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79 Seiten, Note: 1,7
List of Abbreviations
List of Figures
List of Tables
a. Problem Definition
c. Scope of Work
a. Principles of Negotiations
i. Types of Negotiation
ii. Explicit and Tacit Negotiations
iii. What are Strategies and Tactics?
iv. Theoretical Execution
b. Negotiation Tactics
iv. Pawn Sacrifice
v. Sell Cheap, Get Famous
vi. Prisoner Dilemma
viii. Level Up the Work, Level Down the Price
ix. Mother Hubbard
x. Take it or Leave it
xi. Frontal Assault
xii. Good Guy, Bad Guy
xiii. Cherry Picking
c. Body Language
i. What is Body Language?
ii. Facial Expression
iii. Body Movement and Gesture
iv. Physical Contact and Proxemic
d. Outward appearance
3. Transfer the Theory into Practice
a. Introduction of the Empirical Study
i. Deciding on the Method
ii. Explaining the procedure
b. Results of the Study
i. Situation 1: One purchaser, Many Suppliers
ii. Situation 2: One Purchaser, One Supplier
iii. Situation 3: Many Purchasers, One Supplier
a. Target Achievement
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 1 Coherence between Tactic and Strategy
Figure 2 Communication Square
Figure 3 Emotions in Smileys
Figure 4 Facial Expressions
Figure 5 Casual
Figure 6 Open Hands
Figure 7 Depressed
Figure 8 Distances
Figure 9 Standing Posture
Figure 10 Women’s Sitting Positions
Figure 11 Men’s Sitting Positions
Table 1 Negotiation Styles
Table 2 Possibilities in a Prisoner's Dilemma
Table 3 Fractional Comparison of Price
Table 4 Market Situation
Supply Chain Management is a vast topic and enfolds every task involved in the movement and storage of raw-materials, work-in process inventory, as well as finished goods from the first design step to the ready-to-deliver good. One topic that influences all the different steps in the supply chain is procurement. In today’s world the business competition has grown, due to the globalisation.1 Therefore it becomes every harder to get the best possible goods for the best possible price. That makes it challenging to produce goods cheap and sell them with an acceptable price on the market. Due to that fact procurement becomes more important for every company, especially in western countries, because here the wages and production costs have a higher level as in developing countries.
To stay competitive regarding companies from such countries, procurement can be an useful instrument. In countries such as UK and the USA Supply Chain Management and especially procurement has become an important part in nearly every company. Several specialised Bachelor- and Master-Programmes have been developed to match the demanded requirements for procurement executives.2 In Germany such programmes are nearly nonexistent. Here procurement is not disregarded, but purchasers are often career changers, thus they are quite often no experts. Many courses of instruction are offered, but they do not prepare the buyers as good as a complete field of study would do.
This is the part the Bachelor-Thesis will concern. In most works or theories only the negotiation strategies and tactics are regarded, sometimes in the combination with body language, but one analysing the actual negotiation behaviour in the standard situations of German purchasers and comparing them to the theory to find starting points that can be improved cannot be found. Thus the question arises whether it is true that there is a lack of information and education in this area.
After working a while in a procurement department with Siemens I realised that nearly eve- ry purchaser is a career changer. They learned their jobs as buyer by doing it without a lot of instruction. Most have a technical background and therefore never really learned any- thing about strategies and tactics. Even if they are really successful in their job I still won- dered whether they could get better results with a proper education in this area. After I worked in a procurement department in England as well, I realised that there really are some differences in education and behaviour. I was wondering whether the German suppli- ers use any special strategies and tactics or even the body language or the use of colours.
The aim of this thesis is to analyse three standard situations in a negotiation to examine the thesis, that German purchasers do not use all the potentials of negotiation tactics, body language and dress code. It will also be examined whether it is true that they often overestimate their knowledge and use of the previously mentioned topics. This should lead to the conclusion whether they really only use the typical well known methods or know which tactic and behaviour to use in difficult situations will be.
