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Wissenschaftliche Studie, 2010
43 Seiten, Note: 1.0
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
The Concept of School Decision-Making
Types of Decisions
Participation in School Decision-Making and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
Teachers’Participation in School Decision-Making and JobProductivity
Principals’ Leadership Styles and Teachers' Participation in School
Sample and Sampling Technique
Administration of Instrument
Validity and Reliability of Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
Testing of Hypotheses
Summary of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study was designed to assess the participation of teachers in school decision-making and its influence on their decision-making and its influence on their job satisfaction and productivity.
The sample of the study comprised of 96 teachers and principals of six senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State. A designed research instrument was used to generate relevant data for the study- The data were tested using percentage and Chi-square statistical tools. Three null hypotheses were tested in the study which revealed that teachers’ participation in school decision making has significant relationship on their job productivity; principals’ leadership styles have significant relationship on teachers' involvement in school decision-making, management effectiveness has significant influence on job productivity in schools. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made to the principals to encourage teachers to participate in important school discussions that will motivate them to develop a sense of belongingness to the organizations and enhance their job productivity.
There is no deriving the fact that the future of any nation, even the most advanced nations of the world depend quite considerably on the quality of education it provides for its citizens. And the quality of education itself depends upon inspired, satisfied and truly dedicated teachers, among others. Regrettably, in spite of attempts by various governments in Nigeria both at the state and federal levels to improve the quality of teachers in terms of their professional reparation and consequent output, the past three decades have witnessed unprecedented growing public criticism of teachers and their job behaviours. Such criticisms revolve around the theme of ''falling standard11 in the quality of education which teachers provide for the public (Little, 1997).
In the past, most teachers in discussing their job satisfaction have emphasised the importance of their professional role and the intrinsic worth of the service which they have provided the society. In the professional model, the extent to which individual needs are satisfied at work is closely linked to basic features of the model: the exercise of expertise, the demonstration of teachers’ commitment, theability to obtain responsibility, the presence of teacher autonomy, and the feeling of working in a collegial environment.
The implementation of the curriculum is obviously the most important function of the school. The implementation of the school curriculum is viewed as a critical conversion stage that analyses the best of human energies to enhance the production of positive school management behaviours. The conversion required human inputs in the form of interaction of various school personnel, particularly between the teachers and the school management effectiveness. The need to improve school management effectiveness is often the basis of these types of interaction, thus, involving teachers in the process of school decision making is an attribute of such relationship.
According to Eferakeya and Ofo(1995), the school as an organization could be seen as one of those few organizations where everyone considers himself a shareholder. It's a fact that the school personnel deals with the mala clients which are the pupils, the secondary clients which are the parents, and the society at large. Therefore, individuals who constitute the work group in a school have interdependent working relationship based on the organizational position and assignments. The type of relationship evolves when the duo (staff and management) jointly take decision on the smooth running of the organizationschool inclusive. A major concern of modern organization particularly indeveloping economies struggling for survival, is how to enhance their productivity and such needed productivity can be achieved through proper utilization of the human assets within the organizational setting. In other words, efficiency and effectiveness of organization will be promoted through a proper understanding of the nature of employees as human being, their values and beliefs, an understandingof why they behave the way they do and the types of meaning they attach to their expectations from the management (Ejiogu, Achuba and Asika, 1 995).
The need for improved school administration can not be more desirable than at this point in time. This is so because, people talk of falling standard in schools, indiscipline among school pupils, low morale of staff, poor interpersonal communications and relationship, low level of administrative involvement of teachers, resources are scarce and lack of satisfaction among teachers. The humanresources which form one of the schools’ greatest assets are so divergent in terms of their needs, experiences and value system. Despite these odds, the goals of the school organization are expected to be achieved. Obviously, the school cannot be expected to achieve its objectives merely by admitting people of different qualifications. These individuals should be able to take part in the activities of the school and interact with each other in a regular network of communication. Relationship between the job and the personnel is crucial in the functioning of an organization judging from other professional areas. Sometimes, attitude of workers tend to be influenced by the degree of their participation in an organization.
Secondary education is seen to be the education received in order to prepare the child for the future, offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles and to inspire its students with a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence universal primary education (1998). The stated goals can only be achieved through teachers and school administrators.
