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66 Seiten, Note: 1,0
List of figures
List of abbreviations
1.1 Problem statement
1.3 Structure of the paper
2 Terms and theoretical foundations
2.1 Definition of "leadership"
2.2 Leadership from today's perspective
2.3 Demographic change
2.4 Definition "Generation"
2.5 The demographics of Generation Y
2.6 The demographics of Generation Z
3 Effects of changing preferences on personnel management
3.1 Shaping Generation Y
3.2 Shaping Generation Z
3.3 Comparison of generations and their different value patterns
3.4 Importance of different generations for personnel management
3.5 Importance of different generations for companies
4 Previous approaches of successful executives
4.1 Traditional leadership concepts
4.1.1 Property theories of leadership
4.1.2 Behavioral Theories of Leadership
4.1.3 Situation theories of leadership
4.2 Modern management concepts
4.2.1 Symbolic guided tour
4.2.2 Emotional leadership
4.2.3 Transactional and transformational leadership
5 Future leadership concepts in dealing with generations Y & Z
5.1 New requirements for leadership
5.2 Looking to the future: What might tomorrow's leadership look like?
5.2.1 Self-reflection and development
5.2.2 Leadership and development
5.2.3 Team leadership and development
5.3 What methods and instruments should the future leadership take to heart?
5.3.3 Creating emotions and trust
5.3.4 Motivation and commitment
6 Leadership development in practice
6.1 Competence profile of a future manager
6.2 Recommendations for future leadership development
7 Closing remarks and outlook
Abb. 1: Representation of the generation chronology
Abb. 2: Behavioral criteria of leadership success
Abb. 3: Leadership styles depending on the degree of participation
Abb. 4: Situational management concept
Abb. 5: Characteristics of transformational leadership
Abb. 6: Communication Square
Abb. 7: Instruments to promote intrinsic motivation
Tab. 1: Comparison of the value patterns of baby boomers and Generation Z (Own
Tab. 2: Comparison of the value patterns of Generation X and Generation Z (Own
Tab. 3: Comparison of the value patterns of Generation Y and Generation Z (Own
Tab. 4: Overview of the most crucial traditional leadership theories (Own presentation based on Franconia)
Tab. 5: Symbols of the corporate culture (Own presentation based on
Tab. 6: Building blocks of emotional intelligence (Own presentation based on
Tab. 7: Principles and recommendations for the self-reflection of the
Tab. 8: Recommendation of the practical design of recognition and criticism
Tab. 9: Emotional attachment of employees in Germany (Own
Tab. 10: Competence profile of a future manager according to Franconia
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
In recent decades, many theoretical approaches and perspectives on personnel management have been developed and published. They are usually based on empirical surveys, theories or practical experience.1 If you look at these, you can see that the trend is towards flatter hierarchies and thus towards more self-organization of the employees.2 If the researchers are to be believed, Germany has been subject to a change in values for several decades, which is also decisive for the working and management world in companies. One of the most important consequences is the pursuit of more self-realization and self-development. Every individual has the need to understand his strengths and weaknesses, to develop his talents as well as to bring them into society. This change in values is characterized by the attitudes of generations Y and Z with regard to life and work plans, changed preferences with regard to work and the demand for more co-determination in companies.3
The focus of interest of companies is increasingly on the interests of future generations, as they present managers with new challenges.4 Against the background of the incoming generations, the question arises to what extent the already known personnel management approaches take this into account and deal with changing preferences. of generations Y and Z employ.
It could already be deferred from the problem that due to the changed preferences and values of the newer generations leadership behaviour should be reconsidered.
Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide an overview of the effects of the changed values and preferences on personnel management in order to then develop recommendations for action that take into account the generation-specific aspects on leadership. This described goal will be answered conclusively with the research question of this work: What should future leadership development look like against the background of the changed employee preferences of the newer generations?
This thesis is divided into seven main chapters. In the first chapter, the topic of this scientific work shall be introduced, the problem shall be given and the objective shall be presented.
