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130 Seiten, Note: excellent
I. Violence and the Global Society Today
I.1. Violence on Ecology and Peace
I.2. Religion, Race, and Ethnicity
I.3. Violence in Cultural Diversity
I.4. What to DO?
II. The Foundation of Muslim Brotherhood in Europe
II.1. The Roots of Hitler-Muslim Alliance
II.2. Planting the Muslim Brotherhoods in Germany
II.3. Planting the Muslim Brotherhood in France.
II.4. Planting the Muslim Brotherhoods in the United Kingdom
II.5. Radicalizing the Muslims in Europe
II.6. Plans of the European Council for Fatwa
II.7. Converting Europe to an Islamic Continent
II.8. The Danish Cartoon Controversy and the Ikwans
II.9. Home-grownTterrorists attacking Denmark's Democracy
II.10. Radical Muslims Plotted to Kill Danish Journalist
II.11. Radical Muslims against a Publisher of Book
II.12. Some Ideas on European- Muslim Relations
III. Modern Terrorism
III.1. From the Middle-East to Europe
III.2. The Consequences out of the Iraq War
III.3. Igniting Sunni and Shiia Fundamentalism
III.4. Anti-Americanism Movement
III.5. The Young Vanguards of New Terrorism
IV. The Inter-Continental expansion of Jihad
IV.1. The Threat of Nuclear Terrorism
IV.2. The desire to produce and use WMD
V. The Open Society and Its Enemies
V.1. Home-grown Terrorists
V.2. Al-Qaeda and Radical Muslims Networks in Europe
V.3. The Dramatic Increase of Muslims in Europe
V.4. The United Kingdom as a Save Heaven
V.5. Angry European Radicals
V.6. Poorly Integrated Muslims
V.7. Notorious Islamic Radical Immigrant Preachers
VI. Attacking Western Economic Targets
VI.1. Attacking Jewish Targets
VI.2. US-Canadian Terrorist Cells and their Plots
VI.3. Home-growen Terrorismin Canada
VI.4. Terrorists Attacking Democracy: The case of India
VI.5. Terrorists Will Attack Germany
VI.6. Recent Al-Qaeda Conspiracy in Germany
VII. Financing Terrorism in Europe
VII.1. Bin Laden’s Personal Funds and Businesses
VII.2. Al Qaeda’s Financial Facilitators
VII.3. The International Islamic Relief Organization
VII.4. Funds from Muslim World League in Mecca
VII.5. The Benevolence International Foundation (BIF)
VII.6. The Al Haramain Islamic Foundation
VII.7. The Muwafaq Foundation and the Rabita Trust (RT)
Glossary of Arabic Words
Key Figures in the European Muslimbrotherhood
Leading Ialamic Radical and Jihadi Groups
Before we go directly and discuss the core issues mentioned as a book title, we would like to engage our readers in a debate. Such a debate, we hope can help to think about the root- causes of terrorism and on how to find a solution towards its containment. However the current military option like the Bush or Obama foreign policy to fight terrorism by means of decisive military force has failed or will fail. The administration sought to mobilize the world in a great campaign against new threats but instead the world is openly questioning the legitimacy of an American-led global order.
The Former Bush administration was seized by the problem of terrorism and the rest of the world was seized by the problem of American unipolar power. The world may not be able to restrain the United States by organizing a counter-balancing coalition. But the world today is about as close as it has ever come to being in open rebellion against the one global superpower. Ironically -- and dangerously -- this global rebellion is particularly intense among citizens in the advanced Western democracies, America’s oldest and most establish emblematic of this failure but they are more consequence than cause. It is the deeper, unappreciated shifts in power and the state system – and contradictions in Bush’s vision itself – that generate hostility and failure. Perhaps it should not be surprising that the United States has made grand strategic mistakes. After all, the landscape of world politics has changed so quickly and fundamentally.
