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109 Seiten, Note: 1,3
I. Table of Contents
II. Index of Abbreviations
III. Index of Figures
IV. Index of Tables
2. Theory Mobile Marketing
2.1 Introduction: Trends in Mobile Marketing
2.2 Definition and Differentiation of Mobile Marketing
2.3 Characteristics of Mobile Marketing
2.4 Mobile Marketing Instruments
2.5 Goals of Mobile Marketing Campaigns
2.6 Framework for the Application of Mobile Marketing
2.6.1 Technological Aspects
2.6.2 Legal Aspects
2.6.3 Customer Aspects
2.6.4 Economical and Organizational Aspects
2.7 Mobile Marketing Strategies
2.7.1 Pull Approach
2.7.2 Push Approach
2.8 Conclusion and Implications
3. Theory Trade Fairs
3.1 Trade Fair Basics
3.1.1 Definition of Trade Fairs
3.1.2 Trade Fair Functions
3.2 Participants of the Trade Fair Market
3.2.1 Trade Fair Organizers
3.3 Conclusion and Implications
4. The Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
4.1 Definition Marketing Mix
4.2 Policies within the Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
4.2.1 Product & Assortment Policy
4.2.2 Service Policy
4.2.3 Communication Policy
4.2.4 Distribution Policy
4.2.5 Pricing Policy
4.3 Conclusion and Implications
5. Integration of Mobile Marketing in the Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
5.1 Introduction of the Survey: Current application of Mobile Marketing in the Trade Fair Industry
5.2 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Marketing Mix
5.2.1 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Product and Assortment Policy
5.2.2 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Service Policy
5.2.3 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Communication Policy
5.2.4 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Distribution Policy
5.3 Assessment of the Applicability of Mobile Marketing within the Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
5.3.1 Survey Results: Evaluation of the Importance of the Mobile Marketing Functions for the Trade Fair Marketing
5.3.2 Evaluation of the Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Marketing Mix before, during, and after the Trade Fair
5.4 Conclusion and Outlook
6. Executive Summary
Articles and Press releases
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 1: The trade fair economy
Figure 2: Top ten exhibitor goals
Figure 3: Approach of this master thesis
Figure 4: Mobile Portal dmexco (Koelnmesse)
Figure 5: Mobile Portal/Mobile Festival Guide Gamescom (Koelnmesse)
Figure 6: Mobile Exhibitor Catalogue IMB (Koelnmesse)
Figure 7: Mobile Navigation Service: Mobile Exhibition Guide (Koelnmesse)
Figure 8: The 3rd generation (2007) of Spotme
Figure 9: Mobile tagging on a billboard
Figure 10: Receiving content via Bluetooth from smart posters
Figure 11: Survey Results: Mobile Webpage
Figure 12: Survey Results: Mobile Information Service
Figure 13: Survey Results: Mobile Advertising
Figure 14: Survey Results: Mobile Applications
Figure 15: Survey Results: Mobile Ticketing
Figure 16: Survey Results: Mobile Payment
Figure 17: Survey Results: Importance of Mobile Marketing for marketing functions - now
Figure 18: Survey Results: Importance of Mobile Marketing for marketing functions - in the near future
Table 1: Top ten visitor goals
Table 2: Economic and non-economic communication policy goals
Table 3: Potential of the mobile marketing instruments to achieve exhibitor goals
Table 4: Potential of the mobile marketing instruments to achieve visitor goals
Table 5: Academics' use of mobile advertising
Table 6: Academics' use of mobile marketing
Table 7: Overview of general exhibitor goals
Trade fair organizers face a number of ongoing changes and an intensified intra- and inter-industry competition that reshape the structure of their markets and value chains.
Until the 80s, trade fair organizers had a huge market and little competition. They were solely administering their spaces. On this seller's market trade fair organizers could pick the companies they would allow to exhibit at their fairs.1 Since then, more and more trade fair organizations have entered the market and invested heavily in new venues and hall capacities. The traditional venue owners increased their hall capacities tremendously2 and new regional venues emerged in the Near East and Asian markets.3
The driver of the inter-industrial competition is the increasing number of communication, information, and sales opportunities (such as road shows, inhouse exhibitions or virtual information channels like the internet) that constitute alternatives compared to the cost intensive trade fair participation.4
These developments have made the market a buyer's market.5 Consequently, the customer group's requirements towards trade fair efficiency are getting increasingly higher.6 Trade fair organizers need to face these developments and rethink and reshape their marketing strategies and respective marketing mix to match them to the new environment in order to stay competitive.7 They need to implement instruments with which they can improve the communication and service offer and thus satisfy the customer's requirements.
