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Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 2015
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Introduction of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Limitations of the Study
Delimitations of the Study
Definition of the Terms
Importance of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Barriers to the executive suite: Evidence from Ireland
A gendered point of view on the challenges of women academics in The People’s Republic of China
Claiming authority: How women explain their ascent to top business leadership positions
Shattering the Equal Pay Act’s glass ceiling
Six ways of seeing the elephant: the intersection of sex, gender and leadership
Perceptions of women in management: A thematic analysis of razing the glass ceiling
Rethinking a glass ceiling in the hospitality industry
Shaking things up or business as usual? The influence of female corporate executives and board of directors on women’s managerial representation
Breaking the stained glass ceiling: Women’s collaborative leadership style as a model for theological education
A blind spot in organization studies: Gender with ethnicity, nationality and religion
Beneath the glass ceiling: Explaining gendered role segmentation in call centers .
Benevolent sexism at work: Gender differences in the distribution of challenging developmental experiences
Breaking glass ceilings, ignoring dirty floors: The culture and class bias of diversity management
Fifty years later: Mid-career women of color against the glass ceiling in communications organizations Locating women board members in gendered director networks
The glass ceiling that refuses to break: Women directors on the boards of listed firms in China and India
The glass ceiling: A perspective of women working Durban 32 The myth of the glass ceiling: Evidence from a stock-flow analysis of authority attainment
When should I quit? Gender differences in exiting competitions
Women entrepreneurs in a masculine society: Inclusive strategy for sustainable outcomes
What are the glass ceiling barrier effects on women career progress in Jordan?
To climb or not to climb: The probing of self-imposed barriers that delay of deny career aspirations to be an administrator in a public school system
Women in the corporate world: Who hires and promotes them?
Multiple Glass Ceilings
Influence and promotability: the importance of female political skill
Generational warfare: The new workplace
Gender gap in management in positions: A survey of male and female managers in zimbabwean hotels
Gender equality in the academy: The pipeline problem
Gender diversity policies in universities: A multi-perspective framework of policy measures
Gender differences in leadership role occupancy: The mediating role of power motivation
Cultural observations facing women managers: A south african perspective
Climbing the Himalayas
Are demographic attributes and firm characteristics drivers of gender diversity? Investigating women’s positions on French boards of directors
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Selection of Participants
Printed Paper with Questions
Data Processing and Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Restatement of the Purpose
Restatement of the Demographics
Summary of Findings
Interview Question One
Interview Question Two
Interview Question Three
Interview Question Four
Interview Question Five
Interview Question Six
Interview Question Seven
Interview Question Eight
Interview Question Nine
Interview Question Ten
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings Restated
Major Question Related to the Purpose
Implications for Practice
Recommendations for Further Research
Appendix A. Interview Consent Form
Appendix B. Interview Questions
The problem is that too few women are getting CEO positions in large organizations. The nature of the research was to explore the advice from women who understand the experience with management positions. Some of the female managers have experience as a female CEO and functioned in a dual role as manager and female CEO. The advice may offer a tool for other females to pursue to gain the CEO position or top positions in firms. The research methodology employed was qualitative analysis. The summary of the procedures was to schedule an appointment with the current female managers and interview them using phenomenological research. The results of the study are conclusive in that the common category among the 10 interview codes was learning. Also, the findings of the study revealed common themes with a frequency of three as Who You Know Helped You Get Your Position (Q1), Climbed the Ladder (Q1), Knowledge of the Roles (Q3), Come Prepared (Q3), Learning by example (Q4), Open to questions (Q4), Learning to deal with different attitudes (Q5), Communication (Q5), Hard work (Q6), Learn (Q8), Report it to HR (Q9), Don’t keep quiet about it (Q9), Hard work (Q10) and Be strong (Q10), respectively. Less common themes reflected a frequency of two for (Q2) as Keep Calm and Have Goals. Moreover, less than common themes were a frequency of two for (Q7) as Be Yourself. Recommendations for further study include researchers that continue to seek interviews with female CEOs in large firms. This may shed light on ways that women can obtain the CEO position in large companies. Also, this may allow for women to climb to higher positions in firms.