In the first situation many supplier want to sell their goods, but only few purchasers are willing to buy. The second situation is a bit more complex. Here only one supplier and only one purchaser exist. The last situation is probably the trickiest one for the buyer. A limited good should be purchased. It is desired by many buyers, but only one supplier offers it.
Furthermore advices how according to the theory the outcome of the negotiation can be better for the buyer will be given. In addition several no-go courses of action and behavioural pattern will be identified, as well as advisable behaviour.
The first part of the Bachelor-Thesis consists of the theory explaining the given possibili- ties. This is divided in the main subsections negotiation, body language and outward ap- pearance. To clarify the topic it is necessary at first to describe the principles of negotiation.
Thus, in chapter 2 a., it will be described what a negotiation is and what the term includes. Every negotiation is different, but there are several standard types of negotiation which can be identified. Deriving from them are several ways to negotiate and to handle the situations. One main focus lies on the tactics; to fully understand this term it has to be detached from the term strategy and the classic theoretical execution of a negotiation has to be identified. After the basics are clarified, the actual tactics will be explained, as well as their benefit and use. This will happen in chapter 2 b.
The second main focus of the theory lies on communication. The basics of body language will be defined in chapter 2 c., as well as the four subsections: facial expression, gesture, proxemic and posture.
The last theoretical part deals with the outward appearance and the use of colour. Here sev- eral theories according to the use of colours will be elucidated. Furthermore different types of dress code, their meaning and realisation are explained. This will be further clarified in chapter 2 d.
After building a solid theoretical background the practical study will be explained and evaluated in chapter 3. Therefore several purchasers will be interviewed. The main parts of the interview will be their assessment of the situation, self-assessment, as well as their use of tactics body language and dress code.
Negotiations just exist to solve a problem, to avoid conflicts and wars. Every negotiation assumes that both parties are ready to make compromises and that they have an interest in a fast and positive solution. For a successful negotiation both parties have to communicate, verbally and non-verbally. That is often the most difficult part in a negotiation, due to the fact that everybody communicates diverse. In fact everyone is different, has different opin- ions and personalities, as well as backgrounds and feelings. Therefore it is only natural that everybody behaves elsewise in a negotiation. Some people act more aggressive whereas others tend to be quiet and cautious.
To explain this behaviour there are several types of negotiations. Roughly they are divided in cooperative and competitive style.3 It can also be said that the cooperative style targets a win-win situation, whereas the competitive style targets a win-lose situation. Negotiators following the competitive style will most likely try to do everything to achieve their goal no matter what the other party may think about them.4 They probably will not shy away from crude tactics and misbehaviour and probably will not be open to any compromises. They tend to be aggressive and will use every mistake of the counterpart to their advantage, because they think the opponent behaviour is stupid.5
-n the contrary people following a cooperative style search for solutions that both parties can accept. They confront their counterpart with openness, trust and honesty.6 Furthermore they want to achieve and sustain a good relationship between the parties.7 If they are confronted with an extremely competitive style, they tend to lose all the trust in the negotiation, often want to stop it, and become very uncooperative.
But it is not always just “black-and-white”. There are many stages in between, which represent the assertiveness and cooperativeness of a negotiator.8
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Table 1 Negotiation Styles
-wn table according to Lewicki, Saunders, Minton9
The behaviour in a negotiation is not always the same; it varies depending on the situation itself and the person’s tendencies towards one style. Concerning the “Harvard Negotiation Project” there is another possibility: principled negotiation or negotiation on the merits.10 It relies on four points: 1. Separate the people from the problem; 2. Do not bargain over positions, focus on interests; 3. Insist on using objective criteria; 4. Invent options for mutual gain. These requirements are important from the very first thought spend on a project until the negotiations are finished. Every single situation should be analysed according to these point and a decision should objectively be made.
To understand negotiations and to handle them successfully, not only the types of negotiation have to be regarded, but as well the fact how it is communicated. In this aspect negotiations are divided in explicit and tacit negotiations.