Mobile marketing is such an instrument. It is the new trend in the modern direct marketing that offers numerous possibilities for personalized customer communication and the provision of an increased service portfolio via mobile devices.8 Mobile marketing is the answer to the increasingly mobile society9 as it allows a location and time independent reach of the customer.10 The question if and to which extend mobile marketing can be applied in the marketing mix of trade fair organizers is the research objective of this thesis.
The approach to reach this goal is illustrated in figure 3 in the appendix and will be set as follows: chapter two will focus on the theoretical basics of mobile marketing in order to illustrate its potentials, capabilities and limitations. In chapter three the basics about trade fairs, its functions and participants are introduced. The analysis of the goals and needs of the exhibitors and visitors is the focus of this chapter as it serves as a starting point for the application of mobile marketing. The fourth chapter will focus on the traditional marketing mix of trade fair organizers. It will give an overview of each policy, its functions, goals and the commonly applied instruments. Within the framework of this marketing mix the potential of the mobile marketing instruments to create a value added for the customers as well as for the trade fair organizer will be analyzed in chapter five. By the means of examples and supported by the results of a survey that was conducted in the course of this thesis the chapter will present possibilities and evaluate the applicability of the mobile marketing instruments within the marketing mix of trade fair organizers. The final assessment considers the applicability for each policy and each trade fair phase (before, during, and after the event). The chapter ends with a conclusion and outlook for the future development.
The thesis is based on numerous publications, literature, internet sources and a survey about the current use of mobile marketing in the trade fair industry that was conducted in the course of the thesis. In literature and practice mobile marketing is a relatively new topic (especially in the B2B market) and there is little unanimity about definitions or its application in the marketing mix.11
Trade fairs are considered in various publications though mostly from the perspective of the exhibitors which use trade fairs as part of their communication strategy. Peters (1992) and Taeger (1993) have first analyzed the marketing mix of trade fair organizers. Among the basic literature about trade fair organizers are also the Handbuch Messemanagement (2003) and the Kolner Kompendium (2005) that include short descriptions and developments of the marketing mix of trade fair organizers.
The potentials and applications of mobile marketing in the marketing mix of trade fair organizers have not been researched comprehensively. Until now, only few articles and examples mention its application.
In this chapter the basics of mobile marketing will be described. After a short introduction of trends in mobile marketing the term is defined thoroughly and its main characteristics, capabilities as well as its limitation will be introduced. This constitutes the basis for the analysis of the applicability of mobile marketing in the marketing mix for trade fair organizers.
Only a few years ago mobile marketing was exclusively understood as advertising printed on moving objects like trucks and moving trade fairs. Nowadays, it is commonly implied as marketing via mobile channels. Its market is still in its infancy and there is a huge growth potential: worldwide there are more than 3 billion mobile subscriptions - far more than for any other medium like TV or internet. In Germany, for example, the penetration rate of mobile subscriptions is statistically more than 100%.12 Leading market research institutes calculated that mobile services are used already by more than 50% of mobile phone owners13 and by 2011 worldwide half a billion people will use the mobile internet.14
Mobility has become a characteristic of our society.15 Following this trend mobile communication has increased in its significance: the mobile phone represents spontaneity and thus the new zeitgeist: anywhere, anytime, always on-line.16
Even in developing countries mobile communication plays a role. Since the building of landlines would be too expensive the population in countries like Uzbekistan switched to mobile phones17 right away. In South Africa the number of mobile subscriptions increased since 2000 from 20 to 400 million.18 In Japan - the forerunner of the mobile world, the manifold applicability of mobile devices have found their way in the everyday life: the medium is used to pay, to play games or music, to use it as a ticket, to send and receive text or audio-visual messages, to surf in the web, to write blogs, to send emails, to twitter, to use the weather service, to get directions and recipes, and of course to make calls.19
Since Barak Obama has embraced digital and mobile media in his campaign to get massive attention by providing downloads (PDFs, ringtones, videos, wallpapers) or up-to-date information the mobile channel has been "knighted".20
This is why it is not surprising that more and more companies benefit from this new marketing channel that allows targeted, customized and direct communication with the customer. New value-adding services can be creating that support the interaction with the customer and create higher customer satisfaction and loyalty.21
In the wake of mass-media-caused 'information overload' the special features of the mobile channel that enable the implementation of one-to-one marketing make mobile marketing one of the most attractive and efficient marketing forms of the future.22 In Germany this trend has been recognized: mobile marketing campaigns have increased by 600% in 2008 compared to 2007.23
A literature analysis shows that mobile marketing is often reduced on the communicative elements and do not align it with the comprehensive definition of marketing itself:24 Various authors use the term mobile marketing as synonym to mobile advertising, wireless (digital) advertising, mobile marketing communication, wireless marketing etc. (see table 5 and table 6 in the appendix).