The second chapter contains a brief presentation of the topic, focusing only on the areas relevant to the content of this thesis.
The third chapter contains the effects on the coworker guidance due to changed coinages of the younger generations. Subsequently, a comparison of the generations and their different value patterns, the meanings for personnel management and enterprises is presented.
In the fourth chapter the previous approaches of a successful leader are explained, these are subdivided into the traditional and modern leadership concepts.
In the fifth chapter the empirical investigation follows. As the first one the new requirements to the guidance are dealt with. In the context of this, there is an outlook on the possibly suitable leadership approaches of the future. Finally, methods and instruments are presented that a future leader should take to heart.
In the sixth chapter on the basis of the results of the fifth chapter, the theoretical bases as well as own considerations - different action recommendations are presented. These could be incorporated into further concepts with regard to the changed preferences of generations Y and Z for future executive development.
The seventh chapter forms the content-related conclusion of this thesis. It contains a conclusion of the author and an outlook into the future.
Under the term "leadership" or "leadership" everyone has an approximate idea. If you ask for a definition of the term, it often looks different. This is due to the fact that there are a wide variety of understandings of terms and, unfortunately, often also attitudes towards leaders and leaders.5 If you look at leadership as a process of influence that takes place between people, you realize that it does not necessarily have to be limited to one person, but can also take place reciprocally between several people. The influence takes place in a variety of ways, for example through the mediation of ideologies and arguments, rewards or sanctions. The aim of the influence is only indirectly the behavior, but reflects much more the emotions, motives or the evaluation of the work. Sometimes leadership is simply about conveying important knowledge and information.6
Leadership has the power to influence people's behavior and thinking. Power is the basis of leadership. A manager who cannot influence his employees is therefore superfluous. Targeted influence can be carried out through management instruments such as praise and recognition, constructive criticism and feedback, participation in decisions or target agreements.7
Other scientists and practitioners try to summarize the phenomenon of leadership in a central core. If one believes the view of Reiner Bröckermann, "personnel management (...) a goal-oriented social, i.e. interpersonal influence for the fulfilment of common tasks in a structured work situation."8
Today's understanding of leadership is gradually distancing itself from the one-sided influence of managers on leaders, reflecting the requirements of a growing knowledge society. This knowledge society of young, qualified specialists, from whom independent work and creativity is expected, wants to decide together with the managers on the goals and ways of fulfilling the task. In addition, employees are developing increasing self-confidence and are demanding ever more offensive transparency from today's leadership for more participation in corporate decisions.9
The leading role of a manager, who alone determines what, how and with which instruments is "played", is no longer in demand. Isolated decisions and problem solving no longer meet today's requirements of leadership understanding. It is important to create much more synergy effects between all parties involved. This means that the authoritarian leadership style is increasingly being deprived of its breeding ground. Managers must learn to put their employees more at the forefront of their decisions and to take themselves more back.10
Behind the term demographic change is basically the changed age structure of the population of a country. Currently, there is a trend towards an ageing society in Germany and other European countries. The reasons for this are that the number of newborns is decreasing and at the same time the average life expectancy is increasing. At present, only minor consequences of demographic change are being felt, and there are two reasons for this. On the one hand, there is immigration of people with a migration background, which compensates for this decline to some extent. On the other hand, average life expectancy has increased by around 10 years since 1970. The declining population11 could be largely compensated by these two factors. However, in the near future, the "baby boomer" generation will reach retirement age, with which the number of deaths, which has already exceeded that of those born since 1972, will continue to grow, which can no longer be compensated by realistic immigration. The Federal Statistical Office expects an annual net immigration of 200,000 people, which means that the population will fall to 75 million by 2050. If the annual immigration were only 100,000 people, this would have even more drastic consequences for the population of Germany. Regardless of the absolute population, the ratio of younger to older people will continue to change by 2050. Forecasts show that people of working age between the ages of 20 and 60 will decline by around a fifth by 2050. For the under 20-year-olds, this looks even more drastic, they even shrink up to 30 percent, at the same time the proportion of over 65-year-olds in the total population rises from 25 today to 37 percent.12
Demographic change also poses considerable challenges for companies. Due to the declining birth rates, fewer and fewer young workers are coming to the companies, which means that there is a high shortage of skilled workers. This deficiency is particularly noticeable for small and medium-sized enterprises, as they do not have the same incentive systems as large companies. That is why it is enormously important right now to present yourself as an attractive employer and thus win the battle for qualified specialists.13
By a generation, sociology understands a social group of individuals born in a similar period of time and sharing formative collective events in their childhood and adolescence. In Scholz's view, generations are more than just a classification of people who are reduced to the same age or similar imprints. Rather, it is a value pattern and the resulting social orientation and attitude to life.14
Overall, the birth cohorts from 1922 to the present day can be divided into five different generations according to the period of their birth:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
fig.1: The generation chronology (Own presentation)
- The traditionalists were born between 1922 and 1955 and witnessed the end of the First World War and the Second World War in their childhood and youth.