An explicit negotiation is the main attempt for conflict resolution, diplomatic exchanges and market bargaining.11 Interaction is limited to verbal communication.12 A synonym is often direct negotiation, because most of these negotiations imply face-to-face contact.13 It is striking and through that easier to understand. This does not mean that the parties know the opponent’s preferences or act rationally. The participants communicate openly, make demands, asking for information etc. To realise this they use tactics and follow strategies. It is likely that the cooperative process tends to be explicit.14
In tacit negotiations information and messages are passed indirectly in a non-explicit form. It can be identified when people make trade-offs to embrace an arrangement without offi- cially expressing that they do so.15 The communication can happen through different types of behaviour and actions.16 That can mean hints, signs and indications.17 Mostly this type is used when negotiation is impossible or very hard, when one party or both parties do not want to negotiate explicit and no trust exists between them. For example, tacit negotiations may rely on gestures, signs or sending out messages “between the lines”. Japanese people often negotiate tacitly. If they ask one question it means some disagreement, asking more questions about the opponent’s position means serious disagreement.18 Tacit or indirect ne- gotiators often use representatives, control over the media, advertising and other third par- ties to reach their goal and to influence the opponent.19 Where open communication is strictly ruled or prohibited tacit negotiations are the only possibility to communicate.
For a successful negotiation the right strategy and implementation are crucial. The word itself has different meanings and origins. The most appropriate definition of strategy in negotiation comes from the game theory. In these terms a strategy is an all over plan, which describes a player’s behaviour in every possible situation.20 But in reality this is hard to achieve due to an incomplete market, which includes incomplete knowledge.21 To build a strategy it has to be decided whether it is right to build or reduce pressure, gain trust or show strengths, achieve a fast solution or to reach gain of time.22
To figure out the right strategy the following rules may help:23 o The timeframe has to be considered.
- The more important the goal is, the more energy the negotiator has to spend on it.
- If the other party declines, I have to ask why.
- Who asks, leads the negotiation.
- The proportion of power has to be regarded.
- Whether a good relationship should be kept is important.
- The more logical a conclusion sounds, the easier it is accepted.
A strategy provides a working aisle in which the negotiator may choose his actions and still work towards reaching the goal. Often strategies and tactics may seem indistinct, but there are some crucial differences. First of all tactics are short-term. Tactics are the concrete measures to apply the chosen strategy. To clarify the distinction between strategy and tactic the following definitions may help. The negotiators basic attitude, the opinions, goals as well as emotional feelings are called attitude towards the negotiation. When this attitude is established, the negotiator develops a common approach, which they consider to be suc- cessful in achieving the goals. This common approach is called strategy. According to this strategy concrete tactics are chosen to implement the strategy effectively.24
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 1 Coherence between Tactic and Strategy own picture according to Schranner (2003)25
-ne can say that tactics are subordinate to strategies, they are driven by them. Tactics alone may help in short-term, but without having a strong strategy the negotiator may lose the direction and focus on a goal. This is especially important, if the negotiation does not de- velop as planned.26 Wrong strategies, can result in wrong tactics, which can even lead to a failed negotiation.27
In theory the execution of a negotiation can strictly and easily be described. First of all the negotiator should be educated properly. Several trainings should be done, to gain security and to learn the necessary skills.28 Before the actual negotiation starts, the project as well as possible suppliers or negotiation partner have to be identified. Requests for quotation have to be send out and offers have to be evaluated.29 In general three basic steps can be differentiated to prepare for a negotiation.
1. Collect Information.
In this step it is important to collect and exchange information according to the client, con- tent and power allocation in the following negotiation.30 Furthermore a date for the negoti- ation has to be set up and communicated to all participants at least three days before the negotiation starts. It is useful to set up an itinerary and to forward necessary information to all participants.31
2. Decide on a goal
After finishing step one the concrete goals should be identified. The negotiator has to de- cide on the best possible achievement and the worst acceptable solution. In the range be- tween, every solution is acceptable.32 To set up this range it is useful to know what the “best alternative to a negotiated agreement” (BATNA) is. It reflects how much you will need to gain in this negotiation to match the situation or to have a better outcome than in a non-agreement state.33
3. Strategy and tactic
After developing a goal the strategy can be chosen as described earlier. According to this strategy effective tactics should be selected. The most important aspects are to choose alternatives, develop opening moves and an all over strategic plan.34
The actual negotiation can be divided in four main parts.
