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58 Seiten, Note: 1,3
1.1 Mission impossible?
1.2 Mission or partnership?
2 Christian mission
2.1 The term ”mission“
2.2 The history of Christian mission. A short survey
3 Mission theologies
3.1 Biblical foundation of mission
3.1.1 Old and New Testament in general
3.1.2 The Gospel
3.2 Models of mission theologies
3.2.1 “Plantation or Conversion Model”, “Salvific-historical Model”, “Promise-historical Model”, “Communication Model”
3.2.2 Missio Dei
3.2.3 Further approaches. Konvivenz, Koinonia, contextuality
3.3 Mission theological approaches in connection with mission history
3.3.1 Accomplished mission
3.3.2 Inner Mission and overseas activities
3.3.3 Mission conferences and early impulses for an Ecumenical Movement
3.3.4 Mission activities after World War II
3.3.5 The Ecumenical Movement and the World Council of Churches
3.3.6 Contemporary mission questions
3.4 Excurse: missionary saving boxes reflect different mission understandings
3.5 Mission theologies from the Global South
3.5.2 Latin America and Asia
4 Church Partnerships as part of modern Christian mission understanding
4.1 The development of Christian church partnership understanding
4.1.1 Beginning of the 20th century
4.1.2 After World War II
4.1.3 The last three decades of the 20th century
4.2 Theological foundation of the term partnership
4.2.1 The Bible
4.2.2 Hermeneutical approaches
4.3 The transfer of the partnership understanding into the praxis
4.3.1 Global Christian siblinghood
4.3.2 Shared theological reflections
4.3.3 Social and global responsibility
4.3.4 Development as a specific element of Christian partnership
4.3.5 Learning communities and ecumenical learning
4.3.6 Promotion of congregational life
5 Contemporary partnerships with Africa and its mission theological perspectives
5.1 German partnership understanding
5.2 African partnership understandings
5.3 Contemporary protagonists of German-African church partnerships. South Africa and Western Africa as particular examples
5.3.1 Mission Societies. The Bremen Mission as example
5.3.2 Church and congregation partnerships between Germany and South Africa
5.3.3 Church partnerships between Germany and Ghana
5.4 Strengths and weaknesses of German-African partnerships
6 The Church of Lippe. Examples of church partnerships with Africa
6.1 The Church of Lippe and its ecumenical involvements
6.2 Partnership between the congregations of Spork/Wendlinghausen and Hillentrup in Lippe, Germany and Alexandra in Johannesburg, South Africa
6.2.1 The partnership
6.3 Partnership between the classes Detmold, Blomberg-Horn and Bösingfeld in Lippe and the church district of Ho in North-Ghana
6.3.1 The partnership
6.4 Deduction from the examples
7 Conclusion and prospect
7.1 Mission impossible?
7.2 Mission and partnership possible!
9.1 Interview with Sigrid Dreier
9.2 Partnership agreement
9.3 Interview with Udo Süthoff
When asked about a first idea concerning “mission” in Germany today a number of people would probably think of the action thriller ‘Mission Impossible’ with Tom Cruise and Jon Voight.1
Among those who would relate “mission” to religion, a majority would probably proclaim a negative view concerning mission and mission activities. They would associate Christian mission, particularly in African countries, with western dominance, colonialism and forced conversion.2 Hence the interviewed persons would presumably underline their feelings by referring to the phrase ‘Mission? Impossible!’.
In many cases even Christians adopt an ambiguous attitude concerning Christian mission, often for the same reasons as mentioned above. They sympathize with the term “partnership” instead, particularly in connection with contemporary relations between Christians in the Northern Hemisphere and those in the Global South.3 But many of them are not aware of the close relationship between the history and different understandings of Christian mission, its theological background and the contemporary understanding of Christian partnerships.4
The present thesis contains a critical analysis of the complex connections between Christian mission, different mission theologies and church partnerships today. Based on a review of the historical development of European external mission and its theological foundations, contemporary church partnerships will be analyzed with a particular focus on relationships between Protestant Western German churches and congregations, and Protestant Western and Southern African churches and congregations. Special emphasis will be placed on the question to what degree these partnerships are influenced by mission theological perspectives and how much awareness of the connection between mission, mission theologies and partnerships exists among those persons who are involved in the partnerships. The main perspective derives from the German side, because contemporary source material from Africa concerning the topic is rare.