The other definition approach - which will be used in this thesis - defines mobile marketing in a more holistic manner and is rooted in the definition of traditional marketing including all marketing instruments.25 Thus, to define mobile marketing first the traditional marketing definition is reviewed. Marketing in the sense of the market-oriented corporate governance is one of the most relevant guidelines for modern companies and affects the entire entrepreneurial thinking and behaviour. Through the coordination of all market-oriented activities and by exploiting all of the marketing tools the individual competitiveness of an enterprise will be achieved in the long term.26
Therefore, the American Marketing Association describes marketing as...
"...the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large."27
It follows suite that the practice of mobile marketing embodies
"...the mobile enactment of activities, institutions and processes that support marketers in their pursuit to communicate, deliver, and exchange offers that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large."28
To describe the term more precisely this definition will be clarified deconstruct briefly:29
- Mobile enactmentmeans using mobile channels and therefore refers to the collection of companies and systems — wireless networks, mobile phones, application providers, marketers, and so on — that make it possible for a marketer to interact directly with an individual through a mobile device or wirelessly enabled terminal. The term mobile device is used to include devices that do not have voice capabilities, such as a Sony PlayStation Portable or Apple's iPod, etc.
- Delivering means providing products or services to customers.
- Exchanging means swapping value. Often, products and services are exchanged for money but generally anything can be swapped.
- Offerings are the products and services produced by an organization.
- Value refers to a sense of worth. A product has a value when the item's worth exceeds what it costs to obtain, consume, or use it.
2.3 Characteristics of Mobile Marketing
The question to be considered is: why should the user turn away from the convenience and routine of using the PC and turn to the small and inconvenient mobile device? This question finds its answer in the characteristics of the mobile channel. The mobile marketing instruments have very peculiar characteristics that differentiate it from any traditional media - the possibilities of connectivity:30
- Location-independence: contacting the customer on a mobile device is possible everywhere.
- Time-independence: mobile devices are seldom switched off and are almost always carried.
- Personalization: mobile devices are commonly used by only one person and can be targeted by the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card. So marketers have the possibility of personalizing the messages according to the special demands, requirements and interests of the receiver which leads to higher relevancy of the message.31 Thereby, wastages are reduced and marketing activities are more effective.
- Interactivity: the mobile device is an interactive device that allows the receiver to react instantaneously. This bidirectional communication strengthens the communication process.32
- Locatability: technologies like the Global Positioning System (GPS), Cell of Origin (COO) or others allow locating the mobile device and thus make it possible for the marketer to adapt the service or information accordingly. Commonly, this feature is used for services the customer demands (pull- services) like location-based information or services (directions, location finder, etc.).33
- Time-based: just as messages can be based on the location they can be based on the exact time of day when the message is received unlike emails.34
- Emotionalizing: mobile devices are an integral component of the everyday life. They are very personalized and are highly connected to the user. If this emotional connection can be associated with the marketed products their marketing is even more effective.35
These mobile channel features differentiate it from the stationary services. They allow highly increased targeting possibilities: the right customer can be reached at the right point of time at the right location.36 Thus they increase the relevance for the user highly and represent an additional benefit. However, mobile marketing is also limited by a number of factors like the size of the monitor and keys as well as lower data transmission rates, performance and memory.37 Nevertheless, as Odlyzko describes it, it is not the premium content but rather the connectivity that makes the competitive advantage compared to traditional media. An example for this is the success of the SMS: though limited in the amount of information it is still quick, targeted, personalized, context and even location-specific and thus delivers a great value to the receiver.38
There are many ways to reach the customer via the mobile channel. This section describes the five most common applications that can be employed in mobile marketing campaigns: SMS, MMS, mobile web, mobile applications and near field communication methods.
SMS: The short messaging service commonly referred to as SMS is a 160- character alphanumeric digital message that can be sent to and from any mobile phone.39 Apart from the pure telephony the SMS is the oldest and also most used tool for mobile communication. It can be applied in various ways: deliver information, text alerts, tickets, newsletter, trigger a response40, operate coupon programs, provide search capability or offer voting or market research services.41 Text messaging is the most effective mobile marketing method according to a US survey and with response rates of 70% it is also a lot higher than email response rates with only 30% or less.42
MMS: Very similar is the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) which can include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, and/or rich text), often in a slideshow format.