- The baby boomers were born between 1956 and 1965, it was the first generation after the Second World War, they experienced the economic miracle and belong to the most birth-rich vintage.
- Generation X was born between 1966 and 1980, they are also called the Golf generation, they were strongly influenced in their childhood by the economic crisis and the emerging divorce rate.
- Generation Y was born between 1981 and 1995, they experienced the Internet boom and globalization. In contrast to the generations before, they are characterized by a high level of education.
- Generation Z, born from 1996 until today, is also called the YouTube generation, they have completely integrated digitization into their everyday lives.15
Generation Y includes those age groups that were teenagers at the turn of the millennium, so they will also become millennials16 called. Today, its members are between 23 and 38 years old. Looking at their numerical size, it can be clearly seen that this has fallen further compared to the previous generations. They make up about 18% of the German population, including 51% male and 49% female. About half of Generation Y live alone or in pairs, 26% live in threes and the remaining 24% live with at least three other people in one household. Statistically, they enter into marriages and family formations later than previous generations. About 70% are single, of which 32% have their own children. Around 19% have a university degree, 29% have obtained the general technical college entrance qualification and 33% have a degree from secondary schools. 57% of them attach great importance to their income and 60% expect a work phone & laptop.17
The three biggest expectations of Generation Y from their employer are sustainability with 83%, including office connectivity, further education and corporate responsibility. 80% expect a work-life balance, associated with a collegial environment, parental leave and corporate sports. 67% want flexible working hours, the possibility to use home office and a break.18
Generation Z, including digital natives19, is currently entering working life and is becoming a popular buzzword, especially in management circles. Starting from the year of birth 1996, at the beginning of 2019 about 20% of the German population and the world population belong. In the US, they will soon exceed 25% of the population, making them the largest group, while in Europe, the baby boomer generation remains the largest population group, making up Generation Z less than 20%. In 2020, the 40% consumer mark is to be exceeded by Generation Z.20 The majority of them live in their parents' household with an average of three other people.21 The classic family model is increasingly being replaced by patchwork families and single parents.22 Between 50% and 72% of the young Generation Z want to start their own start-up business and 76% of them want to turn their hobby into a profession. Of the remaining gen Z members, 73% believe future employers will meet their demands.23
Generation Z is realistic, self-confident and aware of its shortcomings and lack of experience in certain areas. 55% of Gen Z believe that they have their personal communication skills, as well as communicating with their colleagues (48%), meeting deadlines (37%) should improve.24
In sociology, the period between the ages of 11 and 15 is considered the most formative. During this time, young people begin to consciously perceive influences outside their direct environment for the first time. Influential factors can be found in politics and society, they contribute significantly to the development of individual values and preferences. In addition to the individual experiences of each individual, the collective experience of events also plays a formative role. Representatives of a generation look back on the same events typical of the time, as they were inferior to the same external influences (political as well as social).25 According to A. Parment, this leads to people of the same age having a similar pattern of values and norms. Furthermore, he notes that Generation Y was strongly confronted by permanent negative headlines.26 The two most formative events of Generation Y were the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and thus the end of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States of America. But also permanent threats from global warming, environmental pollution or natural disasters have always been present. Despite the many events in their youth, However, Generation Z has chosen to deal with fears, disappointments or setbacks differently than the generations before. The people of Ypsilon are committed to enjoying their lives to the fullest and bring with them a whole new attitude to life.27