All credit, glory and honor goes to Jesus Christ! Jesus Christ is the lord in my life. Thank you, Jesus Christ - for everything that you have done, will do and are going to do to save my soul. Jesus Christ is the supreme God who has died on the cross for my sins so that I would have a chance at the tree of life -saved by his grace - less any man should boast. I am nothing without the King of Kings and the Lord of Lords! Throughout the journey to the degree, Jesus Christ’s word helped me to go through many trials, challenges, and paths. In the King James Version Bible, God inspired men of God to reveal fruits of his spirit for mankind to use. Galatians 5:22-23 state that “but the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance: against such there is no law” (KJV Bible, 2015, p. 1). As I typed all of my papers, I walked around the mall daily using these fruits to guide me in my writings. These fruits are the key to winning at everything in life. Also, I used Jesus Christ’s suit of armor (Full Armor of God) to defeat the wiles of the devil and spiritual attacks on my life. Florence Green, CEO, of Peacemakers constantly reminds me of the following biblical verses. Ephesians 6:11 state “Put on the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil” (KJV Bible Online, 2015, p. 1). For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
Wherefore take unto you the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness; And your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace. Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God (KJV Bible, 2015, p. 1).
Thus, I say again, Jesus Christ is everything to me! I can achieve all things through Jesus Christ who strengthens me! Jesus Christ’s prayer from Matthew 6:9:13 is as follows: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed by thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen (KJV 1611, 2015, p. 1).
Customarily, I would like to acknowledge Dr. Noriega and Dr. Rabbidoux for their remarkable insight and assistance. These two men are heroes in that they have compassion for me and took time to help me have a clearer view on the research. I will never forget the first time that I met Dr. Noriega during W7000. He is a very humble educator who listens and inspires me to grow in my learning. Dr. Noriega, you are very special, kind, considerate and the best instructor at Argosy University. You really care about students and you have charisma which inspired me to reach for new heights. Thanks so much for everything!
Also, I would love to acknowledge Dr. Susan Ogletree for her insights on qualitative research during the qualitative research course (R7040). Dr. Ogletree really gets deep into the heart of how research is supposed to be done. Dr Ogletree taught me to give credit to the founding fathers of research and to stand with them in writing. I feel so powerful when I stand with the founding fathers of qualitative research. This really helped me to gain better insight, grow, and learn from the root source of techniques.
Furthermore, I would like to acknowledge the entire Argosy University staff for assisting me with everything. I really enjoyed learning from Dr. Pesakovic! She is my role model and I will continue to aspire to be like her in the education arena. Dr. Pesakovic speaks at least 17 different languages and this encouraged me to want to learn more languages too. Furthermore, I would like to acknowledge the president Sandra Wise, Kathleen Cornett, Dr. Lim, and all of the instructors at Argosy University in Sarasota, Fl.
Additionally, I would like to acknowledge the church at Christian Baptist Church in Charleston, SC for their inspiration during my dissertation. The church closed during my dissertation due to lack of funding and members are worshiping at the Baptist Center Foundation in North Charleston, SC to carry out the covenant with God. Greatly, let me acknowledge the most inspirational person who assisted me with encouragement, clarified passages from the bible, and she is vital to my achievements. This spectacular individual is my mother Florence Green. She was an ordained minister for over 43 years. She is also the real CEO of Peacemakers in Charleston, SC. She has fed the word of God to others for decades. Mom - I will always love you!