Mobile Web: The term mobile web is used primarily to refer to browsing web sites on a mobile phone. The Internet connection on a phone can also be used to power the data connection for installable applications. It allows users to log on to the mobile websites available in the web.43 Mobile websites are often created like portals that contain a compilation of different information or services optimized for the use with mobile devices.44 Thereby, marketing can be done either via the respective company's mobile website, graphic banner ads or text ads on other mobile websites.45
Mobile Applications: Mobile applications - or widgets - are small programs that can be downloaded onto the mobile device. They can either trigger a game, video or other application which can either serve as advertising, branding or providing services (entertainment, productivity, information, communication, travel guides, etc.).46
QR-Codes: QR-Codes (Quick Response Codes) are 2-D-barcodes that represent the link from the mobile phone to the "world of things". The codes can be scanned with the mobile phone integrated camera and decoded by special software. The information thus received links to websites or provides further data (business cards, tickets, coupons etc.).47 In Japan and Korea, the trendsetter in mobile marketing, they are commonly used to enhance traditional media like billboard advertisement.48
Local Transmission Technologies: Also local transmission technologies can be used as mobile marketing instruments due to their low costs and high transmission rates. They can be used for proximity marketing - advertising content that can be distributed wirelessly. Bluetooth and WLAN can be used to download information or applications on the mobile device.49 Beyond that IrDA (Infrared Data Association), NFC (Near Field Communication) and RFID (Radio-frequency Identification) can be used for mobile payment and ticketing50 as well as enhancing
billboards with additional data transfer.51 Proximity marketing is very effective since it allows cost free targeted communication with the customer.52 With about 96% Bluetooth is the most common proximity marketing tool.53
Mobile marketing can be used to offer new services to satisfy customer needs, advertise products and improve the image in order to acquire new customers and increase sales.54
The customer service can be improved by offering new value-adding mobile services. This can be in form of any informational or entertaining content provided via one of the methods described above.
The mobile channel can be used to distribute advertising, promotion campaigns and direct communication. Mobile advertising offers a timely way to promote products or services and as the mass marketing has not yet reached the mobile channel the customer attention and interest is comparatively high.55 Thus mobile marketing is a good method for customer acquisition when customers can be contacted in situations in which the company's messages generate a high attention and interest, for example during trade fairs.56
Mobile marketing can be used to cultivate and improve the positive perception of the company image, or the brand. The sheer provision of mobile elements influences the image positively, especially among a mobile affine and young target audience.57 Also mobile, interactive campaigns have the potential to cause a viral effect and thus increase the awareness.58
Cross- or up-selling goals can be integrated in mobile service campaigns.59 The sales potential can be increased as product or service offers are launched in the
right moment to the customer.60 Also by including a response element in the mobile message the receiver can immediately take transactional steps.61
Value-adding services as well as convenient and interactive communication are perceived as a quality features and improve thus the customer satisfaction.62 The application of mobile elements in the marketing mix can thus have a positive effect on customer loyalty.
In order to integrating the mobile channels in a comprehensive strategy optimally the general framework of mobile marketing must be analyzed profoundly. It consists of technological, legal, customer and economical aspects that need to be considered.63 These differing aspects carry risks and opportunities that are decisive for the success of mobile marketing.64
The technological environment describes the overall technological standard of the target audience. The mobile services and channels must be useable by the target audience without excluding any (potential) customers. This can constitute a challenge to the marketer because of the multitude of used technologies and the lack of standardization.65 Both, the transmission technology and the platforms and types of mobile phones vary significantly.66 Moreover, the ephemerality and the dynamic change of technologies over the last years have made it difficult for provider and user to implement and accept mobile marketing.67
The first and second generation of transmission technologies were slow and expensive and buffered the mobile hype of the first years. Now marketers and users have a more mature attitude towards using mobile devices and as the third generation of transmission technologies (wideband-CDMA and UMTS) comes with higher transmission rates mobile marketing can finally make its breakthrough.68
Similar to the transmitter technologies the differing mobile devices and their operating systems must be considered. The size of the display and the keys as well as the performance, memory and access points (NFC/Bluetooth/RFID-capability e.g.) influence the applicability of mobile services.69 Additionally, the compatibility of different operation systems varies. Relevant systems are still Open Symbian by Nokia, Windows Mobile, OS X for the iPhone, Blackberry and Android.70 Though, there is no significant development in technology standardising, the newly sold mobile devices are multifunctional allrounders and meet the necessary requirements in terms of memory, display size, performance and user-friendliness and thus pave the way for an increased use of mobile marketing in the future.71
Apart from being able to use the application from the mere technical perspective it is also important that the customer knows how to use the application72. A solution to this would be offering a certain service via different channels in order to include all the (potential) customers.