The Bush doctrine of 2002, proposed by the powerful group of neo-conservatives in the U.S. administration includes taking forceful military measures by special units or aerial bombardment by the navy or the air force against various targets in violation of United Nations resolutions and international law. Examples of U.S. unilateralism are: rejection of the Kyoto Protocol for the prevention of global warming, the denial of the ratification of the CTBT, and the war against Iraq without U.N. approval. The question “Are you with us or with terrorists?” was repeatedly asked by the US as it carried out preemptive attacks against enemy states branded “rogue nations” or accused of being part of the “axis of evil” and possessing weapons of mass destruction (WMD) without sufficient evidence being offered. One cannot avoid the suspicion that the U.S. wishes to control the oil resources in Iraq.
It is one of the important subjects in modern terrorism countering through peace and non military approach to analyze U.S. unilateralism scientifically and clarify its importance in addressing global issues in cooperation with the international society.
Man made environmental destruction and pollution could often ignite disputes among communities or broader conflicts and terrorism; based on the widening of the economic gap between rich and poor. In other words, as is often the case with acquisition of wealth, economic activity often results in the destruction of natural resources, which must be treated as the shared heritage of all human beings ( Hardin, Garrett: “The Tragedy of the Commons”, Science, No. 162, 1968).
Industrial activities causing, such as deforestation, mining of underground resources, and overexploitation of fishery resources, cause not only the depletion of natural resources but also the environmental destruction of local resources. Destruction of natural resources in particular, could endanger the survival of human beings, widen the disparity in wealth, and then finally evolve into the social antagonism or armed conflict. Illegal dumping, for example, is another way of destroying the natural environment, and jeopardizing the fairness of society.
Differences between religions, races, and ethnicities were potential elements of conflict even during the Cold War period, but they have emerged more urgently since its end. So-called ethnic identity has become one of the most troublesome elements of conflict in the world today.
Of course, if commonality of religions, races, and ethnicities (“factors of civilization”) takes on politically exclusive and competitive character, it tends to become the element of violent confrontation. And the social system of any nation has, more or less, an inseparable relationship with the inherent factors of civilization.
For that reason, mutual exchange and understanding in the areas of politics, economy, and culture are a vital necessity, particularly in addressing the violent conflicts related to the Islamic nations in recent years.
Although some conflicts may appear as “clash of civilizations”, it is necessary to dig beneath the surface and uncover the structural violence of the so-called North-South problem epitomized by such social issues as unemployment, poverty, and class discrepancies. Problems of religions, races, and ethnicities cannot be grasped superficially as conflicts and misunderstanding between heterogeneous cultures. These are not issues that one can fight by military force but resolvable by non military approach and academic research.
The world in the 21st Century is experiencing on one hand, a staggering integration as is seen in the example of the borderless European Union with its unified currency and the symbiosis of many different ethnicities and cultures, but on the other, even among the EU nations, there has been a reactionary surge of racism, xenophobia, and ethno-centrism, which threatens the realization of a harmonious multi-ethnic and multi-cultural human society. However, the essence of democratic society is a full guarantee of the human rights of racial, ethnic, sexual, cultural and linguistic minorities, and this is also the foundation of peace and social stability. The extent to which ethnic minorities, including foreign labourers, refugees, and indigenous people can pursue their rights as citizens of society without persecution and exclusion provides the true measure of human welfare at community, national, and international levels.
This is also an urgent task that we need to address now when the war on terrorism and globalization exacerbate the life of the minorities and people with the lowest income. Symbiosis of multi-ethnicities and multi-cultures has to grow in quality in the very process of pursuit of such a goal. At individual, social, organizational, national, and communal levels, a social structure full of the spirit of generosity and tolerance should be pursued and created through mutual dialogue (See next chapter).
Throughout our planet, diverse lifestyles and various institutions which human beings created by way of exploiting nature for food, clothing, and shelter are called “cultures”. Also a society where conflict resolution by violent means is prevalent is considered to be artificial and not a given in human nature. To understand the state of nature as a “war of every man against every man” (Hobbes) merely reflects the age when such a thought was natural and can hardly be said to provide a scientific explanation of human society. There are also prominent research findings which falsify the proposition (Montagu, Ashley: The Nature of Human Aggression, Oxford University Press, 1976).
