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Wissenschaftliche Studie, 2010
44 Seiten, Note: 1.0
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.3 STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.9 AN OVERVIEW OF IKEJA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 DEFINITION OF TRAINING
2.3 RELEVANT THEORIES/MODEL ON TRAINING.
2.4 EVALUATION OF TRAINING OBJECTIVES
2.5 THE BENEFITS OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN ORGANIZATION
2.6 OVERVIEW OF THE TRAINING PROCESS
2.7 THE DISADVANTAGES OF INEFFECTIVE TRAINING PROGRAMMES.
2.8 OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTIVITY IN ORGANIZATION
2.9 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF STUDY
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
3.5 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER 4 RESULT
4.1 ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS’ DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
4.2 ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES ASSUMPTIONS
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
5.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY
Training is the systematic development of the attitude and skill behaviour pattern required by an individual in order to perform adequately a given task. It is also the systematic modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education instruction development and planned experiences. Training is designed to change the behaviour of the employee in the work place in order to stimulate efficiency and higher performance standards (Oliseh, 2005:112).
The most important resources of an organization are its human resources (the people) who supply the organization with their works, talents creatively and drive. Without competent people at the managerial as well as the operation level, the organization may end up pursuing inappropriate goals. Once the goals have been set for successful and essential ingredients will then come in and the difference between success and failure of an organization is the human element. An industrialist once said “take away all the factories trade, avenues of transportation and in four years, I will have re-established myself”.
Thus an organization is not merely the factories, trade, transportation, money or other physical and financial resources, but it is the people or human resources who are linked together in a formal structure and guided by managerial leadership. The stand of this industrialist was compliments with the thinking of “Rensis Likert” how rightly said that “all activities of any enterprise are stated and determined by the persons who make up that organization, plants, offices, computers and all other automated equipment that modern firms use are unproductive except for human effort and direction. However, it is in realization of the importance of human resources that most of the big organizations today create a Separate Human Resources Department in order to train, educate and improve the skills of the executives so that productivity in organization is considerably enhanced.
Conclusively, Odiorne and Rummler (1988:3) posit that training and development aims squarely at producing behaviour in its members. Obviously, it isn’t training alone which produces the behaviour, for the social conditions at and the organizational culture act to produce patterns of behaviour in the organization’s members. It is the organization, its objectives, markets, management style, and a host of other things which produce the demand for training. Changes technology, such as the introduction of the computer, changes in organizational size and arrangements, and the demands of the society around us all forces changes in behaviour to be produced. Fortunately, human beings are capable of changing their behaviour if they have a reason to do so.
A major problem faced by most organizations including the public service firms in Nigeria is the role of training as it affects the employees’ productivity; and this can traced down to lack of necessary skills and knowledge on the part of the employees and the inability of the management to fully appreciate the role of training effectively in enhancing the employees’ productivity.
Although a few of the organizations’ executives in Nigeria assume that improving the skills and knowledge of employees aid in improving effectiveness and productivity at the work place, but a reasonable percentage of these executives do not see the need for thorough training, hence training is given less attention and eventually lead to insufficient training of employees in organization. This is evidently observed in the uncooperative attitudes of the top executives denying the subordinates the opportunity to acquire further skills and knowledge through self study; part-time tertiary courses, professional courses and so on.
This study is aimed at achieving the following objectives:
- Evaluating the impact of adequate and effective training on employees’ productivity in the public service organizations in Nigeria.
- To find out the various training methods adopted by the public service organizations in Nigeria, using Ikeja Local Government as a case study.
- To find out the relevance and usefulness of the skills and knowledge acquired by the employees on individual behaviour at work place.
- Examining the contribution of training in achieving the organizational short and long term objectives.
1. What are the impact of adequate and effective training on employees’ productivity in the public service organizations in Nigeria?
2. What training method does Ikeja Local Government adopt in the training of workers?
3. How relevant and useful is the skills and knowledge acquired by the employees on their individual behaviour at work?
4. How does training contribute to the achievement of the organizations objectives both in the long and short run?
H0: Effective training in public service organizations does not have positive effects on employees’ productivity.
H1: Effective training in public service organizations has positive effects on employees’ productivity.