Apart from the technological requirements the legal aspects must also be analyzed in order to successfully implement a mobile marketing strategy. Data protection laws related to sending messages to mobile devices or saving customer-specific data have to be considered when starting a mobile marketing campaign. Spam, the unsolicited, unwanted communication sent to mobile phones is regulated in many countries. In the EU, spam is regulated by the EC regulation 2002/58/EG73, in the USA it is the U.S. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003.74 Typically the regulations include clear directives about the opt-in and opt-out options.75 Close observation of the legal environment is necessary as it is constantly adapting to the new challenges posed by the mobile marketing environment.76 For example, the German consumer protection association (VZBV) is currently opening a procedure against social networks and their data protection guidelines.77
The description of the customer aspects includes the change of customer behaviour, the acceptance of mobile marketing and aspects concerning the international mobile marketing.
Within the uncounted possibilities of the technological innovations and protected by the legal framework the customer behaviour changes dynamically, creating new challenges for today's marketer. High-end technology from yesterday will be adopted in the mass market of today. The societal change towards more and more digitalized and virtually presented information is affecting and influencing the way we communicate. Effectiveness, simplicity and convenience are the driver of this change and make high demands and expectations on communication and information delivery companies.
As consumers are increasingly mobile also the communication needs adapt to this mobilization.78 Information, entertainment, navigation and other services are not required at one location, but consumed independent of the environment,79 life situation and time. At the same time mobile services are required to be individualized relating to the exact time, location and preferences of the consumer.
Beside these increasing requirements towards the technology (high-tech) customers demand the integrated use of these technologies satisfying the customer's needs and without the alienation of the emotional and human side of the services (high-touch).80
Personal information tends to be given out less cautiously if it allows the customer to access value-added services. This trend is shown in the behaviour towards the upcoming social communities like Twitter with its "buddy-finder"-application and Facebook, StudiVZ or MySpace where extensive private information is published.81 This development influences the acceptance rate and readiness to use mobile services.
Also, nowadays often the choice of using a product or service in different forms - physical, online or mobile is perceived as quality- or unique selling feature which increases the customer loyalty.82
Beside the change of the general consumer behaviour towards a more mobile communication, the characteristics and attitudes of the specific target audience need to be analyzed. If mobile marketing is not accepted and integrated in the customer's communication it cannot be effective. Thus, the acceptance constitutes a decisive factor in the adoption and success of mobile products and services.83 Kollmann describes acceptance as a dynamic process that consists of the relation of positive expectations and the adoption where the expectations are met.84 Bauer et al identified a number of factors that influence the acceptance of mobile marketing. The personal attitude towards mobile marketing is the strongest factor. Also personal characteristics like readiness for innovations and the level of knowledge about mobile services influence the acceptance of mobile marketing in a positive correlation. Thus especially (mobile) technology affine customers will accept and appreciate mobile marketing. Though, the mobile channel will only be used if the services are perceived valuable. The perception of risk of irritation and personal data abuse decreases the acceptance of mobile marketing.85 Consumers are very restrictive with private data, especially if they do not see a benefit from sharing these data.86 That means that the company applying mobile marketing should explain the benefits of the services in detail.87 The customer must also have control over using and quitting the service.
Last but not least, acceptance is increased by the usability of the mobile device and its services. The higher the convenience, portability88, simplicity and usability of mobile devices itself is the higher the acceptance of mobile marketing.89 Studies have shown that iPhone users were 66% more likely to respond to mobile ads than other mobile consumers.90 This is partly explained by their general affinity and the phone's user friendliness.
Considering international aspects of mobile marketing is important if a substantial part of the target group is international.91 In developing countries the mobile phone can be the only wide-spread communication medium.92 This will imply a high importance for mobile marketing in these regions in the future. Among the developed countries European, North American, and some Asian market can be distinguished. While the Asian markets are very developed in the marketing exploitation of mobile technology, Europe and the USA are lagging behind some. As a result, the behaviour towards mobile services and technology used differs significantly.93 This results in differences of acceptance and usages.