Furthermore, I would love to acknowledge all Christians everywhere who are fighting for their soul and praying for others. Also, I would like to bring recognition to all of my deceased love ones and all deceased people everywhere. I achieved this degree for everyone who did not get a chance to show what they can accomplish through Jesus Christ! I respect all deceased people and the following people. I recognize Aquilla Causey - (My 2nd Cousin who died of lung cancer which was lately diagnosed). She died during my fight with the courses and I didn’t have enough money to go see her. When I learned that she had her fight at caringbridge.com, I sent her messages and support. When I learned that she had lung cancer, I made her some chilli peppers with capsaicin to help heal her and kill the cancer. I never got to give it to her because she was a few states away. I still have the bottle of Cayenne capsules in my glove box and a part of me just can’t move it without tearing up. Also, during my dissertation, Guillermo Carpio, my nephew passed away from a staph infection at the nursing home. He was only 20 years old. His mother is Dequetta Carpio and she has been kicked off of her widow check from social security. She is hurting over her son’s death which was unfair due to the hospital’s inability to stop causing infections to her son who was in a coma. Also, my granduncle Henry Green died during the dissertation from old age. Moreover, I am fighting every day to save my mother from cancer. A hole is burning in my soul with pain from knowing that my mother has cancer. The doctors said that the cancer has spread to her kidneys and liver. I can’t imagine life without my mother. Also, Otis Green is my father and he was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He is my role model and taught me to be strong. He is fighting with radiation and please pray for him. Moreover, my only daughter has had diabetes type 1 since she was eight years old. We race to save life when the insulin doesn’t work by walking miles at a time around the mall. There is a hole in my soul with pain that burns when people I love hurt. The pain is growing beyond tolerance! After yearning for a grandchild, my daughter is finally 2 months pregnant with my little cooking bundle of happiness. I am looking forward to being a grandmother so that I can nurture my grandchild, but as of now we do not know the sex of the child. Always know - grandchild- that grandmother loves you and thinks of you all the time.
Florence Davis Green - Kyrica Green and I will always miss you! Mama, thanks for everything you did to rare me and my daughter!
This dissertation is dedicated to numerous people, but above all is Jesus Christ! Lord, without you, I am nothing and with you I am your servant! I humbly give thanks to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit for the opportunity to achieve this doctoral degree. Customarily, I would love to dedicate this document to my mother Florence Green. Mother, you are a mother among all mothers! You have been there for me through thick and thin. I dedicate this document to you and the proceeds thereof. Florence Green dedicates this poem to the dissertation. She has helped the local community by feeding the homeless, taking hot meals to the senior citizen homes, communing people and praying for numerous individuals for over 43 years. She uses her own money and never collected a dime for help. Homeless people come to her for a warm plate of food and she feeds them like her own family member. Who else does this? Not many heroes! I pray that she gets her undeserved recognition to her nonprofit corporation at Peacemakers 816 Burger St. Charleston, SC 29407. Florence Green is was battling cancer, but god has called her home on March 16, 2015 around 6pm to 8pm. Mama, I will always love you - eternally-beyond time-with every fiber of my being! My mother wrote a poem to describe her love to Jesus Christ! It is so beautiful and here it is:
Conceptions of Love
Love is of God. God is Love. He firsts loves! That is why all humans must first love someone or something. Love is eternal! It is everlasting! Love is stronger than death! Death is limited but love is not! When we love someone - mother - wife - child - or friend and he or she dies - Do the love we have for them dies? Or, does it deepen at the thought of them being gone away for always? And- Sorrow has filled our hearts. And- the longing of being with them once more. Love is consistent of many special things such as a deep - penetrating - over joyous feelings and a passionate - burning desire of wanting of or for someone - (a person). It is invisible, unseen, and can’t be heard. Unheard of but you can feel it. Love is as the wind. Can’t be seen but felt. Knows not how or where it comes from or when it will come upon you suddenly. Strangely, unexpected and strongly - as though some unknown goodness has dealt with your soul. Love is not made. It is created. Made from something. Created is from nothing. It just happens. The time appointed at creation is of the creator - God Almighty!
Love makes one feel inferior at times. Not being the right person for the one he or she loves. He or she feels much below his or her mate at times. At other times, a feeling of superiority is deeply felt such as I am just as good or better than he or she is. And- the person that’s in love will feel in his or her highly emotional state of feelings. The other person involved is lucky to be loved by him or her, and he or she is more important than his mate. Some people go through life and find love at an old age. Some find it while they are young and realize it and build upon it.