The significant of this study was to confirm the authentication of the assumption that inadequate and ineffective training programs in organizations lead to low employees’ productivity; and in this regard the workable solutions was proffered to correct the undesirable effects both on individuals and the organizations. This finding also prompted the attention of the management of every organization to these problems as they tend to affect them adversely and suggested very strongly relevant lines of action such as ensuring that prospective employees in organization possessed all the required academic and professional qualifications needed to perform task effectively; and hence increased productivity.
More so, this teaching was designed to encourage the management of various organizations to expose their employees to functional local and overseas courses and attachment on regular basis to assist in bridging the gap in skills and knowledge needed to perform effectively at the work place.
Aside the importance stated above, this findings serves as achieve for: researchers or scholars conducting further researches in the sub-ordinate employees of every organizations who seek more knowledge on the role of training for their organization progressiveness; students and every other concern bodies who want to know more about training and its programs.
The scope of this finding was restricted to studying training in the public service corporation as it affects their productivity making reference to the Ikeja Local Government Council structure. Attempt was made to focus on the staff’s academic, professional and other further qualifications, previous training programs attended, the sufficiency and relevance of such training courses to the personnel management. This restriction was necessary in order not the findings ambiguous rather more researchable.
Human resources: These are pool of human effort geared toward achieving the organizational goals and objectives effectively and efficiently.
Formal structure: These are the laid principals, hierarchy, rules and regulation formed to guide the activities of organizational staff towards its goals and objectives.
Managerial leadership: These are the activities of the management in influence the sub-ordinate willingly towards achieving the organizational objectives efficiently.
Inadequate training: This is a situation whereby the employees are not exposed or have not acquired enough training programmes in order to enhance their efficiency and productivity at the work place.
- This is the net outcome in a given period from a known input of resources (factor of production) or more loosely as continuing improvement of a firm management performance in the use of resources with and through the operation of a firms management operationally or practically (Beach, 1975).
The history of the present Ikeja Local Government dates back to 1927 when the colonial government introduced tax collection. District Officers were approved for Epe, Ikorodu and Ikeja (Ikeja then included Mushin, Shomolu, Badagry and called Colonies of Lagos). Ikeja colony comprised a number of isolated villages owned exclusively by the Aworis.
The Administration of Ikeja colony was carried out exclusively by the colonial masters, without any participation by natives, up till 31st March, 1938. On 1st April, 1938, sequels to agitations by some patriotic natives led by Archdeacon T. A. J. Ogunbiyi, the colonies were changed to native authorities. This brought about a lot of improvement, as taxes collected were used to develop the area.
The Native Authority system continued until 1955 when it metamorphosed into District Councils. In the same year, the first democratic election was held. Ikeja was later split into three Districts: Ikeja, Mushin and Shomolu. The 'Baale and the Council’ joint tax collection system was then introduced. The Baales were to collect taxes from their subjects and pay to the Council. The same period witnessed the appointment of a Secretary/ Treasurer among the natives to administratively co-ordinate the affairs of the Councils. The present Allmosho Local Government was part of Ikeja District Council. In 1971, as a result of Government's acceptance of the recommendations of the Ogunaike Commission, the former Agege District Council also became part of Ikeja.
During the civilian era (1979-83), new Local Government authorities were carved out of the Division, viz Agege and Alimosho Local Governments. However, the Military Administration, in December, 1983, nullified this action. Furthermore rationalization of Local Governments in Nigeria (in May 1989) led to the re-creation of Agege Local Government out of Ikeja Local Government among the others. Thus, there –were four Local Government authorities within the Ikeja division of Lagos State, namely: Ikeja, Agege, Shomolu, and Mushin.
In 1991, Alimosho Local Government was carved out from Ikeja Local Government. Consequently, the present Ikeja Local Government is now bounded in the North by Agege Local Government, South by Oshodi/Isolo/Mushin Local Government, East by Shomolu Local Government and on the West by Alimosho Local Government.