Apart from research findings, a simple comparison of the American society, where alleged rationale of self-protection justifies gun ownership with the ensuing result of high crime rate, and other advanced societies reinforces the argument against the Hobbesian view of human nature. That the human beings are essentially peaceful and wars and violence are a distortion of human nature was advanced by the classic writings by J. J. Rousseau as well as by the “Seville Statement on Violence” (Wittner, Lawrence S.: Toward Nuclear Abolition. A History of World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present. Stanford, 2002) endorsed by contemporary scientists.
Research in peace includes the critical study of such social phenomena as militarism and imperialism as well as Social Darwinism, which encourages the survival of the fittest in human society. In contrast peace education is based on the “philosophy of symbiosis”. Peace research aims at fostering the ability of imagination and creativity and to use them in promoting peace in the areas of social sciences. Peace promotes the principle of non-violence sought in a wide variety of areas from the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to “an eye for an eye” kind of violent conflicts using physical force, violent exchange of military operations and counter attack by suicide bombers, murder by secondary school students, indifference to poverty, and disorder in developing countries. Thus, the necessity for peace and non-military approach inside as well as outside of national boarders are very important.
As described above, it is clear that despite the spectacular progress in science and technology the perpetual prosperity of the world is not only threatened, but even faces the question of its very survival due to the menace of terrorism nuclear weapons, environmental pollution, population explosion, and poverty caused by uneven distribution of the world’s wealth and other factors mentioned here. These are not problems to be solved by military means, but only by non military approach and peace research. Peace research has to be further developed by means of unceasing interdisciplinary cooperation among scholars, as it is the necessary condition for consolidating the foundation of all human activities—politics, economy, industry, education, etc.
Unless we can firmly lay such a foundation, the prosperity of nations and the security of the global world would remain a castle in the air, a mere illusion. It goes without saying that we must make every effort in education for peace in order to achieve the ideal of peaceful human coexistence. Thus, research on the above mentioned “non-military” options and “peaceful resolution” of the current terrorism problem is vital to the peace and security of the international society.
Since the end of World War II, in fact, members of al Ikhwan al Muslimoun (hereafter Ikwan, Muslim Brotherhood or MB) have settled in Europe.
The Muslim –Hitler alliance during the World War II was established by the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haji Amin al Husseini, the highest Muslim leader of the time who moved to Berlin and advised Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Reich to eliminate the Jweish throughout the world. There were several other Muslim radicalists followed the footsteps of al-Hussein not only supporting and admiring the action of the Nazis against the Jewiish but fought with the German army in different fronts.
In early 1950s and during the era of Nasser, Egypt and other Pan-Arabist regimes were a very hot spots for the Muslim Brotherhood. Nasser harrased and killd some of the leaders and many of Brotherhood members had to run off their countries and settled in Germany. The second wave of the Brotherhood refugees profited from the German “Hollstein doctrine” which allowed to grant assylum for dissidents persecuted by governments that had recognized East Germany (GDR), which included Egypt and Syria. Most of those young people joined the Universities in the fields of engineering, architecture, and medical fields.
One of those immigrants setteled in Europe was Said Ramadan, a former student of the organizations founder, Hassan al-Banna, assassinated in 1950. The emergence of President Nasser in 1953 caused aother crack down on the Brotherhood. Understanding the dangers coming ahead, Ramadan left the country and moved to Europe and settled in Geneva, Switzerland. Lateron Ramadan studied law (Islamic Law) at the University of Cologne, in Germany and in 1961 he founded the Islamic Center of Geneva.
The center attracted several Islamists including some Indian scholars and thus became one of the main headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe. Ramadan’s strategic step was to lay down the fundamentals for his future plans of errecting dozens of mosques throughout Europe. The financial flow came as usual from Saudi Arabian aggressive Islamic missionaries of Wahabists. This individual was also very active in suppourting the Saudi government in establishing the Muslim World League.