The reform of the higher education system in 1999 was another formative event. The completion of the diploma and the Magister, were replaced by a Bachelor's and Master's degree. Thus, the representatives of Generation Y were among the first to support the Bologna reform.28 witnessed. Arguments in favour of the changes to the higher education system were the harmonisation of European study structures, to admit more students to a shorter practice-oriented course of study while maintaining the same capacities and to reduce the inhibitions of those with little education. The students of Generation Y were initially satisfied with the self-designed course of study, in which semesters abroad were also possible.29 In retrospect, however, it turned out that a bachelor's degree is less respected in the world of work than a diploma, which has also had an impact on the satisfaction of companies. Only 47% of the 2000 companies surveyed stated that career starters with a bachelor's degree met their expectations, whereas master's students largely meet expectations. If you ask the politicians, you will see that they are still trying to defend the reform, but are still not satisfied with the students. A study by her ministry found that despite overcrowded lecture halls, students enjoyed studying, but still had little to do with politics. The teachers are annoyed by worse working conditions, schooled courses of study and feel their academic freedom contained. They liked it even better when the students took time to read the books and discussed them. The majority of teachers also defend the Bologna reform, but complain that the goals have not been achieved.30
In childhood, Gen Y were just too spoiled, because their parents were not exactly showered with attention as children. Thus, they were encouraged to spend more time with the family, showering their children with attention, recognition and appreciation. Ypsilons were protected, entertained and promoted. Nothing was too expensive for her parents to support their darlings on their way into adult life. It should therefore come as no surprise that the now adult representatives of Generation Y have high expectations of their superiors and employers in terms of co-determination and recognition. Generation Y still relies on the advice of their parents and is amazed when they are not given the same support in the workplace by their superiors as they know it from home. Generation Y studied their parents how they coped with family and private life in connection with their work, they noticed that they more or less failed. Although the parents of the Ypsilons sacrificed themselves for their careers, no one was safe from dismissal. For Generation Y, on the other hand, work is only a way to realize themselves and only until the job no longer fits into their current life situation.
The Ypsilons grew up in the age of the Internet and digital media. For them, there is no longer a world without smartphones, e-mail and laptops. In the social networks, they maintain their virtual contacts and connections, with which they were able to build up a large international circle of acquaintances.31
The distinction between the two generations Y and Z is currently still difficult, which is partly due to the fact that the imprints are similar, but also because Generation Z is in the middle of the phase of physical and mental development, thus in the formative years. There is still a lack of distance to groundbreaking influences and events that show what characterizes Generation Z.