“Mission” is a complex term used in Christianity, politics, military or espionage, as for instance in the action thriller mentioned above. The meaning of the term lies in the Latin word “missio” meaning “sending”.5 In the New Testament the sending of the disciples is mentioned several times, although the term “mission” is not used.6
Throughout the development of Christianity mission played an important role. It was defined in various ways, depending on the zeitgeist and different biblical hermeneutics that were closely connected with the spirit of the times. Christian mission was alternately paraphrased as a proclamation of faith, the installation of the Kingdom of God, the conversion of heathens or the founding of new churches.7 Christian mission always involves communication. The goal is to proclaim the biblical message to people and thus to cause a change of attitudes and activities among the listeners.8
Throughout early Christian history, individuals disseminated Christianity. The church developed in the first three centuries C. E. and spread over Europe. From 500 to 1000 C. E. the church was also established in Northern Africa and Asia. Until the 16th century mission was predominantly performed by monks and only then explicit trans-boundary mission activities started.9 Until the 18th century particularly the Roman Catholic Church carried out this form of mission.10
Influenced by pietism and revivalism in the 19th century Protestants also, particularly in Germany, practiced external mission. Mission societies developed independently from the churches. They sent missionaries abroad and supported them financially.11
At the beginning of the 20th century not only mission societies, but different European churches started considering external mission. This was sometimes connected with colonialism. In the mission fields local churches emerged.12
In the second half of the last century the desire for equality between northern and southern churches, the growing influence of southern theologies and the awareness of global responsibilities concerning economic justice and human life led to new mission concepts.13
Today mission questions are predominantly discussed in theological circles. During the plenary meeting of the World Council of Churches 2013 in Busan, South Korea, a new declaration concerning mission and evangelization is scheduled to be issued.14
Mission has been the basic characteristic of Christianity and the Christian churches from its beginning until today.15 The basic aim of mission can be described as an intention to cross borders in order to spread the message of God’s love and justice.16
In the bible several passages indicate the necessity of mission and its varieties of specifications.
Already in the Old Testament trans-border dissemination of faith played a role. Abraham for example was chosen by God after the break of humans’ unity as described in the story of the Tower of Babel in Genesis 11: 1-9. He acts as a guiding figure for different peoples. Hence God is not only limited to the people of Israel.17
In the New Testament the line of implied mission activities goes from the Historical Jesus up to the Pauline epistles. After Jesus’ resurrection the dissemination of the Christian message became a crucial aspect for the emerging church. Jesus as Kyrios had to be witnessed and the eschatological expectation of a return of Jesus confirmed this witness necessity. For Paul as one of the most active figures of early Christianity, salvation is needed by all people. To gain salvation the knowledge of the Christian message is necessary and this can only be fulfilled by mission.18
The most obvious passage from the Gospel that refers to mission is the Great Commission in Matthew 28:18-20. Jesus instructs his disciples to proclaim the Good News and to make disciples in all nations. Referred to as to the Sermon on the Mount, the Great Commission includes an orthodox element as well as an ethical one.19
In the Gospel of Mark the emphasis lies on mission activities in the whole world and the whole creation.20 Jesus demands the preaching of the Gospel among all peoples before the world comes to an end. Hence mission is connected with the topic of the Kingdom of God and an evangelistic element.21 The Kingdom of God starts with the life, death and resurrection of Christ, and the Christians participate in this Kingdom in word and deed.22
In the Gospel of Luke and in Acts, mission is introduced as a concept that was initialized by God to be continued by the disciples. With the Nazareth Manifesto in Luke 4:16 ff., the author stresses the particular Good News for the poor.23
The Gospel of John contains an explicit Christological approach concerning mission. Jesus’ assignment comes from God the Father and hence the disciples’ assignment is based on Jesus.24 Peace and reconciliation are connected with the sending of the disciples and imply a promise to the world.25
Based on the biblical passages previously mentioned and on a particular hermeneutic of the bible in general, Christian theologians have developed various models of Christian mission.
Theo Sundermeier, a German Protestant theologian, describes four main models of Christian mission.