Every negotiation starts with an address of welcome and small talk. Everyone, especially unknown people should be introduced or introduce themselves. The first impression is cru- cial, because it will always be remembered. Therefore creating a casual but still profession- al environment is reasonable. Personal topics or topics that are attached to emotions, such as politics or sports should be avoided, because they can lead to interpersonal conflicts.35 Sometimes a conducted tour through the site can be a good idea.
After the approach the parties start the actual negotiation. The negotiators try to tie up to previous contracts and negotiations. Afterwards they exchange prospects and goals. In this a strategic step and decision is to speak and argument first or not. The first speaker often has the possibility to guide the negotiation.36 In this period it is possible to talk about previ- ous issues as well as to clarify the desired outcome, hitherto activities and modifications of the negotiable topic.37 The overall goal of this step is to establish a common information knowledge and understanding of the topic, because else the parties could easily talk at cross purposes.
3. Argumentation and Agreement
After the basic information is exchanged the argumentation starts.38 Here the supplier often starts to talk and defend his offer. Therefore the current offer, requirements and demands are compared and discussed. It is a good advice for the purchaser to question every argu- ment the supplier gives. To avoid unnecessary discussion and issues it is useful to put simi- larities as soon as they exist on the record.39 Both parties try to achieve the best possible solution for them; therefore they use different strategies and tactics. To achieve an agree- ment they have to accept compromises. Depending on the strengths of the participant’s po- sitions one may gain more than the other.40 After everyone recited their arguments it is time to find an agreement. This can often be problematic, because no one wants to step back on the demands. A possible solution can be to decide on a package-deal, which can be an ad- vantage for everyone. After all one should not forget that exploiting a supplier or purchaser should be avoided, because good relationships can be very important in the future.41
After a successful agreement or an abandonment of the negotiation post processing is im- portant. Every decision made in this negotiation should be recorded in writing form, that there won’t be any issues afterwards. After that the negotiation partners conclude the nego- tiation normally with small talk and then take one’s leave. To better the own position for the next negotiation, as well as to report to a disciplinarian it is useful to take notes about businesslike content, strategies, tactics and appointments of the opponent. Quite often it is important to remember some personal information if it is a talk with key accounts, such as hobbies, number and name of children. This can make it easier to find topics for small talk and gives the opponent a feeling of importance, because the other could remember so many facts, even private ones.42 Finally the decision must be made which supplier will get the purchase order and the order has to be placed.
In order to reach a positive outcome in a negotiation it is necessary to develop a strategy and to implement it with the use of several negotiation tactics. The most common are described and explained in the next chapter.
This tactic is often used when there is pressure of time. The purchaser gives each supplier just one single possibility to submit a quote. In the majority of cases this happens in a direct competition with all other suppliers.43 If there is no bid-rigging the purchaser can count on a market oriented price. One-offer-only can be a useful and easy tactic, especially if the demand is not complex. Is the demand extensive and the purchasing company could not entirely specify it this tactic should not be used. If the suppliers can only give one offer and the demand is not completely specified they could interpret it differently, which could lead to wrong prices and huge price differences.