However, if an organization such as the school is to be effective, decisions have to be taken and implemented on various aspects. Conflicts often arise between teachers and the school organization due to increasing desires for participatory role. Teachers sometimes complain of administrators overstepping their line of action and taking over administrative and disciplinary decisions that the teachers themselves could handle successfully. Many educational researchers have been expressing concern about participation of teachers in decision making. Most of them believe individuals derive personal satisfaction out of the feeling of recognition by the group and a sense of participation.
Today, schools are growing in numbers and sizes, and there is also increase in admission of teachers and students. The growth in secondary education makes it impossible for decision making to be a one man affair. The principal or schooladministrators can no longer exercise full control in the day-to-day running of theschool as experienced before. The success of a secondary school system depends largely on the optimum performance of the teachers. There would be problem with administration of the school if teachers are neglected and demoralized, since decisions taken in schools are implemented by these teachers.
Therefore, collaborative and participatory planning, and good collegial relationships are essential for effectiveness of the school. Teachers will notparticularly receptive to changes that are imposed on them from above unless the relationship with principal is good and the changes are planned together.
Similarly, teachers are quick at reading or detecting whether or not their principals are in favour of certain decisions made by those from above, therefore co-operation can best be achieved where teachers are part of decision making. Decisions that are made should be supported by those who will implement them, otherwise suchdecisions might be ineffective and be eventually neglected.
Job satisfaction, higher productivity and effective school management could he greatly enhanced when the opportunity to share in formulating policies for the school is encouraged.
This research is therefore, anchored on the desire of the researcher to attempt to investigate the influence of teachers' participation in decision making on jobproductivity in secondary schools in Mainland Local Government area of Lagosstate.
In the educational system, the teacher is a central figure or key person. It is therefore expected that teachers are always motivated since the quality of education in any society cannot rise above the quality of its teachers. Also, the realization of organizational goals within the school system also depends on the inculcation of the right attitudes and behavioural patterns in the students who are potential leaders to tomorrow.
Principals are expected to generate ideas opinions and contributions on theirsubordinates(teachers) in order lo ensure effective school management. It is however disheartening to note that teachers role in most of our secondary schools are nothing but that of passive participants. Issues concerning their job security, productivity, remuneration, welfare packages and above all instructional activities are all taken in their absence and without their input or continuations. In short, they are not involved in major school decision-making. It is therefore true that these may have contributed to teachers’ job dissatisfaction and low morale, poor productivity, poor interpersonal relationship between teachers and school heads and ineffective school management or non-attainment of the educational goals. Theproblem of this study therefore is that of poor job productivity which could be traced to the problem of teachers' inability lo participate in decision making in our schools.
The purpose of this study is to:
(i) examine if teachers' participation in school decision-making enhances theirjob satisfaction.
(ii) find out if teachers' participation in school decision-making have any influence on teachersjob productivity m terms of efficiency and effectiveness
(iii) investigatethe influence of principal's leadership style oninvolvement in school decision-making.
(iv) find out if teachers’ participation in school decision-making have any significant influence on school management effectiveness.
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study.
1. Do teachers' participation in school decision-making enhance their job productivity?
2. Do teachers get satisfied when allowed to take part in adequate schoolmatters?
3. Does the school principal give room for teachers’ involvement in school decision-making?
4. Do teachers' participation in school decision-making influence schoolmanagement effectiveness.
The following hypotheses are postulated to be tested in this study.
1. Teacher’s participation in school decision-making has no significant influence on their job productivity.
2. Principal leadership styles have no significant influence on teachers’ involvement in school decision-making.
3. Teachers’participation in school decision-making has no significant influence on school management effectiveness.
Significance of the Study
This study will enlighten the teachers to appreciate the value of their participation in decision-making in the school, thus enhancing interpersonal relationship between teachers and school administrators. The study is also important to the school managers, as well as policy makers in education, so that they will see howimportant it is to welcome teachers' contribution in whatever decision that willenhance the standard of education and productivity.
Furthermore, the findings of the study would enable relevant educational agencies and planners to evolve programmes that will ensure teachers' participation inschools1 decision making process.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study focuses on six schools within Mainland Local government area of Lagos state. The study is also limited to only teachers in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State, The result and conclusion to be drawn from the study arc therefore limited to the schools in the local government area.
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