The first one is the “Plantation or Conversion Model”. It is based on the idea to install the church in non-Christian global regions and it dominated the mission understanding in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. The Great Commission can be seen as the main hermeneutic basis for this model. Gustav Warneck, a Protestant and Joseph Schmidlin, a Catholic, were proponents of this model.26
The “Salvific-historical Model” includes an eschatological approach and occurred after World War II. Mission was interpreted as an important task between the first and the second coming of Christ. This model called people from a sinful world without the aspect of responsibility for the world.27 This model has been influenced particularly by the dialectic theology of Karl Barth and other Protestant theologians, which is based on the assumption that the otherworldly God cannot be explained in an earthly way.28
At the beginning of the second half of the last century, the sending of God into the world and its connection with reconciliation dominated the understanding of mission. In the “Promise-historical Model”, as Sundermeier calls it, mission and church exist for the sake of the world and the main aim of mission is to bring the biblical Shalom as a concept of peace in connection with justice to the world.29 This model has a close relationship to the Nazareth Manifesto.30
The “Communication Model” expresses that God unites with the people in the Kenosis of his son Jesus Christ in an act of communication which should function as role model among people of different cultures and languages. Mission activities should reflect these communicative elements by practicing a dialogue-related mission work.31
The concept of Missio Dei marks an important impulse for the theological foundations of mission in the second half of the 20th century. Missio Dei means that God starts the mission with the sending of his son into the world. The mission of the churches is no longer a limited activity in relation to a geographic extension of churches, but a holistic activity within the salvific history of God.32 The initial point of Missio Dei is the love of the triune God. The church is included in the process of God’s mission, but mission and the installation of the Kingdom of God is no longer a work of the church in itself.33
During the second half of the last century socio-economical factors were included in mission discussions, and the proclamation of the Gospel was closely linked with questions of justice for marginalized people.34 In relation to this emphasis different concepts were generated. The concept of Konvivenz, developed by Theo Sundermeier, focused on the possibility of identifying the presence of God in foreign people by living, eating and celebrating together in community. The foreignness between persons who meet in this way will not disappear but lead to a new understanding of the life conditions of the foreigner.35
In connection with the concept of Missio Dei which is focused on the world, the term “Koinonia” plays an important role. The communion of believers expresses the structured form of human mission. In addition the believers are participants of the divine Shalom. Further aspects are Kerygma as the proclamation of the Gospel and Diakonia as an active work for Shalom.36 In general Missio Dei can be characterized as an ecumenical missionary approach because it focuses on the whole world and its people and it is based on a holistic approach of witness and ministry in a global context.37
In continuation of the Missio Dei concept with its emphasis on Koinonia, contextual mission theological ideas emerged. Christ himself is seen as a foreigner in all cultures and hence the Christian mission itself must be a contextual one. As a consequence mission should be practiced in a way of inculturation and it should include continuous work concerning awareness of its own contextual presuppositions.38
Several historical developments and the related zeitgeist have influenced the different mission theological approaches and had in return a direct impact on historical developments.
Although the church extended in the first centuries after Christ, mission was interpreted as nearly accomplished after the journeys of Paul and the establishment of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Paul himself interpreted mission as nearly accomplished because of the close Parousia.39
For the Protestant churches the 19th century marks the most important era for external mission. The tremendous technical and social cataclysms of the industrial revolution in Europe at this time led to a pauperization of large parts of the population. At the same time imperialism became an important political attitude and European nations started to intensify the colonization of foreign nations in the Southern Hemisphere.40
The impoverishment of the masses in Europe induced social engagement for the poorest, called Inner Mission, predominantly among the revivalists in Germany.41 Although external mission was influenced by colonialism, imperialism and a sense of superiority of western civilization, Inner Mission led to an awareness of a necessity of socio-diaconal engagement also in the mission fields and consequently for instance educational and medical institutions were installed.42
Mission concepts were influenced by two main aspects around 1900. The local churches in the mission regions had grown tremendously and thus they had developed their own contextual forms of church life. The relationship between the European sending mission departments and churches and the new churches in the mission fields had to be clarified. Secondly many Christians suffered because of the confessional disunity of the churches. The longing for cooperation and unity also influenced mission activities.43
In 1910 the European mission departments organized the first Global Mission Conference in Edinburgh. Although the conference was influenced by colonialism,44 it also gave important impulses for the development of the ecumenical movement as an overall-Christian movement.45 During the following conference in Jerusalem in 1928 the equality between the European and the overseas churches gained importance.46