The Bluff is the most common negotiation tactic. First, it has to be clarified what a bluff is. To bluff means to say something and try to convince someone of a fact, especially if it is not true. This is used to increase the pressure on the opponent and strengthen the own posi- tion. Another reason is to make a product more valuable. It is not only used in economical negotiation, but also in private ones. Nearly everyone used a bluff to pay less for a product at least once. For example if someone buys a car, it is often named that another cheaper of- fer for the same car exists even if this is not true. A discovered bluff mostly destroys or damages the relationship between both parties. They do not trust each other anymore, be- cause after all a bluff is a lie. Instead of using absolutism it is often better to use “I think” or “I suppose”, especially if the fact is not certain.44 Thus bluffs are quite often not used in good partnerships, but rather in highly competitive negotiations. To avoid being surprised by a bluff or to believe it, there is only one solution; checking every piece of given infor- mation.45 So this tactic should only be used in negotiations where a good relationship is not necessary and only the price is of importance.46
Setting a deadline means to give a date when the information has to be presented or deliv- ered at the latest, the negotiations have to be finished and a decision will be made.47 Setting a deadline can be very useful; it does not matter whether the deadline is necessary or whether it is just said to influence the supplier. Anyway it puts them under great pressure. A disadvantage is that if contractual deadlines are set the counterpart knows that the pur- chaser has to come to a decision, which probably sets them under pressure as well.48 An issue can be that the purchaser does not decide in this period and thus has to explain why there are deferments. On the other hand the supplier may let the deadline expire, which can bare the fact that the deadline has been a lie, if there is no immediate reaction from the pur- chaser. Both can lead to issues and problems in the trust and relationship between both par- ties. The negotiation can even be neglected, so that a whole new communication has to be started with a new provider. So if a deadline is set the buyer’s company has to be strong enough to enforce the set closing date. On the other hand if a company wants to ignore a deadline they have to be sure whether it is axiomatic or just a tactic to set someone under pressure.
Primarily a pawn sacrifice is a term which describes a strategic move in a chess game. A sacrifice in this game means to give up one piece in the hope of gaining compensation in the game, which can be a tactical or positional advantage.49 It can even be an exchange of chess piece of lower value with a piece of higher value. Conferring the term into Supply Chain Management it means to give up one point in a negotiation to gain another point which is possibly more important for the negotiator. The purchaser wants to implement the feeling that he already made a huge sacrifice by giving up one interest, while he hopes to enforce another interest the next time to make it look even. Therefore the purchaser decides on a topic which is expendable and on another which is crucial. In the negotiation the buyer then relinquishes the expandable topic and tries to forces the supplier to give in on the next topic, which is the crucial one.
This tactic relies on the fact that newcomers first have to establish themselves and have to build a good image to get highly paid orders; it is called “a promise of beneficial out- comes”, too50. The term originates from the entertainment industry, where young and un- successful actors often take roles that are paid very low in the hope of getting high paid roles afterwards. It has nearly the same meaning in Supply Chain Management. It denotes that newcomers cannot ask for the same price as well-known companies. That is an ad- vantage for buyers. They can advice the newcomer of their disadvantage and lacking expe- rience, so that they can put pressure on the newcomer to lower the price.51
To gain a lower price is the main goal of this tactic, but another aspect is to give the new- comer the feeling that the buying company does them a favour. The purchaser consigns the sentiment that he has been very generous to trust a new company and to give them a chance. A problem can be that the newcomer sells the products too cheap, which can indi- cate to possible customers that the quality is poor. Some newcomers use this tactic without being forced to, to make an offer which shows that they are new on the market and give customers the possibility to try their products without high risks (e.g. free samples). It therefore is difficult to find a compromise between getting a strong position and good pric- es for the products or services and loss leader with the risk of getting the wrong image.
First this tactic has been developed by Luce/Raiffa in 1957.52 The following situation is de- scribed: Two prisoners who are suspected to have committed the same crime are interrogat- ed separated from each other in two different rooms. The investigator explains both sus- pects the possible outcomes according to their reaction.53 Both can either deny or admit the crime. The degree of penalty does not only rely on the suspect’s statement, but as well on the accomplice’s statement.
That leads to three possible degrees of penalty.
- Both deny: They will be convicted of a smaller crime.
- Both admit the crime: They will both be convicted with the high degree of penalty.
- One admits, the other denies: The one who admits will get the minimal punishment, whereas the other will get the maximal punishment.