The young people of the Merkel generation grow up in this country in safe political conditions, materially most lack nothing, even if in Germany the number of children living on the poverty line is growing.32 Nevertheless, the ubiquity of crises has not passed Generation Z by. Especially the global financial and economic crisis, which then escalated into a European crisis, or political crises in Ukraine, Turkey, Iran, Iraq or Israel, give rise to a certain uncertainty. In addition, there was the destruction of the Fukushima nuclear power plant by a sea quake, various hurricanes or drought disasters. If you look at all these crises, you inevitably get the feeling of blunting, because it obviously can't get much worse.33
Generation Z finds support and security from their parents, who give their youngest a higher level of attention and affection than the generation before. This constant care and feeling of being protected awakens the great need for a supposed claim to a carefree life. If this care, to which they have become accustomed, is missing, they react with incomprehension and uncertainty. In addition to the relationship with their parents, the relationship with politicians is also formative in both positive and negative terms. Generation Z perceives politics only marginally, which is why it is perceived by society, but is considered unattractive due to its low willingness to engage in politics. This decoupling from politics can be interpreted as a lack of interest, which only reinforces their mistrust and lack of sympathy for politicians. You have observed that the generations before were often made false promises, as a result, Generation Z has no expectations of politics.34. After an embarrassing attempt by German education policy to shorten the university entrance qualification from nine years to eight years, the experiment proved to have failed after various years. In some cases, some schools are already back on the G935 Abitur um. Due to the shortened year of their university entrance qualification, high school graduates should be available on the labor market more quickly, which mainly served economic purposes. Generation Z quickly realized that they were being steered to their role as employees and consumers for companies and politics in order to act optimally.36
For Generation Z, social networks are no longer virtual reality, but their factual reality. While social networks were still a supplement to the real world of experience for the Ypsilons, the digital representation of Generation Z has become an essential part of their own personality. This young generation is characterized by always being reachable and always online. Exaggerated one could say: "I am online, so I am".37
Baby Boomer vs. Generation Z
It's much more than just an age difference that separates baby boomers from Generation Z. The baby boomers are the largest and wealthiest generation of all time. They are of the assumption that what concerns them occupies the whole of society. They are in their prime years, represent the largest group and are over 48 years old. Most of the time, they sit in influential positions or even on corporate boards. Although most of the baby boomers live in one income bracket, they are usually not envious of the wealth and possessions of their powerful representatives. Some of the baby boomers have a fairly clear opinion about Generation Z. Statements such as:"Do they also do something?" or "Do you need them?" already signal a rather skeptical relationship with Generation Z. On the other hand, there are also representatives of their generation who try to think differently about Gen Z. The resigned idealists of this generation, some of whom are moving into the thought patterns of Gen Z, realize that they can no longer change the world and thus also spare their nerves.38
Table 1 shows a direct comparison of the value patterns of the baby boomer generation and generation Z.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Tab. 1: Comparison of the value patterns of baby boomers and Generation Z (Own Presentation based on Mangelsdorf)39
Generation X vs. Generation Z
In terms of content, Generation X and Generation Z are very close, despite the approximately 30-year age difference. If you look at the central issues, you will see that Generation X and Z both have nothing to do with politics. Generation X could not gain anything from the education system, many saw the school reform and school leaving certificates as lost time. They are of the assumption that no matter what note or title you wear, a boring job awaits them later. Salary differences and the existence of poorer people were accepted resignedly by Generation X. For the most part, Generation X is regarded as a lost generation, with hardly any prospects, with few ideological ideas, which primarily thinks of having taken out insurance for all eventualities and how it pays its installments to be paid off. Even if one might think that the generation has consistently become resin IV receivers, it is a quite successful generation. They sit in high offices of public authorities, are represented in politics or are part of the education system. But you can also find them in successful positions of large companies.
A meeting of the two generations would be quite harmonious, as both have matching attitudes to life. Noticeable differences between the generations can be seen in terms of their perception and how they deal with negative experiences. Negative experiences and their consequences of Generation Z are perceived by the representatives of Generation X as confirmation of their doggedness and skeptical strew. Generation Z deals with negative experiences in a completely different way, they categorically reject resignative consequences and are rather optimistic.40
Table 2 shows a direct comparison of the value patterns of Generation X and Generation Z.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Tab. 2: Comparison of the value patterns of Generation X and Generation Z (Own Presentation based on Mangelsdorf)41
Generation Y vs. Generation Z
From a temporal point of view, the generations are very close to each other, accordingly they are often confused, yet they differ massively from each other. A distinguishing feature is that Generation Y is seriously interested in politics. She does not do this for the sake of society, but is aware of the importance of political networks for her professional career.
1 cf. Hentze, Joachim; Graf, Andrea; Kammel, Andreas; Lindert, Klaus: Personalführungslehre, 5th edition, Braunschweig: Haupt 2015, p.10.
2 cf. Ayberk, Eva-Maria; Kratzer, Lisa; Linke, Lars-Peter: Weil Führung sich ändern muss, Wien; Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler 2017, p.12.
3 cf. Franconia, Svetlana: Führen in der Arbeitswelt der Zukunft, Bielefeld: Springer Gabler 2016, p.21.