After the Second World War most of the former colonies gained political sovereignty and the local churches became independent. Consequently the question of an equal relationship between European and Southern churches became more crucial.47 The term “partnership”, already mentioned at the Jerusalem conference in 1928, now got an official character during the mission conference in Whitby/Canada in 1947.48
As the mission understanding partnership questions were also linked with the longstanding challenges of the splintering of Christianity into different confessions. This had also influenced the churches in the mission fields. In an effort to reconcile the church’s factions, the World Council of Churches was founded in 1948 in Amsterdam as a global church community of then 147 churches of nearly all different confessions, except of the Roman-Catholic Church.49 This marks the starting point of the Ecumenical Movement with its aim to install church unity and to proclaim the Gospel worldwide in connection with diaconal work.50
With the development of the Missio Dei concept during the mission conference of Willingen/Germany 1952 the shift from a mere geographic to a holistic and world-centered understanding of mission began.51
In the late decades of the 20th century the connection between mission as proclamation of the Gospel and mission as an active engagement for the enhancement of the life situation of the poor dominated the discussions concerning the aim of Christian mission particularly in the World Council of Churches.52 The Ecumenical Movement reacted in this way due to global development politics that had caused increasing marginalization and poverty. Churches also spoke out against racist regimes such as the one in South Africa. The Missio Dei concept with its elements of Shalom and Koinonia was used as argument for Christian engagement in earthly realities. In relation with this engagement diaconal activities in mission became more important and church development activities emerged.53 With the Conciliar Process for Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation mission was interpreted as the active work for a vision of the human community that cared for the creation, and in which every human could participate in a life of abundance.54
During the Congress of World Evangelization in Lausanne/Switzerland in 1974 Evangelical Christians protested against the predominant socio-political and diaconal approaches of mission theologies.55 They complained about the missing Kerygma and proclaimed the primacy of the Gospel concerning its contexts, of evangelization concerning social deeds and of Christian proclamation concerning contextual dialogues.56
Christians in the Global South today often value mission positively, particularly because of its connection between proclamation and diaconal services. On the contrary numerous European Christians focus on the negative interweaving between mission and colonialism and they request research and discussions.57
The changing attitudes of mission understandings from a feeling of European supremacy to an ecumenical siblinghood of Christians and to world responsibility is demonstrated in the different saving boxes which were used for collecting financial support for overseas missionaries and their work.58
Whereas the first boxes in the 19th century often show indigenous figures in devote positions with a particular mechanism that let the figure nod after inserting money, boxes of the 20th century often show the globe or an indigenous figure working together with a missionary.59
Collection Sparkasse Bochum,
illustration not visible in this excerpt
source: private photo
Collection Sparkasse Bochum and Evangelisch-lutherisches Missionswerk in Niedersachsen,
illustration not visible in this excerpt
source: private photo
When local people in the mission fields became embedded in the European mission work, they developed their own theological concepts including social activities and new methods of hermeneutics and catechism. These voices from the South that gained weight during decolonization influenced the shifts of mission understanding in Europe and developed local contextual mission theological approaches.60
In the second half of the 20th century African theologies emerged as a reaction to Christian mission theologies.61 These theologies consist of a few typical characteristics. Bible-oriented elements which relate aspects of African cultures with the Holy Scripture play an important role.62 African theologies are based on a close connection between individual and global experiences, and they refer this holistic approach also to human experiences with God. Faith in Africa can only be performed in the community including different generations and also the ancestors.63 Hence the African appreciation of community particularly corresponds with the aspect of Koinonia.64
A further characteristic of African theology is its clear political approach. Oppression, poverty, epidemics and the results of the climate change are prevalent phenomena on the continent.65 Mainly with this characteristic African mission theologies have influenced the global mission theologies of the later decades of the last century.
Based on a correlation between the life situation of the poor and biblical texts, Liberation Theology emerged in Latin America in the 1960s. The option for the poor became important in all theological concepts.66 The connection between a particular way of cohabitation in many Latin American communities, including an integration of suffering and death, influenced the ecumenical theological approach of Konvivenz as a new general missionary concept.67
Like Latin American Liberation Theology, in South Korea the Minjung Theology developed in the 1970s as a reaction to an aggravation of the economic situation in the country, caused by a governmental development program. Like the Liberation Theology the Minjung Theology puts emphasis on the poor and marginalized.68
Several aspects and events influenced the changing understanding of Christian mission. Particularly the longing of the global churches for unity, the awareness of equality between northern and southern churches, justice questions, the respect towards contextual theological approaches and the influences of history on theology and vice versa caused enormous effects and gave way to the development of further concepts, such as the emerging of Christian church partnerships.
