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1. Chapter One: The Story of the Prophet Lot and His People
1.1 The Story of the Prophet Lot in the Qur’an
1.2 Animal Homosexuality
2. Chapter 2: Homosexuality Through History
2.1 Early History of Homosexuality in Greece
2.2 The Roman Empire
2.3 Early Christianity
2.4 The Feudal Period and the Dark Ages
2.5 Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century
2.6 Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Century
2.7 Homosexuality in the Islamic World
3. Chapter Three: Changing Religious Attitudes to Homosexuality
3.1 A Response to the Bible
3.2 Reinterpreting the Qur’an
3.3 Other Reasons Why Muslim and Human Right Groups having Favorable Views about Homosexuality
3.4 Rethinking Procreation
3.5 Recognizing Orientation
4. Chapter Four: The Roman Catholic Teachings on Homosexuality and its Arguments against these Changes
4.1 The Catholic Interpretation of the Bible Texts that Condemns Homosexuality
4.2 Love, Sex and Procreation in the view of Catholic Teachings
4.3 A Response to Recognizing Orientation
4.4 Roman Catholic Church View on Homophobia
5. Chapter Five: Islamic Teachings on Homosexuality and its Arguments against the Changes
5.1 How Does the Main Four Schools of Thought and Jurisprudence Treat Homosexuality?
5.2 The Islamic Interpretation of the Qur’an Texts that Condemns Homosexuality
5.3 Some Muslims Views against Homosexuality by Muslims groups and Individuals
5.4 Why Orientation is not Recognized in the Islamic World
5.4.1 Homosexuality is not innate
5.4.2 Choice or Destiny
5.5 Excess of Passion (Hawa)
5.6 What is the Purpose of Man Creation?
5.7 God’s Mercy (Rahman and Raheem)
5.8 Islamic View on Homophobia
In the Name of Allah,
the All Merciful, the Ever –Merciful
All praise, Gratitude and thanks are to Almighty God. This thesis cannot claim its existence from a single contribution. Therefore, I am much indebted to many people. My profuse thanks goes to my thesis directors Dr. Patrick McCormick and Dr. John Sheveland, without their help, inspiring ideas and deep insight, this thesis would never have been written. It is difficult to mention all those who deserve acknowledgements, but I would like to extend my gratitude to my family for their constant help and unflagging support .My relatives have thrown their support behind me when they realize that I will face an uphill task. I must admit that the topic is rather controversial because of religious, cultural and customs constraints. Although the road was slippery and bumpy, I clung to it, as resolve as ever, to complete my task and achieve my goal. I cannot thank them enough for providing me the psychological boost, which enhanced my confidence. Briefly, constructive remarks, various propositions and useful pieces of advice, from my thesis directors helped me take the bull by the horn and produce this work. Last but not the least, a special thanks to all those authors whose sources have helped shape this work.
I have decided to publish my theses hoping to benefit people understand homosexuality and show the religious teachings on the morality of homosexuality. I also hope to inspire and help scholars, who are doing a research on this topic, with different ideas and sources. May Allah Guide us all to the righteous path.
Being from a conservative Arab country, the title of this thesis will undoubtedly raise many eyebrows. As an Arab and Muslim woman embarking on a difficult and bumpy journey, I have decided, despite the controversial nature of this topic, to choose it for different reasons. The secular or conservative condemns homosexuality in many Islamic countries. Islamic secular countries tend to tolerate homosexuality more than the conservative ones, where the death penalty is often handed down to homosexuals. In non-Islamic countries, the majority of people do not condone homosexuality. Nowadays, homosexuality has become a buzzword. Despite its condemnation, it continues to make inroads. From its clandestine status, due to harsh treatments, to a solemn recognition of its rights, gays and lesbians have achieved substantial gains for their rights, landmark legal rulings have been pronounced in its favor. Some countries have legalized the same-sex marriage. On the other hand, Islam continues to emerge as a staunch critic of homosexuality. This fight is relayed by the Roman Catholic, which condemns homosexuality but calls for more compassion for homosexuals. What are the views of Islam and the Roman Catholic on homosexuality? This thesis includes five main chapters:
Chapter 1: Deals with the story of the Prophet Lot and his people.