The functions of the local government council were segmented into three. Firstly, the 1979 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria recognized Local Government as the third tier of Government in Nigeria. In the light of this, and to have an effective third-tier government, provision was made in the Constitution for increased responsibilities and defined functions for the Local Government, as follows:-
a. The consideration and making of recommendations to a state commission on economic planning or any similar body on: The economic development of the state, particularly in so far as the areas of authority of the Council and of the states are affected; and Proposals made by the said commission or body.
b. Collection of rates, radio and television licenses.
c. Establishment and maintenance of cemeteries, burial grounds and homes for destitute.
d. Licensing of bicycles, trucks (other than mechanically-propelled trucks) canoes, wheelbarrows, and carts.
e. Establishment, maintenance and regulation of markets, motor parks and public conveniences.
f. Construction and maintenance of roads, streets, drains and other public highways, parks and open spaces.
g. Naming of roads and streets, and numbering of houses.
h. Provision and maintenance of public convenience and refuse disposal.
i. Registration of birth, death and marriage.
j. Assessment of privately-owned houses for the purpose of levying rates for tenement.
k. Control and regulation of: Outdoor advertising and boarding; movement and keeping of pets of all descriptions, shops and kiosks; restaurants and other places for the sale of foods to the public laundries.
Secondly, the participation of each council in the government of a State in respect of the following matters: The provision and maintenance of primary education; the development of agriculture and natural resources other than the exploitation of minerals; the provision and maintenance of health services; and such other functions as may be conferred on a Local Government Council by the House of Assembly of a State.
Finally, apart from the above constitutional provisions, the functions of Local Government, in accordance with Local Government Law of 1980, also include the following: Prevention of crime; instrument to promulgate by-laws; power to engage in trade; power to provide works and services; powers of Local Government which may be exercised concurrently with State Government; power to contract; power to accept gifts; power to insure; and declaration and modification of Customary Laws.
1. Office of the Chairman: The Chairman is both political and administrative head of the Local Government. The former (i.e. political) role has long been identified with the office while the latter is a recent acquisition. The crucial role of the Chairman and Management Committee in the area of policy formulation entails the following:
(i) Giving ultimate direction and control of the affairs of the Council.
(ii) Taking key decisions on the objectives of the Council and the plans to attain them. (In doing so, the Council is involved in identification of needs, setting of goals and assignment of priorities and allocation of resources).
(iii) Provision of services at acceptable levels of operation.
(iv) Judicious management of financial, manpower, and material resources.
(v) Keeping under review the progress and performance of the services as well as the overall economic, cultural, and physical well-being of the communities.
This 'watchdog' function is exercised collectively and severally by Councilors in their capacities as Supervisory Councilors, and as representatives of the constituencies benefiting or about to benefit from the provision of services, or successful execution of projects.
Further, the following Units are also attached to the office of the Chairman: Internal Audit Unit; Budget and Planning Unit; and Information Unit.
2. Office of Secretary: The office of the secretary to the Local Government is the apex of the administrative structure of the Local Government. It is therefore saddled with the following onerous responsibilities, for prompt implementation of the policies of the Local Government:
(i) The supervision and control of all employees of the Local Government.
(ii) The coordination of all activities of the departments of Local Government.
(iii) Provision of Guidelines and Administrative Procedures of Lagos State Local Government Councils.
3. Finance Department: This department is in charge of the financial activities of the Local Government which include revenue collection, compilation of staff salaries and all other expenditures.
4. Works and Housing Department: This department comprises of highways and roads divisions; traffic division; mechanical/electrical division; and building section.
5. Health and Environmental sanitation Department: This Department is responsible for the coordination of activities of the Primary Health programme. The Sections comprises of family health service, health and disease control, Pharmacy, health education, medical records and statistics and community Health.
6. Education Department: The Education Department is assigned the following responsibilities: Supervision of primary schools, library/reading room services, and adult literacy.
7. Agriculture, Rural and Social Development Department: This department has two main divisions: Agriculture and rural development division and community development, sports and culture division.
The relationship between training on one hand and employee productivity on the other hand is a complete issue. To understand it better, a critical review of the literature is necessary. Different studies have been conducted on training and productivity by academicians and they are unanimous in their views that there is positive relationship between the two terms. Despite the positive result of the relationship that exists between these variables, only few organizations appreciate the effect of training on the productivity of their labour force.