At the end of the 20th century, the shift in mission understanding can be theologically explained as a development from a ‘theology of mission to a missionary theology’69, as the South African theologian David J. Bosch states. Within these developments the term “partnership” occurred and began to play an important role in mission discussions.
Like the term “mission”, the term “partnership” is used in different fields. Personal relationships, political confederacies and economic cooperation are called partnerships.70
Partnership as a particular theological concept was introduced into Christian discussions at the beginning of the last century in connection with the challenges of future relationships between the northern and the southern Churches. The topic was already on the agenda of the first World Mission Conference in Edinburgh 1910.71
During the mission meeting in Jerusalem in 1928, a number of delegates from the mission churches, particularly from Asia, attended. They contributed in an extensive way to the mission discussions and claimed equality between the sending and the mission churches.72 The European churches also encouraged the mission churches to develop contextual ways of proclaiming the Gospel and building their Christian communities.73 The explicit term “partnership” was now mentioned for the first time in a declaration paper. ‘There is possible now a true partnership enabling the older churches to work with, through or in the younger’.74
It was the World Mission Conference 1947 in Whitby/Canada which found an explicit definition for the term “partnership”. The delegates released an explanation with the title ‘Partners in Obedience’75 and created with it an understanding of equal relationships between northern and southern churches and the possibility to become independent from the European churches. But the conference was also a general ecumenical event. The splintering of the confessions seemed to be of minor importance. The delegates wanted to find a new general prophetic voice of the church of Jesus Christ in order to obey the biblical demand of preaching the Gospel to everybody.76
In addition to the longing for unity during the second half of the 20th century the north-south divide concerning poverty had a crucial impact on the partnership concept. The financial means of the European churches was much larger than the budgets of the majority of southern churches, which were also challenged by low development standards. It seemed that the partnership relationships fortified this imbalance and caused dependencies. As a consequence mission and partnership were connected with the engagement for social and economic justice and with human dignity and solidarity. Mainly in the Ecumenical Movement these aspects were closely connected with the quest for unity and they were related to mission theological elements, such as Shalom and Diakonia.77
During the last three decades of the previous century church partnerships expanded into different fields of activities. European Missionary societies still maintain relationships with churches in the Global South. The mission societies have also reacted to the shift of the understanding of mission and partnership. In the German mission society Vereinte Evangelische Mission (United Evangelical Mission) for example today all partner churches have the same votes, independent from their economic power.78
In Germany several Protestant territorial churches, church districts and congregations developed partnerships with southern pendants. This concept is still vital and popular today.79 Poverty questions, general global political discussions and the aim to build Christian siblinghood in unity had an influence on the forms and activities of these partnerships from the beginning.80
As the understanding of Christian mission in general is derived from biblical passages, theologians also base the Christian understanding of partnership relationships on texts from the Holy Scripture.
The relationship between God and humans is based on a form of partnership. In Genesis 1:28 men and women are described as partners of God’s activities when they subdue the earth.81
The longing for the unity of the church of Jesus Christ in correspondence with partnership relationships among the different elements in this church is expressed by the picture of one body in 1. Corinthians 12.82
Furthermore the journeys of the apostle Paul to different congregations are mentioned as a role model for partnerships. Paul kept in contact with the congregations by writing letters in which he mentioned topics such as the belief in God. Paul valued each congregation as part of a united body.83
As in the mission theologies Koinonia plays a main role in the hermeneutics of partnerships. The body of the community of believers does not only express their relationship in unity, but also refers to equality, diversity and care for each other. In a sacramental way Koinonia is expressed by baptism and the Eucharist. All Christians are baptized by one Spirit to one body. In the Eucharist this Christian community is realized.84
Partnerships are the building of particular communities of people from different cultural backgrounds and of people with different charisms. Presupposition for the building of this community is faith in Christ and the acceptance of the diversity of the partners. This interpretation refers particularly to 1. Corinthians 12: 1-26.85
The concept of Koinonia becomes a reality when the partners share their goods and skills and celebrate together. In partnerships both partners have to determine how to achieve this. Hence Koinonia also includes the will to learn from each other.86
Finally a partnership is not an end in itself, but fills the biblical message with life and expresses the witness of the church of Christ in the world. This understanding is closely connected with the Missio Dei concept. God sends himself into the world in order to bring Shalom. Partnership relationships participate in this sending of God.87
When the concept of an evangelization of the world according to western civilization and theology had given way to an understanding of contextual and partnership related Christianity, questions of the transfer of this changed attitude emerged. Particularly the concept of Missio Dei with its core elements of witness, Koinonia and Shalom included a practical understanding of mission. Partnerships between European churches and churches abroad were developed as practical realization of the new mission theological basis.88
Respect and understanding of foreign people are the basis of the development of a global Christian siblinghood. Hence direct encounters play an important role within partnerships. By visiting other people in their cultures and environments understanding and respect for them will grow and can lead to a reflection of one’s own cultural and religious backgrounds. Konvivenz and Koinonia can blossom effectively during those encounters.89 Mutual exchange of information and discussions about topics of interest and the preparation and reflection of visits complete the partnership visits.90
The protagonists of a church partnership should be aware of the biblical and theological basis of partnerships. This includes knowledge of the relevant bible passages, and the connection between mission theology and partnership elements. Biblical and theological reflections with the partners, such as bible studies, common preparations and celebrations of worship services and discussions during conferences are also important.91
1 Zweitausendeins.de, ‘Filmlexikon’, Zweitausendeins.de, (n. d.), <http://www.zweitausendeins.de/filmlexikon/?wert68038&sucheNachtitel>, accessed 29 October 2013.