Chapter 2: Deals with homosexuality through history.
Chapter 3: Deals with the major positive in favor of homosexuality.
Chapter 4: Covers the Roman Catholic teachings on homosexuality.
Chapter5: Puts in exergue the Islamic teachings on homosexuality
1. The Story of the Prophet Lot and His People
Some scholars believe that homosexuality first started in Sodom and Gomorrah (The people of Lot), while others take the view that, it has been in existence since the beginning of humanity, and it is not possible to say who started it. This chapter will give a brief history of homosexuality from the beginning until today.
The oldest Biblical account that can be found about homosexuality was in the story of Lot. That story is found in both the Bible and the Qur’an. The story of Lot in the Bible is not considered to be historical, but rather a religious text. Some scholars and theologians think it is just a story based on myth and folk tales just like Homer’s epic poetry. In the Bible, it mentioned that the people of Sodom and Gomorrah were wicked and sinners, but it does not mention any particular sin. Therefore, some scholars and theologians find it difficult to relate the punishment of Sodom and Gomorrah to homosexual practice. It is also not likely that the people of Sodom and Gomorrah were punished for being pagans and worshiping idols because at that time no religion revealed. Even though “Abraham built two alters in Palestine to the Lord for sacrificing, and continued to have occasional conversations,” Moreover, the Story of Lot in Genesis Chapter 19 ends with the two daughters of Lot getting their father drunk and sleeping with him, and that still did not make the Lord angry. Then what was the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah? This question is open to different possibilities.
The story of Lot narrated in the Qur’an is historical. It is not just a religious text, but also a fact that happened. Therefore, the story of Lot will be narrated based on Islamic religious and historical view.
In Islam, Lot is considered one of the prophets sent by God. He was ordered to go to Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah, Zeboiim and Bela and tell them that he was a prophet sent to them to guide them and advise them to the right path.
“Verily, Lot was one of the Messengers” (As-Saffat 37:133),
Sodom and Gomorrah were the largest two cities. Therefore, Lot started to remind his people of the bad things they were doing and that they should stop their bad behavior before God’s wrath came down on them. The first sin, which was the greatest, he mentioned was Sodomy. As mentioned in the Qur’an and Islamic historical books Sodomy was pandemic in these five cities. God said in the Qur’an:
“And remember Lot, when he said to his people: “You commit Al-Fahisha (Sodomy) which none has preceded you in (committing) it in the Alamin (mankind). Verily, you practice sodomy with men” (Al-Ankabut 29:28-29)
“And remember Lot, when he said to his people: “Do you commit the worst sin such as none preceding you has committed in the mankind. Verily you practice you lusts on men instead of women” (Al-Araf 7: 80-81)
“Go you in unto the males of the mankind, and leave those whom Allah has created for you to be your wives?” (Ashu-Shu’ara 26:165-166)
The expression of the above verses seems like a question. However, the meaning is affirmation and reprehension. Muslims believe that the people of Lot were the first people who engaged in the practice of Sodomy. They had changed the natural lust practice on women, which was created for purpose of procreation, and practiced their lusts on men. Ibn Abbas narrated (May Allah be pleased with them):
Ten descriptions of Lot’s nation works: dressing hair, untie the skirt, throwing dice, throwing pebbles, playing with flying pigeons, whistle with fingers, cracking with heals, making dress long, untie the neck dress, practicing the drinks, loving males, and burden on this nation women love women, making love to each other.