It is as a small seed! It must be fed and treated daily to further its growth. Much affection and tender loving care and attention much be had. For when it is grown, it is the greatest seed of all. No, there is nothing greater and nothing was ever made or created - even was meant to be greater than love. Sometimes, one may say - I am not in love anymore - the feelings are gone. If once in love - always! The feelings have died down that you may be able to bear it. If that overpowering feelings remains always - we will die from it. So it is taken for a while so that we may be able to bear it. As one may kill his or her feelings if love is neglected - It will soon die - itself if not nourished! We can live ever so long without food or water. So also love can live a while without being fed and it vanishes as it came.
God love is beyond human understanding! His love remains even after ours die. Human love alone is not strong enough. We need God’s love to further our love. That is may become that lasting and undying love. The poor falls in love - the rich - and all that can breathe. God is Love! So he has blessed all of his creations to partake of his love. Creation like humans feel love. It respects no one. Love so is -God! God is no respecter to a person or things. Love is smell! The beauty and sweetness of it. Love is taste! Tasting the sweet joy of passions and ecstasy of honey-flavored joy! Love can see all of what it loves and blind to all else. Our senses are taste, the same as love, smell as love, see and feel as love. It is the control of our very existence. It is the control of our very being. So when love is going well, we are happy because that love that controls all is well. When things are not right - something goes wrong for some reason or another. We shrink and we’re unhappy and want to die. Here’s why - because our control is out of order. Love is sharing - unselfish and understanding - trying with all one’s heart and soul to understand the reason, thought, or motive of a loved one and realizing that we must remember to look below the surface. For every action there is a reaction. Put yourself in his or her place and size up the matter or situation. Love is longsuffering as soon as things don’t please one -he or she sometimes give-up. Suffer - bear whatever must be bear. For as long as it must be. You feel like giving up - keep fighting - stick with it - never give-up.
Love is endurance. Stick with what must be suffered. Never give-up! Love is tolerance. Put up with it. Take it - until there is no more to take. For when you feel it’s the end at the breaking point - God takes over. You feel it’s the end - well it’s the beginning of endurance!
God never puts no more on anyone than they can bear. The stronger one feels for another - that much more must he go through or suffer. Are you worthy of that true love? You will be tried, time and time again and proven. Love is faith - working together - with all of its attributes and wonders of life. Love cannot be seen. You may see the one you love but that love that is working so powerfully within - cannot be seen. So is faith. Faith is the proof - assurance of things hoped for. A conviction of things not seen. Why should a man hope for that which is seen, but hope for that which is not seen? As long as one lives - there is hope for anything may yet take place in life for him or her. We have faith, hope, and love. The greatest of these are love! Doubt not (Green, 2015, p. 1-2). It is imperative to mention that since Florence Green is the researcher’s mother, the researcher cannot use her in the study. As per CITI training and certification, this is likely a conflict of interest. Moreover, the dedication section of this study is not a part of the actual study. Thus, the researcher can express views as long as it is revealed as truth.
Alternatively, the researcher asked Florence Green an interview question and she was very participative. She revealed several themes such as being well-educated in the field of interest, sharing your abilities with people of the same interest, study to gain approval from others and study to prove to others your interest, respectively. Also, she offers these themes as be direct, plain and to the point for forthcoming women who aspire to endeavor in top positions. Mama you are everything (friend, counselor, teacher, nurturer, biblical inspirer, and unlimited roles) to me my daughter, all of your children, your husband and we will sadly miss you.
Table 1. Employee Participants
Table 2. Employee Participants
Table 3. Interview Question 1: Tell me about how you were able to achieve your past management position
Table 4. Coding Question
Table 5. Interview Question 2: What advice do you give to other women about how to effectively function in a management position?
Table 6. Coding Question
Table 7. Coding Question
Table 8. Interview Question 3: What should women do to prepare for efficiently running the management position?