2 Gabriele Mayer, ‘Zwiespältige Vergangenheit – vielfältige Gegenwart’ in Evangelische Frauen in Deutschland e.V. (ed.), Mission (Arbeitshilfe zum Weitergeben 1/2013; Hannover: Evangelische Frauen in Deutschland e.V., 2013), 51-55 at 51.
3 Thomas Schuster, ‘Reflections on Partnership’ in Association of Protestant Churches and Missions in Germany (ed.), Reflections on Partnership: Analysis of International Church Partnerships (Hamburg: Association of Protestant Churches and Missions in Germany, 2006), 5-82 at 29.
4 Lothar Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen: Zwischenkirchliche Partnerschaften als ökumenische Lerngemeinschaften (Erlangen: Verlag der Ev.-Luth. Mission, 1996) at 285-286.
5 Hans Ulrich Reifler, Handbuch der Missiologie: Missionarisches Handeln aus biblischer, historischer und sozialwissenschaftlicher Perspektive (mission academics 19; Nürnberg: Verlag für Theologie und Religionswissenschaften, 2nd edition 2009) at 43.
6 Klaus Schäfer, ‘Das Christentum ist undenkbar ohne Mission: Zu den Sendungsworten des Auferstandenen in den Evangelien’ in Klaus Schäfer (ed.) im Auftrag der Theologischen Kommission des Evangelischen Missionswerkes, Plädoyer für Mission: Beiträge zum Verständnis von Mission heute (Weltmission heute, Studienheft 35; Hamburg: Evangelisches Missionswerk, 1998), 24-42 at 24.
7 Karl Müller, Mission Theology: An Introduction (Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1987) at 31-35.
8 Eberhard Hauschildt, ‘Mission und Werbung – eine Bisoziation’, in Kirchenamt der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland (EKD) (ed.) Lesebuch zur Vorbereitung auf das Schwerpunktthema „Was hindert’s, dass ich Christ werde? (nach Apg. 8, 36): Missionarische Impulse. 4. Tagung der 11. Synode der EKD 2011 (Hannover: Evangelische Kirche Deutschland, 2011), 12-20 at 12-13, <http://www.ekd.de/download/lesebuch_schwerpunktthema_mission_internet.pdf>, accessed 16 October 2013.
9 The history of European mission, such as the missionary work among the Saxons or the British cannot be described in detail here due to the focus of the thesis on German-African relationships.
10 Henning Wrogemann, Missionstheologien der Gegenwart: Globale Entwicklungen, kontextuelle Profile und ökumenische Herausforderungen (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2013) at 31-34.
11 Wolf-Dieter Hauschild, Reformation und Neuzeit (Lehrbuch der Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte, Volume 2; Gütersloh: Chr. Kaiser/Gütersloher Verlagshaus GmbH, 3rd edition 1999) at 697-699 and 768-769.
12 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 33.
13 Dietrich Werner, ‘Mission, Evangelisation’ in Harald Uhl gemeinsam mit Athanasios Basdekis, Dagmar Heller, Klaus Lefringhausen, Konrad Raiser, Barbara Rudolph, Dorothea Sattler, Hans Jörg Urban, Klaus Peter Voß (eds.) im Auftrag der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Christlicher Kirchen in Deutschland (ACK), Taschenlexikon Ökumene (Frankfurt am Main: Otto Lembeck; Paderborn: Bonifatius, 2003) 187-189 at 187-189.