From this narration, it seems that the people of Lot were not really poor. However, people of Lot still were highway robbers not because they were poor and wanted money, but rather that they wanted to rape strangers who passed by their city and practice sodomy with them by force. Some scholars say that people of Sodom used to kill any trader who entered their city and steal his money. The third sin was of practicing all sorts of abominations in their clubs. Their clubs were the places where they socialized, talked and had fun, “And practice Al-Munkar (disbelief and polytheism and every kind of evil wicked deed) in your meetings” (Al-Ankabut 29:29). Mujahid, Al-Qasim bin Muhammad, Qutada and Ibn Zaid said that Al-Mukar (wicked deeds) that people of Lot practiced in their clubs was sodomy. They were not ashamed of it but were practicing it in front of one another. Mujahid also added, throwing people with hazelnuts and stones and discarding all sorts of modesty in their life. He also added that the people of Lot did not have any kind of respect for each other. They farted in front of one another, slapped each other’s face and cursed one another as a way of joking.
Lot spent nine years trying to call them to the right path, guiding them and warning them about God’s wrath if they did not stop their obscene behaviors and repent. But the only response Lot received was a mockery. “There was no other answer given by his people except that they said: ‘Drive out the family of Lot from your city. Verily, these are men who want to be clean and pure!” (An-Naml 27:56). The people of Sodom got annoyed with Lot’s advice and they made fun of him for being clean because Lot did not join them in their clubs and practice Sodomy with them. Nevertheless, mocking Lot about being clean did not discourage him from doing his job as a messenger from God. He continued to call his people to the right path. Therefore, the people of Lot tried other ways to stop Lot. They threatened to drive him out of the city and challenged him to prove that God’s wrath would come down upon them. God also said in the Qur’an: “They said: “If you cease not. O Lot! Verily, you will be one of those who are driven out!” (Ash-Shu’ara’ 26:167) and in another Sura “But these people gave no answer except that they said: Bring Allah’s Torment upon us if you are one of the truthful” (Al-Ankabut 29:29).
When Lot saw that these people were never going to listen to him, he turned to God and asked for Him for victory and to be saved. God narrating in the Qur’an what Lot said: “My Lord! Save me and my family from what they do.” (Ash-Shu’ara’ 26:169), and in another verse “My Lord! Give me victory over the people who are Mufsidun (those who commit great crimes and sins, oppressors, tyrants, mischief-makers, corrupters)” (Al-Ankabut 29:30). God answered Lot’s prayer and sent three angels in the image of three young, youthful and beautiful men. The purpose of these three angels was to test the people of Sodom and to witness the coming events to hold it against them. The angels arrived at Sodom at sun set. They went to Lot and asked to be hosted. When Lot saw them, he thought that they were human beings and feared that if he rejected to host them then they will go to someone else and get harmed. Therefore, he decided to accept to host them but also tried to discourage them from staying in Sodom.
The guests arrived to a land that Lot owned and was working on. The guests asked if he can host them. Lot felt ashamed to turn them back therefore, he accepted to host them. However, Lot tried to convince them to change their mind and go to another city. He said to the guests: “I swear to you, I have never known any one on this earth so wicked as these people of Sodom.” He went on walking and he repeated what he said to the guests again. Until he said it four times.
Qutada also said: “The Angles were commanded to not punish the people of Sodom until their prophet witnesses against them.”
God said in the Qur’an:
“And when our messengers came to Lot, he was grieved on account of them and felt himself straitened for them (lest the town people should approach them to commit sodomy with them). He said: “This is a distressful day.” (Hud 11:77)
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Qutada said that Lot’s affliction was very hard because he knew once the people of Sodom knew about them they would try to rape them and he would have to defend them as hard as he could just like he did before with other guests. Lot found a way to hide his guests inside his house without anybody knowing about them. Lot’s wife saw the guests and she was amazed how beautiful they were. She went to her people rushing to deliver to them the good news. The people of Sodom came rushing to Lot’s house wanting to have the three guests to practice sodomy with them. God said in the Qur’an: “And the inhabitants of the city came rejoicing (at the news of the young men’s arrival).” (Al-Hir 15:67) and in another verse: “And his people came rushing towards him” (Hud 11:78). Lot knew what his people wanted from his guests. Surat Hud verses 78-79 shows the conversation between Lot and his people.
