, home garden, shelterbelt, aqua forestry, apiculture with trees, among others. Agroforestry, is really an age-old forestry and or agricultural practices that now become scientifically applicable for compatibility and resources conservation (Adekunle and Adekoya, 1997).
In some studies carried out in Central America and Caribbean, (Current, et al. 1995) found substantial benefits derivable from agroforestry systems which include improving rural welfare by providing needed tree products and generating income and employment. The studies found a positive impact on the role (both intended and actual) of the trees in the households’ livelihood strategy in the area of household use, generation of cash income, saving or as insurance.
Financial analysis from six agroforestry projects in the area shows average net present values (NPV) of more than US $300 per hectare and also demonstrated that on farm profitability of agroforestry in Central America appears to be consistently high, under a wide range of condition and for different systems. Apart from the income that may arise from agroforestry systems, its financial value may derive from the value of the tree products it provides (woodlot, taungya and timber species interplanted in Coffee and Cocoa) the protection and subsequent increase in agricultural production it affords (wind breaks and shade trees in perennial crops); its contribution to soil improvement through nitrogen fixation, organic matter and improved soil structure; and a combination. The potential output for agroforestry system are fuel wood, charcoal and round wood for local markets and household.
Adopting agroforestry systems can both reduce and increase risk to the security of a household’s livelihood. Income diversification is a strongly positive benefit, reducing risk for both animal and perennial cropping systems and for livestock farming.By providing an alternative source of tree products like fuel wood, charcoal, agroforestry helps to protect the remaining forest resources. It also protects the cities from the effects of airborne dust, and provides sources of employment and income generation for rural communities, thus helping to slow down migration.
Concerning wealth, Noordin, et al. (2001) in western Kenya compared the uptake of technology options among different wealth groups. While wealth was positively related to the use of fertiliser, it was not related to the use of improved fallows and biomass transfer. Because agroforestry practices require little, if any, cash outlay, they are especially suitable for resource poor farmers. Building on existing farmer groups rather than creating new, competing structures was found to enhance impact and give the groups a sense of ownership of the process.
In Mindanao, Philippines, farmers joined together to form Landcare groups, to share knowledge and learn more about sustainable and profitable agricultural practices that conserve natural resources Landcare members increased rapidly in number and chapters formed associations, which sought and received funding from local governments. Their activities included establishing nurseries, training, and making farmer-to-farmer visits. Mercado, et al. (2001) note that the greatest success of Landcare was the change in attitude of farmers and policy makers about land use and environmental protection A second key achievement was the increased capacity of farmers to plan and implement development projects and to lobby local governments for funding and for promoting effective natural resource management.
Quality planting material is needed to start scaling up, and local systems of producing and distributing planting material are needed to sustain agroforestry development.
In Peru, farmers are forming networks to produce and sell high-quality seed and seedlings to tree-planting projects and to timber companies (Weber et al. 2001). Many of the agroforestry practices assessed in the case studies do not yield products for sale; rather, they provide substitutes for purchased inputs, such as fodder shrubs for dairy feeds or improved fallows for mineral fertiliser. Thus, issues concerning product markets are not directly related to their promotion and development. But other agroforestry products such as fruit and timber may be sold, and the potential benefits from transforming and marketing them are often huge. Böhringer (2001) noted that researchers in Southern Africa are beginning to assess market demand and consumer preferences for indigenous fruits, so that mechanisms can be put in place for establishing links between producers and markets. Assessments are being made of selling fresh fruit as well as producing jams, juices, and alcoholic beverages.
Most agroforestry research and development teams, in fact, lack skills in marketing and product development. Gaining access to such expertise needs to be a high priority in scaling up. Lecup and Nicholson (2000) provide useful guidelines for identifying market opportunities for agroforestry products. Moreover, surveys monitoring farmer plantings helped indicate farmers’ preferences for trees that were the most marketable. The case studies also assessed the impact of scaling up. Anyonge et al. (2001) explained how aerial surveys in Kenya were used to show that the useable volume of wood in project areas doubled in five years.
Wambugu et al. (2001) reported the economic benefits accruing to farmers adopting fodder trees and the huge potential benefits nationally if just half of Kenya’s dairy farmers were to adopt them Such analyses provide important arguments to planners and donors for investing further in scaling up tree planting for improving farmer incomes and livelihoods.
Based on the conclusions of these case studies and evidence from the broader literature, the following issues need to be addressed as a matter of priority: Marketing agroforestry products is an untapped strategy. How can we link farmer production to local, regional, and international markets?