To esablish such a government funded transnational organization was created to spread the Wahabi-Saudi interpretation of Islam. Back to Europe, Ramadan constructed another a mosque in Munic, Germany. The Mosque was planned to serve the new militant students of the Middle-East and those Muslim ex-soldiers who had fought with the Nazis during World War II and remained in Germany. The group was a collection of soldiers originated from the Middle-East, Central Asia and the Caucasus. They had a moderate view of Islam that clashed with the more militant views of the Arabs. As the construction of the Mosque was comleted by 1973, it was absolutely overshadowed by the militant Muslim Brotherhood with an extreme radical interpretation of Islam. The Munich Mosque was also given a harmless German name: “Islamische Gemeinde Deutschland” (IGD), and heades by Ramadan himself. Another individual called Said Ramadan al Boutih, of Syrias and Issam al Attar, a top Muslim Brotherhood leader who fled Syria to escape the regime and finally settled in the German city of Aachen, where he founded the Bilal mosque.(see for details Khalid Duran, Jihadism in Europe, The Journal of Counterterrorism and Security International, Fall 2000. Pp. 12-5.)
The IGD in Munich was elevated by Ramadan as the European headquarters of the Ikwans. At the end of 1973, a Syrian born Ghaleb Himmat was given the leadership the Islamic Society of Germany (IGD). During his leadership that lasted until 2002, he became the co-founder of Bank al-Taqwa (See the book Finances and Networks of Al-Qaeda Terrorists, Grin Verlag, 2009 ). This financial institution, established with the money of the Saudi Wahabists, widely believed to have served as the Brotherhoods and Al-Qaeda money money-laundering in the West.
According to European and American authorities, Himmat and Youssef Nada, used al-Taqwa and an extensive network of companies, to finance the construction and activities of dozens of Al-Qaeda –Ikwan related projects throughout the Middle East and the West. The U.S. Treasury Department accuse both individuals of having financed Hamas and al Qaeda, have been designated terrorism financiers by various Western countries and by the United Nations.
In the year 2002, Ibrahim El Zayat, a radical activist took over the leadership of the Munich-IGD and the director of the Saudi-based NGO World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) that spreads a radical Wahhabi literature worldwide. The German authorities who observed his movements, brought him under investigation for having funneled more than two million dollars to an al-Qaeda-linked charity and for his involvement in other money-laundering activities.
Stil backed by the Saudis and Gulf States, the IGD of today is Germanys most powerful Musli tycoon, representing more than seventy Islamic centers nationwide. Together with Milli Grues, the Turkish radical organization linked to the Refah party that has more than 30,000 members and an estimated 200,000 sympathizers in Germany. The IGD boast itself for being the main voice of the German Muslim community.
As we are aware of the traditions in the Middle East, the leaders of both organizations are tied by marriage and thus, the creation of a formal and functional joined forces. Their unity is mostly known as in the German Language the Muslim Zentralrat, an umbrella organization, that controlls the majority of German mosques and monopolize the public debate about Islam in Germany.
Knowing the whole activity of both organizations, all German security agencies have repeatedly reported about the ambiguity of their rhetoric. They stated that the threat of readical Islamism for Germany is taking a negative attitude and try to spread Islamist views within the boundaries of the law. They also warned that both organizations are trying to implement a strict interpretation of the Quran and of the sharia and thus, their public support of tolerance and religious freedom should be treated with caution. Astonishingly enough, the German politicians ignore all the wrnings and in contrary, they consider the Ikhwan groups as their primary partners in the dialogue over issues involving the Muslim community, thus granting them legitimacy and empowering them to continue their secret agenda.
Durin the time Said Ramadan was active in establishing his Islamic centers in Germany, another co-founder of the Islamic Center of Geneva, Mohammed Hamidullah, created the first Islamist organization in France. Hamidullah basically a moderate Muslim, established the Paris-based Association of Islamic Students in France (AEIF). However, the AEIF soon became home base for a small group of radical foreign Muslim students who were attending Parisian universities. Among them was the Sudanese radicalist and a friend of Osama Bin-laden Hasan al Turabi (for deails see the book Finances and Networks of Al-Qaeda Terrorists, Grin Verlag, 2009). Hasan al Turabi become one of the most radical Islamist and founder of the National Islamic Front (NIF) in the Sudan. Other well-known member of were Abolhassan Banisadr, the first President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
However, the AEIF was not that much adequate for those intellectuals, It had no serious political mission beyond promoting revivalist ideas among its members. Late in 1979,
But others in the European Brotherhood, particularly the Egyptians, saw their hijra (forced migration, comparing it to the Prophets time in Medina) as more long-term and Europe as a permanent base from which to expand the Ikhwans struggle to impose Gods word worldwide. The Brothers were in Europe to stay, they concluded; and the continent; with its freedom, wealth and growing Muslim population was the ideal new front from which the Brotherhood could operate.