Table 9. Coding Question
Table 10. Interview Question 4: What role did a mentor play to help you in your past management position?
Table 11. Coding Question
Table 12. Interview Question 5: What were the biggest challenges that you experienced as a past manager in regards to the glass ceiling?
Table 13. Coding Question
Table 14. Interview Question 6: What factors do you feel contributed to your prosperity in your former management position?
Table 15. Coding Question
Table 16. Interview Question 7: What advice do you offer to women about going beyond the call of duty as a manager?
Table 17. Coding Question
Table 18. Interview Question 8: What can other managerial women do to get ahead in a large company?
Table 19. Coding Question
Table 20. Interview Question 9: What advice do you offer to other women who encounter sexual obstacles from the opposite sex on their path to gaining top positions?
Table 21. Coding Question
Table 22. Interview Question 10: What do you think women should do to get the CEO position in a large company?
Barriers exist in the work environment that impacts the promotions of women employees. Barriers relate to the glass ceiling theory that suggests that minorities may not rise above a certain level in the organization. The glass ceiling became a common terminology followed by when it was utilized in the Wall Street Journal by reporters Hymnowitz and Schellhard during 1986. The term is a daily metaphor utilized to depict the clear barricade before females looking to ascend up company pyramids (Smith, Caputi, & Crittenden, 2012; Powell, 2012). This occurrence is liable for the rarity of females occupying leadership and elder managerial roles in various segments; specifically in business and political arenas (Smith, Caputi, & Crittenden, 2012; Catalyst, 2007; Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010). A barrier like discrimination may block minorities such as women from gaining a higher position, equal pay, high sense of self-worth, and other benefits related to success.
The glass ceiling is a worldwide phenomenon that occurs in various countries and in the United States. Boston Consultant Group (2012) performed a study on all continents. Boston Consultant Group (2012) mentioned that the gender space in management is vivid and there is still space for enhancement. Boston Consultant Group examined the gender space and collaborative good practices. Boston Consultant Group (2012) benchmark examination of 44 global organizations discovered that merely 17 percent of candidates measured nationally revealed that their firms have particular, aimed actions for recruiting more females. Also, Boston Consultant Group (2012) discovered that the majority of firms are creating some progress. Female’s internetworks and diversity education are popular. Consequently, these alone cannot twist gender diverseness into a company benefit and suggests using measurable tasks for recruitment, advancement, and preservation (Boston Consultant Group, 2012; Dyrchs & Strack, 2012).
Berry and Franks (2010) mentioned that women occupy one to three percent of upper level executive roles in the top corporations globally (Berry & Franks, 2010). Since one to three percent is a very small amount, it is evident that few women shatter the glass ceiling. The clear barrier phenomenon will be explored to provide insight into what assisted the low value of executive level women to obtain their upper level positions. A qualitative analysis will be used to explore these rare female CEOs beliefs in regards to breaking through the glass ceiling. Thus, the case for the study relates to what elements that these women believe assisted them to achieve their current Chief Executive Officer (CEO) position.
The phenomenology approach was used for the study. In phenomenology researches, the investigator refrains from creating inferences, concentrates on certain subject newly and gullibly, crafts an inquiry or worry to steer the research, and originates results that will offer the base for additional study and recall (Moustakas, 1994). Moustakas (1994) puts forth the idea that phenomenology research explores the spirit or conceptions of lived experiences. Moustakas (1994) mentioned that phenomenological researches take conclusions from that offer the foundation for more study and likeness (Moustakas, 1994). Inside phenomenology discipline an association infinitely lives among the exterior view of organic entities and interior concepts, remembrances, and decisions (Moustakas, 1994). Phenomenology was used to capture the substances of the participant encounters with breaking the glass ceiling. The researcher explored the experiences of 10 women who knocked holes in the barriers to high level positions and the glass ceiling phenomenon. Phenomenology provided insight using research, interview questions, and responses from 10 women who kicked holes through the glass ceiling.