An account of the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India revealed that in the dry year of 2002 most farmers in Andhra Pradesh had a serious drop in production. Additional rice and wheat had to be imported. But in this year, dalit women of Zaheerabad managed to recover their own food and seed sovereignty. How did they do this? They succeeded in recovering their traditional biodiversity-based farming system on the abandoned fallow land. This strongly improved food intake and health of these people reduced migration and generated tremendous self- confidence and pride.
Also worthy of note is the government policies which have severely affected the self-reliant traditional dry land food cultures. The people perceive these policies as an infringement upon the autonomy of their food and farming futures. Some 10 years ago the women of Bangham organisations decided to respond to this by creating an Alternative public Distribution system, founded on local production, local storage and local distribution of grains to ensure community food sovereignty.
Loan repayment may be in the form of grains, which are stored by traditional storage methods, and distributed among the poor in the months of food scarcity.
Advantages of this village distribution system are numerous. The production of food and fodder has increased as well as employment, price of land, food intake and health.
Agricultural practice is principally based on a bush-fallow subsistence farming method. Using the hoe they cultivate mainly millet, sorghum mund yams, as well as beans, groundnuts, rice and maize most recently soyabeans, cashew and cotton have been introduced on a small scale. The farmer has several Agrisilvopastoral practices, mainly chickens and guinea foul, pigs and sheep
On the other hand, it will be seen that certain specifications cannot be quoted because the stock position of marketer for typical standard measurement sizes is either extremely low or sold out. Under the present conditions it is very difficult for millers to get log supplies for export.
Another factor of importance is that, all of a sudden, there is a more optimistic feeling in the hardwood trade and this is reinforcing the current prudent purchasing policies of the importers. Many ask "is this quicksand or indeed a real recovery of the market". Factors often to be considered may include:
- Pests - some trees are more affected by certain pests than others. A planting site that has several kinds of trees is less likely to be destroyed by insects or disease, because a pest that attacks one species of tree may not be attracted to another species.
- Animals - do the livestock in the area prefer the leaves and bark of certain trees more than those of the other species being considered?
- Project Purpose
While considering the species in terms of environmental constraints, it is necessary to keep in mind the purpose or objective of the project. What is the objective of the reforestation (or revegetation) effort? Is the project aim to conserve resources, as in a sand stabilization program for an eroded area? Or does it seek to increase production of certain forest products, such as fuelwood or poles for construction?
Surface runoff and soil erosion of road network- Certain species can be used for one purpose and not the other, but some species can be used to fill a number of requirements. To meet several objectives, a plantation may also include more than one species. An example of a multiple-use species, Anacardium occidentale, is very valuable for soil reclamation and protection. It also produces fruits and nuts (cashews) that can be used for local consumption or as a cash crop. In addition, it can provide fuelwood, tanins, dyes, and medicines from different parts of the plant. The trees can still have a high rate of a wide range of soil type, elevation, and rainfall variations.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis for instance, is a more limited species. Introduced to Africa for use in woodlots and large-scale plantations, it grows rapidly if conditions are favourable. It can produce large quantities of wood for fuel and construction in a short period of time. It is not particularly useful for soil conservation, however because it produces little leaf litter, and there is evidence that it actually inhibits the establishment of other vegetation. The soil beneath a stand of E. camaldulensis is sometimes bare and thus is more susceptible to surface runoff and soil erosion. It also is not suited for use in intercropping or windbreaks and is fairly demanding in terms of site conditions.
In selecting species, therefore, it is important to weigh the production/conservation trade-offs, and determine priorities based on the project's purpose. Project goals should be formulated with consideration for local expectations and preferences.
A method similar in concept and purpose to micro-catchments, but on a larger scale, has been used on agricultural sites and is also appropriate for tree plantations or agroforestry projects. This method involves the construction of contour ridges, or diguettes, using rock or tamped earth walls built along the contour line. The ridges help prevent soil erosion as well as increase infiltration of moisture into the soil. They do, however, require substantial investments in terms of tools, labour, and maintenance. Like micro-catchments, contour ridges can significantly increase survival and growth rates even on relatively flat land. The distance between ridges depends on the degree of slope--on steep hillsides they should be constructed closer together than on flatter sites. It is important to follow the contour closely in laying out the ridges. Once the ridges are in place, farmers should use contour ploughing and cultivating techniques, if they are not doing so already.
After heavy rainfalls, some water normally passes over or through the ridges. Occasionally a channel of water will break through the ridges. These breaks must be repaired promptly to prevent gully formation.
