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74 Seiten, Note: 1.0
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Purpose of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Meaning of Human Relationship
The Worker as a Organisational Resource
Concept of Human Relations
Meaning of Theory
Objectives of Human Relations
Philosophy of Human Relations
Steps in Human Relations
Human relations Effectiveness
Behavioural System Approach
Theory of Attitude Change
Summary of the Chapter
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Population of the Study
Validity and Reliability
Method of Data Analysis
Summary of the Chapter
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT
SECTION A: Background Information of Respondents
SECTIONS B: Research Hypotheses
Summary of the Chapter
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, RECOMMANDATION AND CONLCUSION
Summary of finding
Discussion of findings
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Personal Data of Respondents
Classification of the Respondents School of Respondents
Table 2: Gender of respondents
Tables 3: Years of experience of respondent
Table 4: Mutual respect and school climate
Table 5: Conflict and Staff rapport
Table 6: Corporate identity and Good human relation
Table 7: Staff rapport and Working morale
Table 8: Human relations and Effective communication
The basic of work-life starts with the Individual, then the group and further the organization as a formal entity. The reality is that, the individual is a major analytic point in understanding group behaviour in the organization. In view of this, Carew (1998) pointed out that as a person who works with groups, the important question for us is, "How can understanding of the dynamic of groups help us do a better job? It seems vital that a group leader whether a headmaster or class teacher needs to understand the people under his/her control. Thus, an understanding a particular group seems to divide itself into at least three parts:
Knowledge about the kind forces or condition which need to be dealt in a group situation(that is interpersonal relations, communication, motivation of members, processes of group development).
Principles describing how each of these affect the situation and one another; and Skill in observing and recognizing these various forces and their quality as they occur in a particular group at a particular time.
However, the importance of human beings engaged by an enterprise for the realization of its goals and the realization of the importance is the easier aspect of the problems. The more difficult part being the actual creation and continuous maintenance of the willingness and happiness. Knowledge of the behaviour of a man, as an Individual and as a member of various groups for Instance, human elements in primary or any level of education e.g. headmaster, teaching and non teaching staff as well as the students or pupils) is scanty, disorganized and is in the early process of evolution.
Effectiveness of an administration aims at the achievement of organisation goals. As such school administration could therefore be said to be the extent to which the goals of the school system are accomplished by the headteachers, teachers, pupil s and others within the school community. Thus, the framework within which the people and environment interact should be considered. According to Mayo Elton (1945) pointed out some degree of human relations after carrying out an experiment in U.S.A titled Hawthorne Experiment which included informal group, communication and effective collaboration of employees through cooperation and understanding. Both the male and female in an organisation never act in isolation but as members of a groupwhich is influenced by their feelings towards each other. It is these interactions and reactions which result into such feelings of friendship, reserve, collaboration, discontent and even hostility.
Moreover, needs and motives of each individualvaries with time, so his attitude towards the group. The task Involved by the manager or headmaster in studying other individuals in an organization or school system entails the:
(a) Recognition of the needs and motives of other Individuals in organisation or school system.
(b) Taking ofsteps to satisfy them. This could literallybe stupendously complex and not static.
The basic objective of human relations in primary regarding the conditions under which employees or staffs will render their service. Thus, the objective of human relations is to ensure positive relationship among staff within an organisation and between the organisation and the working environment. Onifade (2004) wrote in his title 'Management: Office Business Education" that it is a truism that conflict is inevitable occasionally between humans but, it should be minimized. Unresolved conflict among workers in an organisation will certainly affect their relations adversely and theultimate effect on the primary level of educational system, just like other levels, human elements (authorities, staff and students) play an important role towards the attainment of primary school objectives in line with section 12, Paragraph 104 under National Policy on Education (2004) provided that "school systems and consequently their management and day-to-day administration shall grow out the life and social ethos of the community which they serve." This statement depicts that cordial relationship is required among all the human elements in school and their working environment for effective administration and attainment of school objectives.