Oh my people! Here are my daughters, they are purer for you. So fear Allah and disgrace me not with regard to my guests! Is there not among you a single right-minded man? They said: “Surely, you know that we have neither any desire nor need of your daughters, and indeed you know well what we want!”
Lot asked his people not to disgrace him and he offered his daughters for marriage. Lot did not offer his daughters to be raped but he offered them for marriage, showing his people that marriage is the right and natural way to satisfy their sexual desires and needs. Some Islamic scholars interpreted that Lot’s daughters did not only mean his biological daughters rather all the daughters in the city were his daughters. Because a Prophet is like a father to the people he is sent to. The people of Sodom reply showed what they wanted were to practice sodomy with these guests just like they did before with other guests. They said: “Surely you know that we have neither any desire nor need of your daughters and indeed you know well what we want!” (Hud 11:79). Even though they did not mention what they wanted, they clearly showed their rejection of women as the natural way to satisfy their desire, which only shows their desire was towards men. Finally, when he got tired of trying to keep his people away from his guests he said: “Would that I had strength (men) to over power you, or that I could betake myself to some powerful support (to resist you)” (Hud 11:80). Finally Lot was assured “O Lot! Verily, we are the messengers from your Lord! They shall not reach you” (Hud 11:81). The Angles revealed themselves and told Lot that they will save him and his family except for his wife because she betrayed him by telling her people about the guests “They said: “Have no fear, and do not grieve! Truly, we shall save you and your family, except your wife, she will be one of those who remain behind” (Al-Ankabut 29:33). The Angels blinded the people of Sodom. They finally gave up and went back to their homes touching the walls to find their way and threatening Lot “And they indeed sought to shame his guest. So We blinded their eyes” (Al-Qamar 54:37). They promised they would come back the next day and they would make sure to get what they came for. The Angels ordered Lot to leave the city during the night with his two daughters because the next day God’s torment would be sent down to the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. They have flipped God’s natural order and God punished them by flipping their city upside down.
At the time of sunrise God’s command came and the cities were completely destroyed. This is how it is described in the Qur’an: “So when Our commandment came, We turned (the towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down, and rained on them stones of baked clay, in a well-arranged manner one after another. Marked from your Lord” (Hud 11: 82-83). Interpreters of the Qur’an say that the Angel Gabriel turned the city upside down.
It has been reported to us that when morning came the angel Gabriel spread his wing and rooted out the city of Sodom, held it in his wing and lifted up to the sky until the creatures of heaven heard the people’s voices and braking of their dogs. The population of Sodom was about four hundred thousand people. Then, Gabriel turned Sodom upside down and then let it fall back to earth followed by rain of baked clay falling on them. Each clay is marked by a name of the person it will fall on. (Vol.2, p. 228)
God left a sign to warn people that God’s punishment is not far away from those who rebel against God’s commands. “And indeed We have left thereof an evident for a folk who understand” (Al-Ankabut 29: 35). All the Islamic books of history when referring to the place where Sodom and Gomorrah used to be refer to the Dead Sea. Werner Keller in his book The Bible as History said that “archeologists began their request for the vanished cities that were said to have existed in the Vale of Siddim in the Biblical times. At the further most south-east point of the Dead Sea remains of a large settlement were found.” (p.77) He also explained the structure of the Dead Sea that was caused by a quake and volcano:
On the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, the peninsula of el-Lisan protrudes like a tongue far into the water. Unseen from the land the ground falls away here under the surface of the water at a prodigious angle, dividing the sea into two parts. To the right of the peninsula the ground slopes sharply down to depth of 1,200 feet. Left of the peninsula the water remains remarkably shallow. Soundings taken in the last few years established depths only 50-60 feet. (p. 78)
Some geologists believe that the Dead Sea did not exist before the earthquake and volcano. However, it existed after the earthquake and volcano, which made the land 392 meters below sea level. Some geologists and archeologists found some remains of the cities near the Dead Sea.