Training has been defined “an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose. It is a process for equipping the employees with specific skills for instance, technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on their present performance and overall efficiency. According to Gardner (1973), the objective of job training is to enable an employee to perform his job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.
Ihekwoaba (2005) analyzed office practice in Nigerian business environment. He recognizes training as a tool for all forms of development.
Beach (1975) posits that training represents a positive hope, both for person first entering the world of work and for individuals changing their work environments. When training is well designed, it gives individuals opportunities to enter the job market with needed skills, to perform in new function and to be promoted into new situations. This emphasis on training opportunities is consistence with the concept of work and its value as an activity of daily life. However, training is instrumental for earning entry into enjoying the satisfaction associated with the world of work for most people. At this time, employees, management and organizations now perceived training as a solution to work issues. This increased emphasis is reflected in a variety ways. For example, labour Unions insists that new contracts include opportunities for training, so that workers can meet technological changes in the workplaces, training is frequently offered as a court-imposed solution for individuals who have been victims of discrimination to give them opportunities for equal employment. Also, well designed training programmes are likely to accomplish these goals and there are expectations that these goals should accomplish these purposes. To the degree that it is based on careful and need assessment, well designed instructional strategies and research strategies that will permit the collection of data to provide feedback on necessary revisions, training is more likely to meet every one’s expectations.
Moreover, Maximum potentials will result in increased emphasis on the use of training programmes, both for entry level workers and for the more experienced. Also worth noting is that many young people have a basic knowledge not a specific skill about their new jobs. Even those who have studied technical or professional courses in colleges must receive initial training in the form of orientation of the policies, practices, ethnics and culture of the organization. Besides, the technology of our productive process in developing at such a rapid pace, therefore, these is need for continue retraining of experienced workers to perform new and changing job. The diagram below explains further.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
At the 14th Annual General Meeting of the Nigeria Employers Consultative Association (NECA) in December (1970) Chief Anthony Enahoro, then the federal commissioner for labour commenting on the role of employers in training their employees said “the development of human resources can not be entirely the concern of our nation’s educational institutions”. It is also the responsibility of other institutions which are capable of performing training functions. Every enterprise, public or private is necessarily responsible for their employees’ job training. If employers display greater readiness to invest in training, we can then hope for a more rapid development in education and other institutions; the ease of Japan is relevant example in this case. However, there are many employers in this country who still do not believe in the philosophy of training. Among the worst offenders are the small manufacturing companies and small shopkeepers so long as the employees can be used to get the money, such employers are not interested in training programmes for their workers.
Benton Louis (1978) do lined training as "the organized procedure by which people acquire knowledge and skills for a definite purpose". Thai the objective of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained. In the individual situation this means that the trainee shall acquire new manipulates skills technical knowledge, problem solving ability and attitudes. It is a systematic acquisition of some particular skills. Sumer (1982) distinguished further between the two terms, he refers to training as the "teaching of technical skills to non managerial staff, whereas management development refers to the programmes that attempt to improve not only the technical but the human relation and conceptual skills of managers.
Bedman (1986) defined training as "a practice of developing individual skills, knowledge and attitude so as to improve present and future performance". The Encyclopedia of professional management defined employers training programmes as "those programmes designed to provide knowledge, attitude or job skills that will help employers to perform their present role. Training could be seen to have immediate practical application on the job while development is future oriented. Training is an activity applied to non-managerial, blue-collar, lower level employee whereas, development is an activity associated with the managerial personal such as executive (middle level and top level management). Training has some jobs related purpose, while development aims at providing general knowledge to the executive. Training is short term in nature but development is more of as long term in nature.
Akanni (1987) classified training as any act designed to increase the skills und effectiveness of employees". He went further to say that training programmes are designed to help develop the operations of the enterprise. He also said that improvement in the company operations can be measured in many ways that training can reduce waste, increase output; reduce equipment maintenance and improvement quality of output.
The term training has generated a lot of attention from various scholars because of its importance on everyday life improvement both at the individuals and organizational level. Many individuals and organizations have been practicing training from inception till date. This is the more reason why many contemporary scholars have provided a lot of theoretical framework for the concept.
However, in order to provide theoretical basis for this research findings, the researcher attempted to review some of these theories and model below.
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