An essential factor to implementing mobile marketing in the marketing mix is cost- value relation. Value can be realized by creating higher customer satisfaction and loyalty when offering a vast service portfolio to the customer that improves the overall quality.94 When a mobile marketing campaign is first realized the company can benefit from the first mover advantage and thus position their image as a sustainable, high end and customer oriented service company.95 As a side effect, providing mobile services that deliver very well-targeted information will decrease the need for queries. Therefore, the sales or information personnel can be rationalized or used at other points of the customer interaction process.96 Also print media can be rationalized while more and more digital information is distributed. In terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness companies can even promote this as 'green' communication.
The requisite to apply mobile marketing effectively is that customer data (phone number, personal data like interests, etc.) needs to be collected, saved and the permission of re-use needs given. This requires a continuing process as the database also needs to be updated frequently.97
In order to economically benefit from the mobile marketing an important factor is the integration of this new marketing channel in the organizational processes.98 In order to offer mobile services an extensive investment in the IT-infrastructure is necessary. An alternative is a partnership with mobile solutions providers that offers the complete mobile service which makes the costs more transparent and decreases the operative and technical risk implementing the service.99 When offering this service it is necessary to create awareness and acceptance internally (employees) and externally (customers).100 Integrating the mobile channel increases the complexity for the organization and the customer.101 The modularization of the service portfolio - offering a basic service and additional modules on top - is a good way to keep the integration of this new channel simple and reduce the complexity.102 Basic modules and specific additional modules can be chosen by the customer groups according to their needs.103
1 Cf. Kalka (2005a) Elemente der Marketingpolitik auf Geschafts- und Projektebene, p. 326
2 Cf. Witt (2003) Bedeutung von Non-Space-Produkten im Messewesen p. 505
3 Cf. Deloitte Consulting GmbH (2008) Alles neu - wie innovativ sind deutsche Messegesellschaften, p. 3; Cf. Delfmann/Arzt (2005) Moglichkeiten zur Generierung von Wettbewerbsvorteilen bei Messegesellschaften p. 124
4 Cf. Kalka (2005a) p. 326; Cf. Delfmann/Arzt (2005) p. 109
5 Cf. Stoeck (2003) Instrumente der Ausstellerakquisition, p. 763; Cf. Witt (2005) Wettbewerbssituation in Deutschland und Weltweit, p. 14-16
6 Cf. Murmann (1999) Mehrstufiger Dienstleistungsinteraktionen: Besonderheiten bei Dienstleistungsunternehmen mitdirektem und indirektem Kundenkontakt, p. 17-20; Cf. Bruhn (2003) Qualitatsmanagement fur Dienstleistungen, p. 2 et seq.
7 Cf. Grimm (2004) Moglichkeiten und Grenzen des Beziehungsmarketing im Messewesen, p. 27-32
8 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) Trends und Strategien im Mobile Marketing, p. 27 et seq
9 Cf. Focus Medialine (2005) Der Markt der Mobilitat — Auto, Verkehr und Umwelt, p. 2-3
10 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 21; Cf. Dufft, (2003) Basisreport Mobile Marketing, p. 12
11 The main literature for mobile marketing includes: Bauer, H. H./Dirks, T./Bryant, M. D. (eds.) (2008) Erfolgsfaktoren des Mobile Marketing. Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg; Dushinski, K. (2009) The Mobile Marketing Handbook: A Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Dynamic Mobile Marketing Campaigns; Steimel, et al (2008) Praxisleitfaden Mobile Marketing; Various Studies from the University of Oulu. Cf. http://www.taloustieteet.oulu.fi/henkilokunnan sivut/markkinointi/tahtinen/julkaisut.html (01.09.2009)
12 This data is only statistically because many users have two or more subscriptions whereas for other population groups the penetration rate is smaller. Cf. BMWi (2007) Benchmark Internationale Telekommunikationsmarkte, p. 12; The „Bundesnetzagentur" even calculated a penetration of more than 130%: C.f. Bundesnetzagentur (2009) Annual Report 2008, n. pag.
13 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 18; Cf. Taylor (2007) Global Mobile Advertising Update: Outlook Bright as Inventory Expands, n. pag.