The following chart illustrates the different possibilities:
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Table 2 Possibilities in a Prisoner's Dilemma own table according to Poundstone (1992)54
The crucial point is that both can never come to an agreement, because they are not aloud to talk to each other alone. The decision depends on someone’s own preferences. Due to the fact that they both do not know the other’s thoughts on the topic and the following decision, they anticipate how the other might decide. According to the anticipation, they have to de- cide. Therefore it is a compensation for the lacking information.55 They have to decide whether they trust each other and want the best for the collective, or whether they do not rely on the other and prefer to have the best opportunity for themselves. The greatest danger for the single person is that one might admit while the other doesn’t, or that both admit and therefore risk high punishments. In Supply Chain Management this tactic can be used with two different suppliers. Normally they have no reason to want a good outcome for the other supplier; hence it is logical that they tend to do what the purchaser wants. The purchaser could ask both of them to lower the price by a certain amount of money.
Here are three possibilities as well:56
- Both deny: either no one will get the order, or one of them will get it at a good price given beforehand.
- Both accept: No one will get it at this price. The purchaser will probably try to low- er the price even more until just one supplier is willing to deliver at the price.
- One accepts, one denies: The one that accepts gets the order for a price, which is copacetic, while the other does not get anything.
This could be a useful strategy to decide for one supplier. The risk is very low; the only negative outcome might be that both deny, but then the negotiation can go on with other tactics, such as the “last call”.
In general an auction sets sellers or buyers against each other.57 There are different kinds of auctions. The traditional form of an auction, also called English Auction, means that bid- ders start from a low price and bid one after another until they reach a high price which on- ly one bidder is willing to pay. In Supply Chain Management the most used auction is the reverse or Dutch Auction. Suppliers start to bid at a high price and underbid each other un- til they reach such a low price that only one supplier is willing to deliver at this price.58 The tactic “One-offer-only”, described in i., can be seen as a third form of auctions. These auc- tions are one-sided auctions. Two-sided auction exist as well. Normally the supplier or buyer bids; in a two-sided auction both parties put in a bid, two matching bids will be com- bined whereby a contract is generated. An example is the stock exchange. Some kind of two-sided-auction can be used in Supply Chain Management as well for example in com- modity exchanges. An important requirement for an auction, especially in Procurement is always enough bidders, so that a competition arises.59
“Level up the work, level down the price” targets a better quality or more goods and services, but by keeping the offered price or even lowering it at the same time.60 This tactic is possible because every supplier has some specifications in his offer, which leads to small quality differences between the individual offers.
A purchaser can compare these offers and select the different specifications from each sup- plier. With this information a new request for quotation can be generated and send to the suppliers. This secures a better quality or a better service. Often the new request for quota- tion is combined with the demand not to raise the price or even to lower it.61 This tactic en- sures totally comparable offers and often a low price. A problem might be that some sup- plier will refuse to place an offer, because they cannot keep the price they offered at first or because they think it is too much work for the request. Others may not have the possibility to place a quotation, because they might not have the possibility to offer all the newly de- manded specifications. If one supplier adopts all changes and the price remains or is lower than before, should this one be rewarded with a conclusion of a contract. The highest risk is that none of the original suppliers place another quotation and therefore a complete new request for quotation must be generated, or the purchaser has to change the request again, so that one supplier is willing to place the offer.
“Mother Hubbard” or “My budget is limited” is a tactic that can easily be used by smaller enterprises. The name can be traced back to an old nursery poem about a woman who wants to feed her dog and discovers that the cupboard is empty, so that she cannot feed it.62 The purchaser moans about the company’s financial situation with a view to trigger com- passion. Due to the fact that nearly everyone knows what it means to be in financial diffi- culties, some suppliers might be influenced to reduce the price. The purchaser can influence the supplier in a subtle way.