After a while a group of AEIF members envisioned a log-term strategy to extend the influence of the Ikwan movement to the Muslim population of France and created the Union of Islamic Organizations in France (UOIF).. The initiators of the organization were the master minders behind the two individuals who set up the UOIF were, the Iraqi national Zuhair Mahmood and Tunisian national Abdallah Ben Mansour . However the were highly supported by Faysal Mawlawi chief of the Lebanese al Jamaa al Islamiya radical political party and Rashid Ghannouchi, secretary of the AEIF between 1968 and 1969 and head of al Nahda, the Islamist movement that battled the Tunisian regime. The secret behind of Ghannouchi and Mawlawi to radicalize the Muslim minority in the European country with the largest Muslim population –with great success. Today the UOIF has built several mosques and Islamic Institutions including the largest European Institute of Human Sciences (IESH). The French government and security are highly worried about the development of radicalism and attitude of the UOIF. Despite the best education in prominent French Universities and institutions, members of the UOIF continue with their radicalization of the Islamic community. Their radical worldview on anti-Semitic remarks or defending the actions of Hamas on Israel and supporting the 9/11 attack of Al-Qaeda continues.
While Arab members of the Muslim Brotherhood spurred the spread of revivalist Islam in continental Europe, Muslims from South Asia initially from Pakistan and India play a major role in the United Kingdom. Since the 1950s and 1960s, Abul Ala Maududi, founder of of Jamaat-e-Islami started to build up the radicalist organizations in Great Britain. Following the organization the UK Islamic Mission was founded in 1962. The main strategy of the organization seem to have no difference than the Ikwans.
According to their reports, the Mission, targets in converting the Europeans and the rest of human nature towards Allahs will - tha Shariia law. With the hope of ruling over Britannia, the Mission also continuosly declares its desire to introduce sharia in the Kingdom, at least in the areas of private and family law. The UK Islamic Mission advocates, in fact, a continuous campaign for the establishment of Muslim family laws, and an Islamic social order in the United Kingdom in order to seek the pleasure of Allah. While the stated goal of many Muslim organizations created at the time was to safeguard the Muslim identity of the South Asian immigrant population . Following Maududis teachings, it urges the Muslim community not to be satisfied with simply keeping its own social values; rather, it should proselytize and strive to impose the Islamic social order on all, as a vanguard to spearhead a life-long struggle in the cause of Allah.
Based on their unshakeable ambitions and goal of establishing an Islamic law and order and rule England, the Mission has extended its teachings and outreachs to the larger audience therough media and web-sites. With tremendous success, the UK Islamic Mission has become a nationwide organization with fourty-one branches, over fourty mosques and Islamic schools in which about seven thousand British Muslim children receive Islamic education. The main strategy targets on the youth, their young Muslims members are vehemntly attracting the sons and daughters of Muslim immigrants through study groups, summer camps, and Quran competitions.
To appeal to the most Westernized among them, Young Muslims UK even sponsors such activities as Go-Karting and Paintball, all conducted in religiously-oriented and sex-segregated environments. In 1973 the Islamic Mission established a college and research center, the Islamic Foundation. First located in a small two-room office in central Leicester, the Islamic Foundation has grown to be one of Europes largest institutions of Islamic studies and, by 1990, moved its headquarters to a sprawling mansion(thanks to the oil dollars of the Saudis and UAE) in rural Markfield, a few miles from Leicester. The Foundation regularly organizes symposia and conferences and even runs its own institute of higher learning, the Markfield Institute of Higher Edu cation, which issues diplomas in Islamic jurisprudence.