14 Informa even estimates over 5 billion subscribers by 2012: Cf. Knight, BizReport (26.01.2009) Informa: 5 billion mobile consumers by 2012, n. pag.; Cf. also du Pre Gauntt, (2007) The Global Opportunity for Mobile Search, n. pag.;
15 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b) Wann werden Mobile Marketing Kampagnen Akzeptiert?, p. 130
160 Cf. Ivancsits (2006) Mobile Couponing and Ticketing. Instrument des Customer Relationship Management im Mobile Marketing, p. 53
17 N.N., Exhibition World (05.2009) The Mobile Generation, p. 19
18 Stacker, tagesschau.de (21.09.2009) D er beispiellose Aufstieg des Mobilfunks in Afrika, n. pag.
19 Cf. Oehler, Kolner-Stadt-Anzeiger (25.06.09) Das Jahr der Mobilportale, p. 26; Cf. Yunos et al. (2003) Wireless Advertising's Challenges and Opportunities, p.30-37; Cf. Wohlfahrt (2002) Wireless Advertising, p. 246
20 Cf. Homepage Barack Obama: http://www.barackobama.com/mobile/ (25.06.2009); Cf. Becker, Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) (2008) Review: Mobile Marketing: Convergence of Media & Mobile, n. pag.
21 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 18
22 Cf. Lippert (2001) Mobile Marketing, p. 79
23 Cf. BVDW (15.07.2009) Mobile Kampagnen steigen 2008 um uber 600 Prozent, n. pag.
24 Cf. Becker (2008) Review: Mobile Marketing: Convergence of Media & Mobile; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2004) Bestimmungsfaktoren der Konsumentenakzeptanz von Mobile Marketing in Deutschland, p. 4; Wirtz/Ulrich (2008) Mobile Marketing im Multi-Channel-Marketing- Erfolgsfaktoren der Integration und Koordination, p. 168; Cf. Tahtinen (2005) Mobile Advertising or Mobile Marketing. A Need for a New Concept?, p. 3-8; Cf. also Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b), p. 131
25 Compare a similar approach by Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 27; Cf. also Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b) p. 131
26 Meffert et al. (2008) Marketing: Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensfuhrung, p. 7 et seq.
27 AMA (14.01.2008) The American Marketing Association Releases New Definition for Marketing, n. pag.
28 Cf. Becker (2008) Review: Mobile Marketing: Convergence of Media & Mobile, n. pag.; Cf. also Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 169; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b), p. 131; Cf. Arnold et al (2009) Web Marketing All-in- One Desk Reference For Dummies, p. 735 et seq.
29 Cf. also in the following Arnold et al (2009) p. 734-735
30 Cf. Odlyzko (2001) Content is not king; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2004) p. 5; Cf. Bauer/Lippert/ Reichhardt/Neumann (2005) Effective Mobile Marketing - Eine empirische Untersuchung, p. 2 et seq.
31 Cf. Groppel-Klein/Broeckelmann (2008) Einflusse des Mobile Commerce auf das Entscheidungsverhalten, p. 37
32 Cf. Knight, BizReport (06.01.2009) Report: Make mobile more interactive and location specific
33 Cf. Bauer/ Neumann/Reichardt (2008a) Erfolgreiches Marketing im Mobilfunknetz, p. 111-112; Cf. also Groppel -Klein/Broeckelmann (2008) p. 37
34 Cf. Dufft, (2003) p. 12
35 Cf. Hippel (2005) Mobile Branding, p. 113 et seq.
36 Cf. Steimel (2008) Praxisleitfaden Mobile Marketing, p. 118
37 As will be explained more profoundly in chapter 2.6.1
38 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 23
39 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 742
40 The response element (or "call-to-action-element") is a reply function that can lead either to a homepage, or gives the opportunity to call a service number, to respond via SMS for requiring more information, or to receive different entertaining content the SMS. Cf. MMA (2009) Mobile Advertising Overview p. 7 -11
41 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 742; Cf. Dufft (2003) p. 25-26
42 Cf. Leggat, BizReport (23.07.2008) DMA: Text message campaigns most successful, n. pag.; Cf. Takkula/Tahtinen (2006) The role of mobile adcommunication in business to business marketing. p. 2
43 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 746
44 Cf. Stockhausen (2009) Mobiles Internet: Entwicklung, Einsatz, Chancen, p. 31; Cf. Beaumont, Telegraph.co.uk (02.04.2009) Yahoo! launches mobile web portal
45 Cf. Dushinski (2009) The Mobile Marketing Handbook, p. 38
46 Cf. MMA (2009) p. 11-13; Cf. Dushinski (2009) p. 188
47 Cf. Steimel et al. p. 30
48 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 21
49 Cf. Silberer/Schulz (2008) mCRM - Moglichkeiten und Grenzen eines modernen Kundenbeziehungsmanagements, p. 153
50 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) Near Field Communication im Mobile Marketing, p. 313-314; Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 750
51 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 312; Cf. N.N., NFC-Forum (2007) The Keys to Truly Interoperable Communications, p. 2-3
52 Cf. Dushinski (2009) p. 41
53 Cf. Haase/Martin (2009) Die Perspektiven des Bluetooth Marketing im Vergleich zu W-LAN und Over-the- AirMobile, p. 43
54 Cf. Steimel et al (2008) p. 33, 67 and 76; Cf. also Dushinski (2009) p. 29 et seq.
55 Compared to other mass marketing media such as TV commercials, outdoor advertising, internet, or print advertisements.