14 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 166-167.
15 Theo Sundermeier, ‘Theologie der Mission‘ in Volker Küster (ed), Theo Sundermeier. Konvivenz und Differenz: Studien zu einer verstehenden Missionswissenschaft (Missionswissenschaftliche Forschungen Neue Folge, Volume 3; Erlangen: Verlag der Ev.-Luth. Mission, 1995), 15-42 at 15.
16 Wolfgang Gern, ‘Mission und Entwicklung’ in Christoph Dahling-Sander, Andrea Schultze, Dietrich Werner, Henning Wrogemann (eds.), Leitfaden Ökumenische Missionstheologie (Gütersloh: Chr. Kaiser/Gütersloher Verlagshaus GmbH, 2003), 319-333 at 319.
17 Müller, Mission Theology, 53-54 and The Holy Bible (NRSV) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995). All following biblical quotations are also based on this source.
18 Müller, Mission Theology, 58-60 and 62.
19 Schäfer, ‘Christentum undenkbar ohne Mission’, 28-30.
20 Reifler, Handbuch Missiologie, 58.
21 Schäfer, ‘Christentum undenkbar ohne Mission’, 31.
22 Enda McDonagh, ‘Theology in a Time of AIDS’ in Robin Gill (ed.), Reflecting Theologically on AIDS: A Global Challenge (London: SCM Press, 2007), 43-59 at48.
23 Ibid. 32-34.
24 Jn 14: 9-10 in The Holy Bible (NRSV) and Sundermeier, ‘Theologie der Mission’, 33.
25 Schäfer, ‘Christentum undenkbar ohne Mission’, 38-39.
26 Schäfer, ‘Christentum undenkbar ohne Mission’, 27 and Sundermeier, ‘Theologie der Mission‘, 15-18.
27 Sundermeier, ‘Theologie der Mission’, 18-21.
28 Klaus Hock, Einführung in die Interkulturelle Theologie (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2011) at 18-19.
29 Sundermeier, ‘Theologie der Mission’, 21-24.
30 Schäfer, ‘Christentum undenkbar ohne Mission’, 34.
31 Sundermeier, ‘Theologie der Mission’, 24-25.
32 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 88-89.
33 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 78-81.
34 Hock, Interkulturelle Theologie, 37.
35 Ibid. 24.
36 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 85-90.
37 Werner, ‘Mission, Evangelisation’, 187.
38 Christoph Dahling-Sander, ‘Die kritische und kreative Rezeption kontextueller theologischer Entwürfe’ in Christoph Dahling-Sander, Thomas Kratzert (eds.), Leitfaden Ökumenische Theologie (Wuppertal: Foedus, 1998), 73-90 at 86.
39 Giancarlo Collet, ’Historische Modelle der Mission’ in Schäfer (ed.), Plädoyer für Mission, 43-55 at 44.
40 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 34-35.
41 Hauschild, Reformation und Neuzeit, 776 and 797-798.
42 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 34-35.
43 Michael Biehl, ‘Menschen brauchen Mission: Vor welchen Herausforderungen stehen wir heute?’ in Lippische Landeskirche (ed.), Missionsspardosen im Wandel der Zeit: Eine Ausstellung der Lippischen Landeskirche in der Theologischen Bibliothek des Landeskirchenamtes in Detmold vom 1. bis 18. Juni 2010. Dokumentation (Detmold: Lippische Landeskirche, n. d.), 12-22 at 14-15.
44 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 34-37.
45 J. Georg Schütz, ‘Ökumene’ in Uhl and others (eds.), Taschenlexikon Ökumene, 191-194 at 193-194.
46 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 53-54.
47 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 108-109.
48 Ibid. 75-76.
49 Reifler, Handbuch Missiologie, 275-277.
50 Schütz, ‘Ökumene’, 193.
51 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 87-89.
52 Ibid. 118.
53 Jürgen Thiesbonenkamp, ‘Das Konzept von Entwicklung aus biblisch-christlicher Perspektive’, in Jürgen Wilhelm, Hartmut Ihne (eds.), Religion und globale Entwicklung: Der Einfluss der Religionen auf die soziale, politische und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung (Berlin: Berlin University Press, 2009), 89-111 at 102-103.