Catalyst (2014) displayed a bar chart with the percent of Fortune 500 women CEOs. Catalyst (2014) showed in their chart that from the years of 2011 through 2014, the percentages were 2.4, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.8, respectively. Though the rates of female CEOs have increase in the past four years, the values still reflected very low amounts. Thus, a problem is that there are too many low percentages for female CEOs in Fortune 500 firms. These low values stimulate the idea that the glass ceiling is too prevalent in Fortune 500 companies.
Regardless of the worldwide attention that the glass ceiling concern has elevated from past periods, the sex pay crack is yet an actuality and females go on to agonize some economic impacts for this unjust action in the work atmosphere (Cabeza, Johnson, & Tyner, 2011). Across the previous years, numerous researches were performed to clarify the details why females are paid lower than males, though carrying out alike or identical occupations (Cabeza, Johnson, & Tyner, 2011).
The Federal Glass Ceiling Commission (FGCC) was established by the Civil Rights Act of 1991 to concentrate limelight on, and conclude a research connecting to the presence of false obstacles to the progression of females and subgroups in the labor environment, and to create suggestions for defeating these blockages (EEOC, 1991, 2009; Cabeza, Johnson, & Tyner, 2011). Reich (1995) revealed that the Glass Ceiling Commission performed the study which found that at the top levels of companies, there is surely an obstacle only scarcely pierced by females or colored citizens (Reich, 1995; Glass Ceiling Commission, 1995). Consequently, females are assisting females in corporations within the United States. The main position of a firm’s committee of administrators is to assign and overview the firm’s top officials. The researcher’s investigated the way women depiction on organizational committees impacts the sex structure of the businesses high-level management. This research employed the focus of sex to investigate the position of director partialities, views, and linkages in the choice of high-level executives (Matza & Miller, 2011). Matza and Miller (2011) discovered that women are helping each other to sustain and gain leadership roles in companies. There is an initial realistic and stylistic examination of every broadcasted Equal Pay Act (EPA) appeal defenses from the time the Act passed. This evaluation displays that while females go up the work-related stepladder, the way that numerous high courtrooms explains the Equal Pay Act (EPA) puts a pay-oriented invisible limit moving away females in irregular positions from their security. This limitation is specifically disturbing in view of information that displays sex income space inclines for females in top roles. To examine the EPA’s efficiency to tackle pay courtrooms progressively discharge Equal Pay Act (EPA) defenses at the summary decision phase, regardless of the detail-concentrated class of the demands, and that females in irregular specialized and manager-oriented positions are least probable to triumph. The writing analyzes the dual battling views of impartial employment current in Equal Pay Act (EPA) defense rules and suggests an additional efficient prima facie principle that finer assists females in irregular
positions. The document thus pinpoints stories below Equal Pay Act (EPA) arguments that may permit income biases to bloom for females in top-positioned with the widening of specific disputes in exemptions that gulp the fair wage law, the assumption of inability and less worth for females (also at the top position), and private wage procedures that aid wage differences. This document examines these stories in view of other mental and industry study and suggests fresh corrective standards to break the Equal Pay Act’s (EPA’s) clear limitation and guarantee the statement of impartial pay (Eisenberg, 2010). Moreover, the lack of illustration of females in discipline has gained important notice. Thus, there has been little investigations in which directional information were utilized to test modifications across periods. In this study the researcher questioned the Organization for Tropical Investigations progression databank due to that the databank was examined in 1988, to decide the obstacles yet confronted by female environmentalists. Specific elements of female’s circumstances have displayed massive development from 1988, like raised amount of women peers, extra-even distributing of babysitting and home tasks, and declined views of sex preference. Thus, females are yet extra possible to desert the area of science and have less annual incomes, advancement measurements, and output than males. Females progress to have more commitment for children monitoring and home tasks and additionally encounter obstacles with child handling and security when seeking discipline-founded investigation. These findings reveal that though specific hurdles for female ecologists have been extensively reduced - other concerns of the kinfolk-labor equilibrium and of exploration yet demands to be tackled (McGuire, Primack, & Losos, 2012).