The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah have completely disappeared. However, the only sign that is left is the Dead Sea which was caused by the earth quake and volcano. These discoveries match what is found the in Qur’an and Bible. That was the end of a city that was completely corrupted and did not want to reform. This end is not far from any corrupted city that receives a warning from God but choose to ignore it and insist on sinning. God said in the Qur’an: “and they are not ever far from the Zalimun (polytheists, evildoers)” (Hud 11:83). That is God’s law that would never change, God said in the Qur’an:
On account of their arrogance in the land and their plotting of Evil. But the plotting of Evil will hem in only the authors thereof. Now are they but looking for the way the ancients were dealt with? But no change wilt thou find in Allah's way (of dealing): no turning off wilt thou find in Allah's way (of dealing). Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the End of those before them, though they were superior to them in strength? Nor is Allah to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: for He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful. (Fatir 35: 43 – 44)
Another city that had a similar end was called Pompeii. The city is located in Italy. It was discovered by accident in 1784. Similar to Sodom it was a fruitful place. People lived in luxury and had an easy life. They had great appreciation for human body and its senses. Public displays of eroticism were all over the city.
Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius. In AD 79 Vesuvius erupted. It caught the people of Pompeii by surprise. The volcano buried Pompeii under many meters of ash and pumice. The city remained there frozen in time for 1700 years. Plaster casts of victims of the eruption were still found in different places in the city. This city was also known for its erotic public displays. Homosexual practices were very normal at that time. Eventually, Pompeii ended up being punished just like Sodom and Gomorrah.
According to the Islamic history of homosexuality, the people of Lot are the first who started practicing homosexuality. However, some contemporary scholars believe that science has discovered that homosexual practices exist among animals; including primates who are considered the closest similar animals to human beings, which are often used for scientific experiments. They have predated Sodom. This discovery is true.
Animals are different from human beings. Firstly, animals are not commanded to carry the trust that God gave the human beings, which is the brain to decipher right from wrong. Secondly, animals are not going to be judged. God did not send messengers and Prophets to teach them His laws. Rather, they just follow their natural instincts. Finally, if animals were qualified enough to be compared to human beings, then it should not be only with sexual behavior, but also with every aspect of their behavior. Of course, that is not possible because some animal behaviors are considered immoral if it should be applied to human beings such as cannibalism. Animals cannot be compared to human beings when it comes to moral issues. God dignified human beings and made them superior to animals. Therefore, animal homosexuality is not going to be discussed any further in this research.
In Greece, they had great appreciation for sex and bisexuality was the norm in their society. Greek culture in a way has promoted and accepted homosexuality more than many other cultures. The Greeks have developed a hedonistic attitude toward the human body, that is to say, the love of a perfect body was entwined in their deep beliefs. Hedonism is thought to be lustful nowadays though it was viewed differently in the past. Greek philosophers emphatically praised Hedonism, which was tolerated and accepted. These philosophers believed that naked human body both male and female was worthy of respect and admiration. They took great pride at the physical form. Statues of handsome men or beautiful women are still part of the archeological history of the Greeks. Recognition of the physical attractiveness is mainly due to the amount of leisure time in the Greek society. Nevertheless, Greeks discouraged exclusive homosexuality because it would be a threat to the family. Boys started practicing homosexuality at an early age. There was no law against practicing homosexuality with a boy who could be younger than twelve. However, by the age twelve to fifteen boys should have found a male lover. These boys eventually grew up and at the age of twenty-five, they were expected to choose a boy and take the active role, then marry and set up a family. They could still be in love with a boy or have a mistress. Some of the famous characters who are known for their love for men were Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), and King of Macedonia. Plato believed in sacred spiritual love between men only but he did not believe in sexual pleasure that aims only to fulfill the desire of the body. There is no record of Plato’s sexual life, therefore, it is unknown if he was homosexual.