54 Konrad Raiser, ‘Neue theologische Ansätze in der ökumenischen Diskussion’, in Dahling-Sander, Kratzert (eds.), Leitfaden Ökumenische Theologie, 28-36 at 35.
55 Wrogemann, Missionstheologien, 128 and 138-139.
56 Ibid. 130-133.
57 Fidon Mwombeki, ‘Mission ist Teilhabe an Gottes Aktivitäten’ in Vereinte Evangelische Mission (ed.), Infoservice (Infoservice 7-8/2013; Wuppertal: Vereinte Evangelische Mission, 2013), 24-26 at 24-25.
58 Lippische Landeskirche (ed.), Missionsspardosen im Wandel der Zeit, 5.
59 Ibid. 7, 9.
60 Hock, Interkulturelle Theologie, 46-48.
61 Ibid. 58.
62 Ibid 60.
63 Judah B. M. Kiwovele, ‘Welterfahrung und Gotteserfahrung: ein Diskussionsbeitrag aus afrikanischer Perspektive’ in Trutz Rendtorff (ed.), Europäische Theologie: Versuche einer Ortsbestimmung (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1980), 119-124 at 119-120.
64 Karl Müller, Theo Sundermeier (eds.), Lexikon missionstheologischer Grundbegriffe (Berlin: Reimer, 1987) at 11.
65 Tinyiko Sam Maluleke, ‘The Africanization of Christianity and the Fate of Mission – Ten Theses on African Christianity’ in Volker Küster (ed.), Mission Revisited: Between Mission History and Intercultural Theology ( ContactZone. Explorations in Intercultural Theology, Volume 10; Berlin: LIT, 2010), 105-116 at 111-115.
66 Müller, Sundermeier (eds.), Lexikon missionstheologischer Grundbegriffe, 38-39.
67 Theo Sundermeier, ‘Konvivenz als Grundstruktur‘ in Küster (ed), Theo Sundermeier. Konvivenz und Differenz, 43-75 at 45-47.
68 Johannes Sang-Tai Shim, ‘Minjung-Theologie’ in Wolfgang Thönissen mit Michael Hardt, Peter Lüning, Burkhard Neumann, Johannes Oeldermann (eds.) im Auftrag des Johann-Adam-Möhler-Instituts für Ökumenik, Lexikon der Ökumene- und Konfessionskunde (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 2007), 875-876 at 875-876.
69 David J. Bosch, Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission (American Society of Missiology Series, No 16; New York: Orbis Books, 7th edition1991), 492.
70 Schuster, ‘Reflections on Partnership’, 14.
71 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 36-37.
72 Ibid. 44-45.
73 Ibid. 51-52.
75 Christoph Dahling-Sander, ‘Ökumenische Partnerschaften’ in Uhl and others (eds.), Taschenlexikon Ökumene, 194-196 at 194.
76 Bauerochse, Miteinander leben lernen, 65-67.
77 Ibid. 116-120.
78 Jacques Matthey, ‘Mission und Macht – damals und heute: Vortrag an der EMW Delegiertenversammlung in Freudenstadt‘, 2009, 1-10 at 3. <http://www.emw-d.de/fix/files/Jacques-Matthey_Vortrag-mitgliederversammlung09.2.pdf>, accessed 06 October 2013.
79 Bauerochse, ‘Mission und Partnerschaft’ in Dahling-Sander and others (eds.), Leitfaden Ökumenische Missionstheologie, 334-344 at 334.
80 Dahling-Sander, ‘Ökumenische Partnerschaften’, 195.
81 Schuster, ‘Reflections on Partnership’, 33-34.
82 Dahling-Sander, ‘Ökumenische Partnerschaften’, 195.
83 Schuster, ‘Reflections on Partnership’, 35-36.
84 Dirk Stelter, ‘Nord-Süd-Partnerschaften und die ökumenische Existenz deutscher Gemeinden’ in Dahling-Sander, Kratzert (eds.), Leitfaden Ökumenische Theologie, 161-173 at 164-165.
85 Ibid. 166-167.
86 Ibid. 167-168.
87 Ibid. 171-172.
88 Philip L. Wickeri, ‘The End of Missio Dei –Secularization, Religions and the Theology of Mission’ in Küster (ed.), Mission Revisited, 27-43 at 40.
89 Raiser, ‘Neue theologische Ansätze’, 34-35.
90 Dahling-Sander, ‘Ökumenische Partnerschaften’, 196.
91 Ibid. 195.
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