Furthermore, investigations display that the amount of women elder administrators in huge corporate firms progress to increase gradually. The investigator contemplates a business that at first has a totally men manager format. The investigator revealed that if the company immediately moves their disposition and starts to employ men and women administrators in congruent values and deals with them congruent, consequently the sex makeup of the company’s directors will alter across periods. Utilizing well-defined measureable procedures, the investigator develop computations that display how quickly this alteration will happen. Utilizing information from prior printed researches to create factor limits, the investigator pull spontaneous specimens from factor amounts and use them to research how rapidly the sex make-up of a company’s administrative format can alter. The investigator discovered that the sex make-up at low administrative positions modifies fast, matched against the top administrative positions (Fain, 2011).
Low depiction of females in top leadership is problematical for various explanations. Initially, an absence of females in upper roles may reveal to lower point females that aiming to a top level title is unsound. Extremely skilled and knowledgeable females may not hence request for superior area occupations (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011). Consequently, firms lose the chance to benefit from the talents and ability of a part of their labor force. Moreover, when workers view a deficiency in females in top management they may create thoughts about the complete worth and culture of the company, like it being the traditional males union, or bias in their employing and retaining actions. Another explanation women’s low point depiction in top administration is difficult is that when there are less females in senior guidance roles, women low in the firm chain of command have less, if any, women role models with encounters in top administration. Without experienced women mentors to steer women across what can be politically steered progression preparation procedure, females may feel unrehearsed for superior supervision roles and therefore not submit an application. In short, the invisible ceiling is problematic because it blocks the opening for a mass amount of the United States employment force, like females to give to businesses via strong management statuses (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011).
While investigators and experts have provided a diversity of reasons for why females stay lowly represented in top management, various reasons, at their center, depend on the supposition that being a female is not compatible with being a lead (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011).
Hoobler, Lemmon, and Wayne (2011) performed a study using a variety sample of laboring managers and their straight accounts. Hoobler, Lemmon, and Wayne (2011) mentioned that they discovered proof for the invisible barrier as family-labor contradiction discrimination. This type of bias indicates that just being a female flags to a manager that her relatives will intervene with her labor, regardless of rather or not that female really has relative labor contradiction, is wedded, has kids, or has kids of a specific age. The relative-labor conflict discrimination is very pertinent to labor environments today, yet hard to correct. Founded on our study, this is a widespread prejudice managers (both men and women) embrace against females that is affiliated less performance overviews, and eventually less advancements for females (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011).
Hoobler, Lemmon, and Wayne (2011) mentioned a reason for the glass ceiling occurrence as an evolving psychological cluster. Hoobler, Lemmon, and Wayne (2011) unveiled that there is a concept that women are not subject to optimum point managerial occupations. These reasons suggest that males and females simply diverse; males desire the top risks atmospheres of upper management, while females select secureness and lower tests. These reasons typically point to the stance that testosterone plays in male danger-indulging and the position oxytocin and sympathy plays in women job selections. These concepts create the basis of what has been recurrently proclaimed for the past ten years or beyond as the move out resolution of female laborers with family obligations. The terminology opt-out revolution stem from a 2003 New York Times reportage of only eight women Princeton graduates who received progressed degrees, selected male spouses who were their logical matches, and postponed having kids to pursue optimum point occupations (Tarkenton, 2003; Belkin, 2003; Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011). Hoobler, Lemmon, and Wayne (2011) further revealed that the work structure, and the time and effort demanded from every labor are not compatible with bringing up a family. Due to the fact that females direct most of the individual parent homes, and stay obligated for a wider portion of parental tasks in the majority of dual-parent homes, they land short of managers’ anticipations for the role model laborer - one who is capable to remain longer, come in soon, and let go of everything for the firm, if essential. The format of custom laboring setups is structured around a job prototype founded in the 19th century - that at times - pushes women to select among labor and family because of the straight contradiction among the sources essential to perform combined expert and household tasks. At the same time, together females and males have low time to offer to their occupations when their home commitments are spouses and kids, various research investigations have written that females remain liable for most of the household labor, and thus their jobs are more impacted by home duties (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne 2011).