Moreso, over the past decades both practitioner and scholars have spent considerable effort in defining organizations of which school system is not an exemption and in analyzing their nature and structure, warrant internal differentiation and patterning of relationship between the various individual positions and roles in an enterprise, from this fact, the organ gram of primary school is drawn below.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Source: State Ministry of Education Led
However, human elements in school system cannot be over looked that is why studies conducted by Bankole (2003) confirmed that, out of the various factors (men, money, materials, machines and method), required in business organization, men are the most important and the most unpredictable because the fate of other factors depend on the caliber of men available to manage them. Thus, the main goal of any organization for example the school system is to have an efficient control of staff structure at minimumpersonnel cost leads to HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT.
The human relation movement emphasized the fact that job design had to consider the psychological and social aspects of work. Thus, human relation movement which is also referred to as TRANSITIONAL ERA OF NEOCLASSICAL MOVEMENT CONSTITUTES the second major antecedent strain of management thought. The classical school or thought ignored or under estimated the human factor in administration. The response to the perceived defects of the classical theory gave rise to the emergency of human relation movement which started in the 1930s and continued into the 1950s. These led to the various human relations theories which entails, the theory on motivation, communication, social interaction, objective of an organization and ideology.
Moreover, the relationship between an individual and organization begins with a process that requires two choices to be made. The individual must choose to join the organization and the organization must choose to admit the individual. Therefore, in the primary school setting there is need to understand the relationship among all the human elements (Headmaster, staff and students) and the school structure so as to accomplish the school goals and objectives alongside attainment of educational objectives and goals. This led to the concept of HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY TO WORKS INPRIMARY SCHOOL.
According to Williams (1981), human relations can be defined as the relationship between people. The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001) defines "theory as an idea that is intended to explain something about life or the general principles of a subject". Also, the World Book Encyclopedia (1982) pointed out that "Experts in human relations seek to discover the best means of achieving desired goals with a minimum of needless conflict. Human dignity and respect for the individual are considered basic (Onifade 2004).
Basically, the study and understanding of human relations theory is pertinent in order to understand the human elements in primary schools. Human beings are different biologically and socially because of these individual differences. Human needs are also different, so to satisfy these, there should be consideration for interaction among the human elements in primary schools so as to achieve the stated educational objectives concerning primary level of education. Therefore attention is required in this area.
This study aims at the following:
1) Promote mutual respect and good primary schools climate
2) Prevent conflicts among staff in the primary schools
3) Project a corporate identity and promote good staff (teaching and non teaching), students and head teacher relations in primary schools.
4) Relate staff rapport with their working morale to ensure accomplishment of primary school goals and objectives
5) Determine need for effective human relations and effective communication in primary schools
Due to rampant disunity and lack of co-operation among human elements in primary schools, the attainment of the school goals has become very difficult. Again, deficiencies in school administration also bring set-back in upward progress of the schools. The proponents of the human relations theory generally insist that mutual interaction will change the situation, bring harmony and lead to result. This then aims at assessing the extent to which the principle of human relations influence work environment in order to bring about the desired result.
1. Does mutual respect among human elements in primary school determine the condition of the school environment?
2. How can conflicts among staff in primary schools be prevented?
3. Does corporate identity promote good human relations in primary school?
4. Is there a relationship between staff rapport, their working environment and accomplishment of primary goals and objective?
5. Can there be need for effective human relations and effective communication in primary schools?
The following null hypotheses were proposed for the study in order to answer the stated research questions.
1. There is no significant relationship between mutual respect and schools climate.
2. There is no significant relationship between conflicts and human rapport in primary schools.
3. There is no significant relationship between a corporate identity and good human relations in the schools.
4. There is no significant relationship between staff rapport andtheir working morale.
5. There is no significant relationship between effective human relations and effective communication in primary schools.
The outcomes of this study will be useful to establish a cordial relationship among human elements in primary school. Moreso, the outcome would enable authorities (headmaster, staff primary education board “SPEB”, assistant headmaster) in charge of primary school to understand individual staff and unionism existence among them.
Considering the number of primary schools in Lagos, the researcher is limited in scope because of time constraints and inadequate capital. Also the study has to be carried out alongside with other academic works.
The study is limited to some selected primary schools in Mushin Local Government Area.
Human Elements: Here it means all the human beings existing in primary schools which comprises head teacher, assistant head teacher, teachers, non teaching staff and the pupils.
Behaviour: Simply means attitude exhibited by individuals or character.
Human Relations: Means relationship that exist between staff in Mushin Local Government in order to achieve a specific goals.