Despite all the services and care the UK-Mission takes to its Islamic community, their top-most agenda reains to islamize and possibly convert and rule over the [hated] Christians of the kindom Radicalizing the Muslim community is the Foundations first priority, but it also emphasizes the importance of carrying out its dawa mission among the non-Muslim European population. The Foundation publishes several introductory books to Islam aimed at British and European Christians, this agenda has been clearly stated by one of its leaders Murad, who published a handbook on how to convert non-Muslims. To hide its secret agenda and vulnerability, the Mission has created a tactic of broader social activities. It is involved in partnerships with several secular institutions of higher learning, for example it has signed a memorandum of understanding with various Christian organizations. It often works with city councils on issues involving the Muslim community, and it even conducts Islamic-awareness training for British police officers.
Based on their observation and the dynamic success of the UK-Mission, the Arab brach of the Muslim Brotherhood founded in 1997 its own organization in Great Britain, the Muslim Association of Britain (MAB). MABs leadership includes individuals such as Azzam Tamimi, a former activist in the Islamic Action Front (the Jordanian Brotherhoods political party); Mohammed Sawalha , a self-declared former Hamas member; the other one is Osama al Tikriti, a well known individual and the son of the leader of the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood. The person who was assigned to work as a founding president of the MAB was is as Kamal al Helbawy, this individual was formerly the official spokesman for the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in Europe.
Durin the US- invassion on Iraq, MAB has formed strong alliances with British civil rights and leftist organizations. Its role as a political player became apparent as it endorsed such anti-war politicians and close allies as London mayor Ken Livingstone and Respect Party candidate George Galloway.
Given their large Muslim populations, Great Britain, France, Belgium and Germany are naturally the four main centers of activity of the radical Muslims in Europe. But virtually every European country has witnessed some degree of intense activity by the Brothers and other streamings like the Mission and Turkish activists. As Ikhwan members often mention, their vision of Islam as a social religion compels them to create organizations. Tariq Ramadan, son of Said Ramadan whose affiliation with the Brotherhood is much debated has stated that the communitarian dimension of Islam is fundamental because the Islamic faith cannot be reduced to a strictly private affair. But other scholars mention more practical reasons for the Ikhwans organized activism. Another radical activist and Al-Qaeda supporter called Qaradawi asserts that the organized collective work characteristic of the Islamic Movement is ordained by religion and necessitated by reality. Only a well-structured network enables the Brothers to implement their goals, the first of which is preventing the integration or, even worse, the assimilation of Muslim minorities. Most of all, the conversion Europe to Islam and rule over the Continent.
Who were those individuals and what is the concealed agenda they are working on; the leaders, founders and and directors of the whole Islamist activists in Europe? For example, in conversations with journalists and diplomats Ghannouchi a Tunisian born Islamist leader, gives a moderate, democratic, pluralist image, confessed a follower of this very important player in Europes Ikhwan network. However asked by the media, he added, he talks about driving out the American invaders and their allies i.e. the Western and other regimes in power and supporting the USA. Furthermore, he affirmed his responsibility of saving the Holy Kaaba and the Tomb of the Noble Prophet from the plots of the Christians , enemies of the Arabs and Islam. The Muslim Brothers have an unparalleled ability to employ different tactics to adapt their rhetoric and modus operandi according to the circumstances.In the first years of their existence, Islamist revivalist organizations took very hard and confrontational positions on issues that involved the Muslim community. This stance was apparently dictated both by the leaders radical views and by the desire to make themselves known and gain primacy within the Islamic ommunity. In 1988, for example, the Islamic Foundation of Leicester fought vigorously to play a pre-dominant role in organizing the protests against the publication of Salman Rushdies Satanic Verses protests that swept the South Asian Muslim community in Great Britain. While its outrage was unquestionably genuine, the Foundation appeared to be most concerned about making sure that other Islamic groups did not lead the protests. The following year, having witnessed how the Rushdie affair enhanced the status of the Foundation, the French Ikhwan decided to imitate the tactics of their British comrades when an opportunity presented itself in France. As the first nationwide controversy over the use of the hijab in public schools erupted in 1989 , the then-relatively powerless UOIF became the most active defender of the right to wear the veil. Hoping to attract the sympathies of the Muslim community, the UOIF showed little interest in pursuing a constructive dialogue with the French government while it organized several protests against the ban and declared that the Muslims of France could not accept such attacks on their dignity.