Before the second century BC, freeborn boys were not allowed to be loved and become passive in homosexual relationship. Only slaves were. “Slaves were bought especially for their sexual prowess and charm.” A free-Roman boy was raised to be a hero and rule the world. However, things had changed by the second century BC. Greece had a great influence on the Roman Empire. Boy-Love became fashionable. It became an accepted practice in the Roman society. However, slowly laws have started to change gradually. “In AD 342 the Emperors Constantius and Constants introduced the death penalty – burning alive – for passive homosexual behavior.” Theodosius reaffirmed this law again in AD 390. This law was again amended in AD 438 to include punishing active homosexuals, except for homosexual prostitution. They excluded homosexual prostitution because it was taxed by the Emperor and was a source of income for the state. In AD 533, the law against homosexuality became very strict in applying punishment to all homosexual acts through burning and castration. It was Justinian who applied this law and prepared by a commission, which was headed by Tribonian, who was a pagan. Christianity and paganism were united to punish all homosexual acts. This law was not very effective until AD 559.
Christianity had great concerns about the continuity of life in this world. Just like Judaism, Christians believe that only through marriage, one could procreate. However, Christianity was still influenced by different religious movements and philosophy. One of the religious movements that had great influence on Christian ethics was Gnosticism. Some Gnostics believed that marriage was evil or at least useless, primarily because the procreation of children was a vehicle for forces of evil. “Some celebrated homosexuality as a means of becoming nearer to God.” Any form of sexual intercourse was allowed as long as it did not lead to procreation. Others preferred to remain celibate. This influence lasted for three centuries AD. However, this influence did not prevail in what became Christian orthodoxy. Another influence was by Stoicism. Stoicism gave sexual intercourse one rational purpose of procreation. That idea made great sense to early Christian thinkers. Christianity affirmed sexual union for procreation and left celibacy as an option that was praiseworthy for Christians who chose it. Even though women were still inferior, men began to show more interest in women and the view of sex was changed in the end of fourth century. Sex was allowed for married couples only and only for the purpose of procreation. This theology is found in Saint Augustine’s writings.
Probably Saint Augustine (354-430 A.D.) was most responsible as the first theologian of Christianity for establishing that sexual love was a “monster to be tamed”, and the African Bishop of Hippo succeeded in making men and women feel guilty about love and sex. Saint Augustine believed sexual intercourse happened after Adam and Eve left the Garden of Eden. Thus, sex was used by man for enjoyment and was evil. He condemned any sex that was not leading to procreation.
Any person who engaged in a homosexual act was executed. However, those who repented could be spared.
With the fall of the Roman Empire, another life style emerged. From AD 700, the population of Europe grew. Landowners were busy expanding their wealth because the power of man did not just become physical but also depended on how much fortune one owned. The life style model was the strongest domination of the weak. Not much was written opposing homosexuality.
During the middle of the thirteenth century, a new legislation against homosexuality was applied. Nature was the standard of morality at that time. Going against nature was a terrible sin that if proven would lead to torturing the persons until they died. Leaders of the period believed that homosexuality was against nature. Anyone who committed the sin of homosexuality would be castrated in public and hung by their legs until they died. However, there was little evidence that this law was put into effect. Homosexuality was linked to something more sinister, such as sorcery and demonism, by the beginning of the fourteenth century and by the middle of the fourteenth century, the view of human sexuality was changed. A man’s sexuality became sacred and “any sexual expression that was outside marriage, or positions and acts within marriage which were not vaginal penetration as in the missionary position, were contaminated by the devil.” Death was the punishment for those who were proven to be bisexual or homosexual. However, the only sexual expression that could escape condemnation was prostitution. These laws against homosexuality remained until the seventeenth century. The seventeenth century saw increases in literacy. Many of the literate upper classes discussed articles about sadism and homosexuality. Homosexual practice was allowed for the upper class because they had the power to get away with it, through either bribery, or political influence.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century, groups of homosexuals began to gather. They opened their own secret clubs. Nevertheless, the idea that homosexuality was a sin remained in the society and punishment against homosexual practice was still applied. However, by the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of nineteenth century, medicine and science began to dominate the society and the view of homosexual practices changed from sinful to psychological behavior. Scientist categorized homosexuals as defective or pathological and it was recommended to have medical intervention as a cure. Many psychologists claimed to have succeeded in curing homosexuals. For example, “In 1899 a Dr John D. Quackenbos treated with hypnotism the sexual perversion called ‘unnatural passion’ for persons of the same sex.” However, he emphasized his success with the patient’s desire to be cured.