New classical movement: Human relation movement in 1930s.
This chapter presents a review of the contributions of different scholars on the concept of human relations theory and it application to works in primary schools. Thus, for better understanding this research topic “Application of Human Relations Theory to Works in Primary Schools”.It is further subdivides into the following topics below:
- Meaning of human relationship
- The worker as a resource
- Concept of human relations
- Meaning of theory
- Objectives of human relations
- Philosophy of human relations
- Steps in human relation
- Human relations effectiveness
- Human relations theory
- Objectives and structure of Primary Schools
- Application of human relations theory for work in primaryschools.
- Summary of the chapter.
Human relationship takes different forms, relationship can be formal or informal, short or long, close or distant, cordial or unfriendly. Every person has a type of relationship with one or more persons. The form of relationship you relate to. The relationship between a superior and his subordinate is different from that of his peers. Thus, the relationship between two persons who are known' to each other will be different from the relationship one has with an unknown person. However, due to the facts stated above bring us to the research topic' in question. "Application of human relation theory to works in primary schools" In any organization human beings are considered the wheel of an organization because of the vital roles they performed to ensure the realization of organisation goals and objective. The human element are known as workers while in the school system (in primary school for instance, they are working staff and pupils).Nevertheless, whatever name attach to human beings in all organization they are regard as part of organization resources.
In considering workers as a resources, comparable to all other resources but for the fact that is human, we have to find out how best to utilize him" in the same way in which we look at copper or at water-power as specific resources. This is all engineering approach. It considers what the human being is best and least capable of. Its result will be the organisation of work so as to fit best the qualities and the limitations of this specific resource, the human being at work. And the human being has one set of qualities possessed by DO other resource: It has the ability to co- ordinate, to integrate, to judge and to imagine. In fact, this is its only specific superiority. In every other respect whether it be physical strength, manual skill or sensory perception-machines can do a much better job.
But we must also consider man at work as human being. We must, in other words also put the emphasis on "human". This approach focuses on man as a moral and a social creature, and asks how work should be organized to fit his qualities as a person. As a resource, man can be "utilized". A person, however, can only utilize himself. This is the greatest and ultimate distinction.
The qualities of the person are specific and unique. The human being, unlike any other resource, has absolute control over whether he works at all. Dictatorship tends to forget this; but shooting people do not get the work done. The human resource must therefore always be motivated to work.
Nothing brought this out better than report of the "teams of European Technicians and managers" who went to Britain under the Marshall plan to study the causes of American productivity. The outcome of these teams expected to find the causes in machines, tools or techniques, tout soon found out that these elements have- little to do with our productivity, ate indeed in themselves as a result of the real cause (The Basic Attitude of Manager and worker) productivity is an attitude was their unanimous conclusion.
However, this is particularly important in primary school today. For fear, the traditional motivation of the primary school workers, has largely disappeared in the modem West. To eliminate it has been the main result of the increased wealth produced by industrialization. In a society rich enoughto provide subsistence even to the unemployed, fear has lost its motivating power. And to deprive management of the weapon of fear has also been the main aim of unionism; indeed, the worker's rebel against this weapon and its use is among the man driving forces behind the Nigeria Union of Teacher (NUT) declare 3 days warning strike from 11 -13 June, 2008.
That fear has gone as the major motivation is all to the good. It is far too potent to be relied upon except for emergencies. Above all, we used the wrong kind of fear. Fear of a threat to the community units, there is no greater stimulus to effort peril, as Britain proved after Dunkirk. But fear of someone within the community divides and corrodes. It corrupts both him who uses fear and him who fears. That we nave got rid of fear as motivation to work is therefore a major achievement-Otherwise, managing the worker in primary school would not be possible.
In actual sense, human being also has control over how well he works and how much he works, over the quality and quantity of production. He participates in .the process actively. Unlike all other resources which participate onlypassively by giving a preconditioned response to a predetermined impulse.
But, contrary to what some human-relations experts assert, to remove fear by itself motive. All it creates is a vacuum. We cannot sit back and expect worker motivation to arise spontaneously, now that fear is gone. We must create a positive motivation to take it place. This is one of the central, one of the most difficult, one of the most urgent task facing management. These led to concept of human relations which will be discussed now.