The grasses and other vegetation removed from the plantation during weeding operations can be used as animal fodder or as mulch around the young plants This interest is largely due to evidence that trees and shrubs can be managed to enhance significantly and, to some extent, guarantee the sustainability of agricultural systems. Moreover, trees of appropriate species in suitable locations can increase agricultural productivity. Agro forestry offers an alternative approach to intensive agricultural "development" schemes that in the past have often resulted in decreased soil fertility and loss of soil restoration potential. Under this farming system, small parcels of land are cleared. Fire is often used to clear the vegetation, releasing plant nutrients into the soil. The plots are intensively cultivated for a few years until soil nutrients are depleted Even the widespread adoption of the term agroforestry indicates that development specialists now recognize the validity of indigenous farming systems. Under this farming system, small parcels of land are cleared. Fire is often used to clear the vegetation, releasing plant nutrients into the soil. The plots are intensively cultivated for a few years until soil nutrients are depleted. Wind and water erosion also increase.
Agroforestry or soil conservation techniques, often combined, can help to stabilize cultivation on a given piece of land. Certain of these methods help prevent or reverse environmental damage in areas where fallow cropping is no longer practical. Adding trees and shrubs as permanent features in the landscape in the form of field trees, border and alignment plantings, windbreaks, and live fencing can protect the soil against erosion and improve nutrient cycling. Proper maintenance of trees in agroforestry or soil conservation systems may allow permanent cultivation of farm fields that previously could only be fallow cropped.
It has also become evident that, from the local people's point of view, integrating trees into traditional operations and land use patterns makes much more sense than setting aside specific areas of usable farm land for woodlots. In many areas the most acute problem is lack of food, not lack of wood. Certain tree species may provide food (fruit, leaves, edible seeds, etc.) not only for people but also for livestock, particularly during seasons when food supplies from other sources are low. In addition to producing wood for fuel, construction, implements, tools, and art objects, other important and locally appreciated by-products of agroforestry include fibre for mats, baskets, and rope, or plant materials for medicines, dyes, tanning, cosmetics, and glue. These raw materials were easily obtainable a few generations ago when extensive woodlands still existed throughout the dry regions of Africa. Today they are scarce because much of the "useless brush" has been converted to farm fields or plantations of rapid growth species, the use of which is usually limited to only a single product. Fruit trees (mangoes, citrus) should be given special consideration because of their value as food sources. Shade trees planted in public places around government buildings, schools, market places, churches, and mosques serve an important function. These are areas where people congregate during the day, and shade is an essential part of the environment. These are also places where trees can be established and maintained quite easily by local people themselves with minimal assistance from outside. Even after they are no longer threatened by livestock, good local cooperation is needed to keep people from over-harvesting the trees. For example, the twigs of the neem tree are very popular in Africa for toothpicks. A seemingly harmless practice like breaking off an occasional twig can, however, stunt the growth of young neems if the stems are continuously stripped by passers-by.
Oyo State was used for the study. It is an area in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. It is bounded by Ogun and Osun States.
Oyo state came into existence on 3rd February, 1976 as a result of the creation of three states out of the former Western State of Nigeria. It covers an area of approximately 28,454 square kilometers representing approximately 4.08 percent of Nigeria’s total land area. It is bordered in the south by Ogun state, in the west by Benin republic, in the north by Kwara State and in the east by Osun State.
Oyo state is approximately located between latitudes 70N and 90N north of the equator, and between longitude 2.50E -50E.
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Figure 1: Map of Oyo State Showing Marketing Zones for Agroforestry
Product in Three Selected Local Government Area as Study Area
Oyo State has characteristics of West African monsoon climate, marked by distinct seasonal shift in the wind pattern described by Oguntoyinbo (1987). The rainy season is usually between March and October under the influence of the most maritime South-East monsoon wind which blows inland from the Atlantic Ocean. While the dry season occurs from November to February when the dry dust – laden wind blows from the Sahara desert. The regime of rainfall (rainfall pattern) is bimodal or double peak. The annual rainfall is between 1000- 3000 mm and annual temperature ranges between 210C and 350C. Relative humidity is generally above 60% all through the day.
Oyo State has two distinct ecological zones; the western moist forest to the south and the intermediate savanna to the north (Okunmadewa, 1990). Oyo state has nine forest reserves, and a National Park – the Old Oyo National Park with an area of about 251km2
The total population of Oyo State in 1991 according to National Population Commission (NPC) is 3.488,789 million.
Table 2: Natural forest types and areas within forest reserves in Oyo State
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Source: State Department of Forestry, Ibadan, Oyo State (2005)