 Kenneth R. Timmerman, Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America (New York: Crown Forum, 2003).
 Khalid Duran, Jihadism in Europe, The Journal of Counterterrorism and Security International, Fall 2000: 12-15.
 For the life of Said Ramadan, see: M. H. Faruqi, Les FrresMusulmanes: Politique de Rabbaniyya, les Prires avant le Pouvoir, published on the website of the Islamic Center of Geneva (http://www.cige.org/historique.htm); and Tariq Ramadan, Une Vie Entire, available at http://membres.lycos.fr/oasislam/personnages/tariq/tariq.html.
 Ian Johnson, The Beachhead: How a Mosque for Ex-Nazis Became Center of Radical Islam, The Wall Street Journal, 12 July 2005.
 History of the IGD, available at IGDs website: http://www.i-g-d.com/uber%20unss2.htm
 OFAC Actions, U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, 7 November 2001.
 Report on Ibrahim el-Zayat, Cologne police, 27 August 2003; and Ian Johnson, How Islamic Groups Ties Reveal Europes Challenge, Wall Street Journal, 29 December 2005
 Report on the Islamische Gemeinschaft Milli Grs (IGMG), Innenministerium, Nordrhein-Westfalen land website: http://www.im.nrw.de/sch/582.htm. .
 Ibrahim El Zayat, chairman of the IGD, is married to Sabiha Erbakan, the sister of Milli Grues leader, Mehmet Sabri Erbakan
 For the activities of IGD, IGMG, and Zentralrat, see Udo Ulfkotte, Der Krieg in unseren Staedten (Frankfurt: Eichborn Publishing, 2003).
 Islamismus, report by the Landesamt fur Verfassungsschutz, Hessen, available at http://www.verfassungsschutzhessen. de/downloads/islam.pdf.
 Paul Landau, Le Sabre et le Coran (Monaco: Editions du Rocher, 2005), pp. 72-3. see also Ahmed S. Moussalli, Hasan al-Turabis Islamist Discourse on Democracy and Shura, Middle Eastern Studies 30, issue 1 (January 1994).
 Jean-Yves Camus, Islam in France, paper published by the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya (ICT), 10 May 2004, available at: http://www.ict.org.il/articles/articledet.cfm?articleid=514
 Ternisien, pp. 254-5.
 Fiammetta Venner, OPA sur lIslam de France: Les Ambitions de lUOIF, Paris: Calmann-Levy, 2005. Pp. 11-14.
 Website of the European Institute of Human Sciences: http://www.iesh.fr/Html/C_present.htm.
 Decision of the French Conseil dtat, 7 June 1999, as quoted in Venner, p. 15.
 UK Islamic Mission, Introduction, 2004-2005 Annual Report.
 UK Islamic Mission, Introduction, as quoted in Gilles Kepel, Allah in theWest: Islamic Movements in America and Europe (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997), p. 131.
 Ibid., p. 132.
 UK Islamic Mission, Introduction, 2006-2007 Annual Report.
 Website of Young Muslims UK: http://www.ymuk.net/.
 Website of the Islamic Foundation: http://www.islamic-foundation.org.uk/.
 Michael Whine, The Advance of the Muslim Brotherhood in the U.K., in Current Trends in Islamist Ideology (Hudson Institute), vol. 2, September 2005: 30-38.
 Ternisien, p. 124
 Tariq Ramadan, LesMusulmans dans la Lacit (Lyon: Tawhid Editions, 1998), pp. 78-81.
 Antoine Sfeir, Les Rseaux dAllah: Les filires Islamistes en France et en Europe (Paris: Plon, 2001), p. 51.
. Kepel, pp. 126-35
 Ibid., p. 187
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