In discussing the concept of human relations which is so vast and encompassing that is touches every aspect of our lives. It is true that whatever we are doing involves human relations and interactions in one form. Human relations are that encompassing body of knowledge through which workers and management get things done through each other. The purpose of human relations concept is not to enable you to discover clever techniques for winning and influencing people through personality development, nor to enable you to manipulate people as though they were puppets, but to assist you inworking more effectively with other people in organization these was pointed out by a Sociologist.
Obisi (2004) quoted Keith (1977) explained human relations in his study and application of knowledge about human in organizations as it relate to other systems. Here the key element are people, structure, technology and the external social system, I seek to improve people organisation relationships in such a way that people are motivated to develop team work that effectively fulfill their needs and achieve organizational objectives. In human relations, the approach is integration and improvement.
Also Obisi sited Kossen, (1978) observes that human' relations are concerned with the "why" of the people and their- groups. It also learns that "what can be done to anticipate, prevent or resolve conflict among organizational members". The field of human relations is action-oriented, emphasizing the analysis, prevention' and resolution of behavioural problems within organizations. Hence, human relations concern itself to the core aspect of dealing with people. The human side of organization was neglected until the late 1920s. The interpersonal relations of people in any organization and theaspects of integrating, motivating and activating them to accomplish individual and organizational goals is the chief concern of human relations.
In particular industrial relations has over time, acquired a particular set of meanings both in the sphere of work and among academics researching and teaching the subject (Dunn, 1993) was quoted by Blyton and Turnbull (1008). Using the term 'employee relations' is a way of circumventing there prior (Mis) conceptions about the subject, as well as a device to broaden that set of meanings in the light significant developments that have occurred since the academic field of industrial relations were first mapped out in view of this, the concept of human relations itself appeared to equate with the institutions of collective bargaining between trade unions and employers. As such employee relations and employer relations is vital, this prompt the idea of human relations in an organization. Human beings are different biologically and socially. Because of these' individual differences, human needs are also different and therefore in order to satisfy these needs there should be different considerations.
Onifade (2004) quoted the World Book Encyclopedia (1982) stated that "human relations also assumes that a person joins a group to get something from it, and that the group in turn expects each member to make some type of contributions". The encyclopedia’ identifies two types of human needs, to wit; in born needs like food and acquired need like money.
Hack and Halloran in Onifade (2004) defines human relations as all the interactions that can occur among people, whether they are conflicts, or co-operative behaviours. The study of human relations in business and industry is 'the study of how people can work effectively in groups in order to satisfy both organizational goal and personal needs, while Eggland and Williams (1981) in Onifade (2004) defined human relations as "the relationships between people." What this relationship depicts is that human dignity and respect for the individual are considered basic in an organisation of which school system (primary) is not an exemption. Having considered the numerous definitions of human relations, there is to look at the meaning of theory.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2004) defined the word theory as a "set of ideas formulated to explain something, or opinion". It is also seen as "statement of the principle of a subject. While scientific theories are ideas that are proposed to explain relationship between phenomena in nature, but are still open to further testing (Busari, 2006). The word theory is said to be a specific relationships between the concepts, or variables of the phenomenon, explains and possibly predicts the phenomenon, explains and possibly predicts the phenomenon. But according to Kuye, (2001) defined theory as "simply a conceptual framework for organizing knowledge and providing blueprint for action. Theory can also be defined as a set of related principles, developed and tested over time. A theory is, also a statement of invariant relationship among measurable phenomenon with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomenon.
In addition Fajana (2006) said "a theory is based on the use of abstract deductive reasoning that enables conclusions to be drawn from a set of initial hypothesis or assumptions about any real world problem. This contrasts with applied studiesthat are inductive in nature. Hence, management theory is a systematic grouping of interrelated principles -which attempts to present in a concert manner loose facts about human behaviour in organizations behaviour in -ways that help one understand, predict and control action.
i. To aid understanding of an events and problems in thepractical world (of labour)
ii. Aid to prediction.According to Walker (1976) whosequotation was sited by Fajana (2006) that "clearly, themore industrial relation theory enables such forecastingthe more useful it -will be practitioners, helping them getready for what may be in store".
iii. It aid research work.
iv. It assists practitioners in policy formulation anddecision-making. This role probably derives from theprediction role.
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