A possible way of using this tactic is to mention that the purchasing company really wants to buy this item or service, but that it is under the present circumstances, which include the financial behaviour and the current price, not possible to place the order. To make the statement plausible it has to be underlined by proof. This can be e.g. instructions from the management. An intelligent supplier will try to convince the buyer to change the terms of payment or to agree upon deferred payment.
1 Comp. Friedman (2005), p. 51 ff.
2 Comp. http://www.universities.com/edu/BachelordegreesinPurchasingProcurement AcquisitionsandContractsManagement.html
3 Comp. Mastenbroek (1992), p. 140
4 Comp. Lax, Sebenius (1986), p.155
5 Comp. Bambusch (1987), p.228
6 Comp. Bambusch (1987), p.227
7 Comp. Fisher, Ury, Patton (1981), p. 30 ff.
8 Comp. Lewicki, Saunders, Minton (1985), p. 359
9 Based on Lewicki, Saunders, Minton (1985), p. 359
10 Comp. Fisher, Ury, Patton (1981), p. 34 ff.
11 Comp. Wall (1985), p. 4
12 Comp. Bambusch (1987), s. 69
13 Comp. Spoelstra, M.; Pienaar, W. (2008), p. 101
14 Comp. John Lande(2011), http://law.missouri.edu/lande/plannedearly.htm
15 Comp. Saxby, G. (1992), p.20ff.
16 Comp. Bambusch (1987), s. 70
17 Comp. Iklé (1965), p.36
18 Comp. Wall (1985), p. 5
19 Comp. Spoelstra, M.; Pienaar, W. (2008), p.105
20 Comp. Lewicki, Saunders, Minton (1985), p.43
21 Comp. Altug (2006), p. 3ff.
22 Comp. Schranner (2003), p.42
23 Comp. Binkenbihl 81982), p. 152
24 Comp. Bambusch (1987), p. 431
25 Based on Schranner (2003), p.42
26 Comp. Robinson (1992), p.100
27 Comp. Binkenbihl (1982), p. 148
28 Comp. Bambusch (1987), s. 434
29 Comp. Eichler (2003), p.20ff
30 Comp. Mastenbroek (1992), p. 110
31 Comp. Fricke (1990), p. 117
32 Comp. Wannenwetsch (2009), p.148
33 Comp. Raifa (1982), p. 253 f.
34 Comp. Mastenbroek (1992), p. 110
35 Comp. Eichler (2003), p.190
36 Comp. Augustin (1992), p. 37
37 Comp. Wall(1985), p.8ff.
38 Comp. Bambusch (1987), p.533
39 Comp. Raifa (1982), p. 128f.
40 Comp. Mastenbroek(1992), p. 117
41 Comp. Wannenwetsch (2009), p.180ff.
42 Comp. Wannenwetsch (2009), p.149
43 Comp. Kennedy (1993), p. 70 f.
44 Comp. Karrass (1980), p. 32
45 Comp. Fisher, Ury, Patton (1981), p. 183f.
46 Comp. Kennedy (1993), p. 60 f.
47 Comp. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/negotiation/tactics/tactis.htm
48 Comp. Robinson (1992), p. 70f.
49 Comp. Spielmann (1995), p.20ff.
50 Comp. Hargie (2011), p.55
51 Comp. Kennedy (1993), p. 57 f.
52 Comp. Luce, Raifa (1957), p.509
53 Comp. Bambusch (1987), p. 90ff.
54 Based on Poundstone (1992), p. 37
55 Comp. Poundstone (1992), p. 258
56 Comp. Vogt, without year, http://diglib.uni-magdeburg.de/Dissertationen/2001/carvogt.pdf, diss.
57 Comp. McAffee, McMillan (1987), p. 699-738
58 Comp. Wannenwetsch (2009), p. 120
59 Comp. Kennedy (1993), p.12f.
60 Comp. Kennedy (1993), p. 152
61 Comp. Vollmuth, Peppels u.A.(2003), p. 85
62 Comp. Opie (1997), p. 317-322
Masterarbeit, 110 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 68 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 110 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 68 Seiten
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