4 cf. Parment, Anders: Die Generation Y, 2. Auflage, Stockholm: Springer Gabler 2013, p.15.
5 cf. Simple, Jochen: Was ist eigentlich Führung? – Eine Definition, Online im Internet: https://schlicht-leadership-development.com/definition-von-fuehrung/, accessed on 07.12.2018.
6 cf. Becker, Florian: Psychologie der Mitarbeiterführung, München: Springer Gabler 2015, p.8.
7 cf. French, J. R.; Raven, B.; Cartwright, D.: Classics of Organization Theory, 7th edition, Stanford 1959, p.311.
8 Bröckermann, Reiner: Lehr- und Übungsbuch für Human Resource Management, 7th edition, Wuppertal: Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag 2016, p. 242.
9 cf. Franconia, Svetlana: I.c., P.44.
10 cf. Huber, Hans-Georg; Metzger, Hans: Führung heute – Zwischen Herrschen und Dienen, Online im Internet: https://www.coachingbuero.de/fuehrung-heute/, accessed on 08.12.2018.
11 82.9 million, as of: 30.06.2018.
12 Cf. unknown.: Demographischer Wandel, Online im Internet: https://www.nachhaltigkeit.info/ artikel/deographischer_wandel_1765.htm, accessed on 07.12.2018.
13 cf. Pötsch, Olga; Rößger, Felix: Bevölkerung Deutschlands bis 2060, Online im Internet: https://www.destatis.de/DE/VorausberechnungBevoelkerung, accessed on 08.12.2018.
14 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: Von Babyboomer bis Generation Z, Offenbach: Gabal 2015, p.12.
15 cf. Jana-Tröller, Melanie: Führung im Spiegel der Generationen, Bonn: Springer 2014, p. 27.
16 To German also called millennia.
17 Cf. unknown.: Best for Planning 2015, Online im Internet: https://online.mds6.de/mdso6/b4p.php, accessed on 10.11.2018.
18 cf. Huber, Thomas; Rauch, Christian: Generation Y Das Selbstverständnis der Manager von morgen, Düsseldorf: Signium International 2013, p. 23 f.
19 Digital natives are those young people and adults who have already grown up with digital devices and electronic media in their childhood and early adolescence.
20 cf. Ingold, Jürgen: Generation Z, Biglen (CH): Triple-A-Team 2016, p.7.
21 cf. unknown.: Best for Planning 2015, Online on the Internet: https://online.mds6.de/mdso6/b4p.php, accessed on 10.11.2018.
22 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., P.20.
23 cf. Ingold, Jürgen: I.c., P. 9.
24 cf. Ingold, Jürgen: I.c., P. 12.
25 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., p.12f.
26 cf. Parment, Andreas: I.c., p. 17f.
27 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., P.18.
28 The Bologa reform is the creation of uniform courses of study and degrees in the European Higher Education Area.
29 cf. Scholz, Christian: Generation Z, Weinheim: Wiley 2014, p. 50 ff.
30 cf. Klimkeit, Lena: Bologna, Geschichte einer Enttäuschung, Online im Internet: https://www.zeit.de/studium/hochschule/2015-04/bachelor-studie-unternehmen-unzufrieden, accessed on 09.11.2018.
31 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., p.18 f.
32 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., P.20.
33 cf. Scholz, Christian: I.c., P. 56.
34 cf. Scholz, Christian: I.c., p. 43 ff.
35 Obtaining the university entrance qualification after nine years at secondary schools.
36 cf. Scholz, Christian: I.c., p. 48 f.
37 cf. Ingold, Jürg: Generation Z, Online im Internet: https://tripleateam.ch/wp-content/uplads/2016/06 /Generation_Z_Metastudie.pdf, 03.06.2016.
38 cf. Scholz, Christian: I.c., p. 81 ff.
39 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., p.22 f.
40 cf. Scholz, Christian: I.c., p. 79 f.
41 cf. Mangelsdorf, Martina: I.c., p.22 f.
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