56 Cf. Takkula/Tahtinen (2006) p. 2
57 Cf. Steimel et al. (2008) p. 34
58 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008a) p. 112
59 Cf. Steimel et al (2008) p. 33
60 For example as during lunch time trade fair organizers send mobile coupons that are redeemable for a rebate at the fairground restaurant.
61 For example when the trade fair organizer invites the customer to an upcoming event and includes the number of the booking service as a response element.
62 Cf. Steimel et al. (2008) p. 33
63 Cf. Laatikainen-Krimmel (2008) Interactive Mobile Marketing - Mobile Operator Shaping the Strategic Network of Mobile Advertising, p.427
64 Cf. also Dufft (2003) p. 12
65 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 19-20
66 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 750
67 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008a) Erfolgreiches Marketing im Mobilefunknetz, p. 114
68 Cf. N.N., Pressebox (15.02.2006) Funf Lander haben bei UMTS den Durchbruch geschafft, n. pag.
69 Cf. Silberer/Schulz (2008) p. 154
70 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p.25
71 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher 309; Cf. Steimel (2008) p. 110
72 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 751
73 Cf. EURLEX (31.07.2002) Richtlinie 2002/58/EG, Amtsblatt Nr. L 201 p. 0037-0047, n. pag.
74 Cf. Federal Trade Commission (2003) Can-Spam Act, n. pag.
75 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 754
76 Cf. Knight, BizReport (07.04.2009) Can-SPAM, now Can-m-SPAM, n. pag.
77 Cf. VZBV (14.07.2009) Soziale Netzwerke mit mangelndem Fair-Play, n. pag.
78 Cf. Focus Medialine (2005) p. 2-3
79 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p.21
80 Cf. Forster/Kreuz (2006) Marketing-Trends: Innovative Konzepte fur Ihren Markterfolg, p. 72-77
81 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p.22
82 Cf. Forster/Kreuz (2006) p. 166-167; Cf. Dufft (2003) p. 31
83 Cf. Silberer/Wohlfahrt (2001) p. 164; Cf. Kollmann (1998) Akzeptanz innovativer Nutzungsguter und - Systeme, p.92; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2005) Driving consumer acceptance of mobile marketing, p. 182
84 Cf. Kollmann (2000) p. 35 et seq.
85 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b) p. 144-146
86 Cf. Rudolph/Emrich (2008) Kundeninteraktion uber mobile Services im Handel, p. 275
87 Example: The organizers of the SERI that offered the mobile marketing solution developed by Evenium explained in detail the mobile services. Cf. Homepage SERI: http://seri.info/pro/fiche/quest.isp;isessionid= 3C13CCEEDA6A26D58E44D009811E7EA6.kl1?locale=1&survevName=Default&pe2=inscription&pe=visiteurs (30.08.2009)
88 Portability includes the provider-independent and cross-platform usability and simplicity of the functions as described by Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher p. 314
89 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 29
90 Cf. Knight, BizReport (05.02.2009) Study: iPhone users more likely to respond to mobile ads, n. pag.
91 For example, international Trade Fairs have a large share of international customers. Cf. AUMA (2009) Die Messewirtschaft - Bilanz 2008, p. 20
92 Cf. N.N., Exhibition World (05.2008) The mobile generation , p. 19-20
93 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p.21
94 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p.29
95 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 24-25
96 Cf. Rudolph/Emrich p. 272; Cf. Stoeck(2005) Acquiring exhibitors-tools fort he trade show organizer, p. 673
97 Cf. Stockhausen (2009) p. 38
98 Cf. Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 166-167
99 Cf. Schafer/Toma (2008) p. 30
100 Cf. Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 171-173
101 Cf. Mohlenbruch/Schmieder (2002) Chancen des Mobile Marketing im Rahmen von Multichannel- Strategien, p. 29
102 Cf. Schogel (1997) Mehrkanalsysteme in der Distribution, p. 204
103 Cf. Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 175
Diplomarbeit, 169 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 107 Seiten
Diplomarbeit, 169 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 107 Seiten
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