The family-employment contradiction discrimination has combined legal and monetary implications for companies. The legal inferences and monetary consequences of this can be substantial if workers are discovered to be in disruption of the Civil Rights regulation or the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 defends females against labor-atmospheric discriminations based on any viewed variation for being a female (e.g., being viewed as too womanly, being seen as putting a precedence on care offering), and the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) demands unpaid absences and occupation defending for newfound parents. Thus, companies that clearly or subtly punish females due to relative obligations reveal themselves to potential legal actions (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2011).
While invisible barrier legal suits progress and the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission increases execution standards, firms are progressively using stylish predicting mechanisms to better forecast and test their danger of being the mark of bias-founded allegations and examinations (Diamond & Whitbeck, 2014). Diamond and Witbeck (2014) revealed that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission have backed over $372 million the year before 2013 in relief from the private segment and anticipate to possibly pair that value for 2014. Diamond and Witbeck (2014) mentioned that these increasing risks have steered businesses - mainly monetary organizations- to accept original information-founded, threat management tactics. In numerous situations, this includes employing an economists’ expert viewpoint. The monetary segment is carefully watching due to being criticized by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission where in their strategy implementation guide (SEP-Strategic Enforcement Plan) pinpointed the shattering of the invisible ceiling in the monetary sector as a way to offer top public samples of a no-tolerance guideline (Diamond & Whitbeck, 2014; Alvarez & Marsal Holdings, LLC, 2014). Catalyst (2014) displayed a chart that showed that Fortune 500 board seats held by women only reflect 16.9 percent in 2013. Additionally, Catalyst (2014) mentioned displayed a chart which showed Fortune 500 executive officer top earner positions occupied by women as 8.1 percent in 2013. Also, Catalyst (2014) showed a bar chart that revealed Fortune 500 executive officer positions from 2009 to 2013 had percentages as 13.5, 14.4, 14.1, 14.3, and 14.6, respectively. Thus, in the past six years these positions incline at less than one percent each year. The slow increase reflects a problem that is likely contributed to the glass ceiling phenomenon.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore single encounters of women who broke through obstacles and achieved the position of Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Also, this qualitative study examined the personal view trends of female Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). Information was collected across interviews at places easily accessible to the participants. The information was analyzed with manual qualitative coding.
- What activities would you recommend to other females that may enhance their opportunities to excel in a organization?
Limitations of Study
The limitations of the study are as follows:
- Member checking was performed using peer reviews
Delimitations of Study
- The study did not include men who experienced the glass ceiling phenomenon. This is regardless of wherever the males reside. The following depict reasons as follows:
- These men are not of interest
- Men are beyond the scope of the research Definition of the Terms
- Jain and Mukherji (2010) pointed out that Linehan and Walsh (1999) depict the glass ceiling as the seemingly clear obstacles that block more than a little amount of females from attaining the optimum positions of management (Jain & Mukherji, 2010; Linehan & Walsh, 1999).
Importance of the Study
The study was important because it provides insight on areas that successful women think assisted them to break the glass barrier. Women include 10 female managers. These women went through experiences on their path to their upper level position. Thus, it is vital that the experiences of these women be revealed in this study. The data learned or compared that these females expose can be shared with various entities to promote better understanding. One entity may include the Federal Government who may make changes to laws, grants, or other areas assist future women to shatter the invisible barrier towards upper level positions. Also, the study may shed light to allow corporations to adopt ways to assist females to obtain a higher level job. Moreover, the study may allow educational institutions to better prepare students by aligning the appropriate factors of education to their curriculums. Furthermore, the study may unveil knowledge that females can use on their route to achieving top level roles.
Masterarbeit, 85 Seiten
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Masterarbeit, 85 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 115 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 197 Seiten
Examensarbeit, 19 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 79 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 32 Seiten
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