In the twentieth century gender roles were redefined once a gain. Gays started appearing in public and having their own clubs. Police would raid these clubs but only from time to time. However, gays decided to challenge the law and fight for their rights. The gay challenge was very strong in 1969. Limited gay and lesbian rights existed at that time however; they were still suffering from harassment and police inspections. The gays finally decided to liberate themselves and demand their rights to live in peace and normal life. This started in June 28, 1969 in the Stonewall Bar in New York.
New York Police were again in the gay area attempting to harass the gays, and they evicted the clients of Stonewall onto Christopher Street as they had done before, but the day bar crowed fought back. Some policemen were caught inside the bar held by a broken parking meter blocking the entranceway. As the police called to reinforce their number, the gay crowed grew as did the number of police. The battle continued for three days.
The aftermath of this event was that gays and lesbians began to organize around the Unites States and Gay Democratic clubs were created in every major city. In addition the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders, categorizing homosexuality as a normal behavior and not pathological. Removing homosexuality from the mental disorder list was followed by many changes in the west. For example, sodomy laws are that used to exist in all US states were eliminated by 1998. The following table shows the gay and lesbian right that has been made since 1988 until 2008:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
 Colin Spencer. Homosexuality a History (London: Fourth Estate, 1995), 59.
 Abi Ishaq Assari, The Rectification and Analysis of the Qur’an’s Interpretation (Beirut: Al-Maktaba Al-Asriya, 2006), 269.
 Rushdi Al-Badrawi, Stories of Prophets and History, vol. 2, Stories of Prophets and History Vol.2 (Cairo: Al-Jazeerah International, 2004), 129.
 Shams Addeen Al-Thahabi, The Great Sins (Cairo: Assafa Bookstore, 2001), 66.
 Rushdi Al-Badrawi, Stories of Prophets and History, vol. 2, Stories of Prophets and History Vol.2 (Cairo: Al-Jazeerah International, 2004), 130.
 Ibn Kathir, The Beginning and the End, ed. Ahmad Fatih (Cairo: Al- Hadith Publications, 1992), 79.
 Ibid. 206
 Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, trans. Muhammad M. Geme'ah. Ed. Aelfwine A. Mischler (Beirut: Dar Ehia Al-Tourath Al-Arabi), 203-204.
 Ibn Kathir, The Summary Interpretation of Ibn Kathir, vol. 1, The Summary Interpretation of Ibn Kathir Part 1 (Beirut: Dar Al-Fikr, 1990), 228.
 Sami A. Al-Maghlooth, Atlas of The History of Prophets and Messengers (Riyadh: Obekan Publishers and Book Sellers, 2006), 127
 Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance, Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity (New York: St. Martin’s P, 1999), 273 - 277
 Buchanan, Alfred, Sexual Relationships and Deviation through History, trans. Katya Murad (Beirut: Dar Al-Hadhara, 1998), 93-94.
 Colin Spencer, Homosexuality a History (London: Fourth Estate, 1995), 69.
 Ibid. 75
 Reich, Warren T. Ed. Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Vol. 5, Sexual Ethics, by Margaret Farley. (New York: Macmillan Pub. Co: Simon & Schuster Macmillan; London: Prentice Hall International, 1995), 2366.
 Colin Spencer. Homosexuality, a History ( London: Fourth Estate, 1995), 82.
 Reich, Warren T. Ed. Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Vol. 5, Sexual Ethics, by Margaret Farley. (New York: Macmillan Pub. Co: Simon & Schuster Macmillan; London: Prentice Hall International, 1995), 2367.
 Lee Dode. A History of Homosexuality (Key West, Florida: Arete, 2004), 29.
 Colin Spencer. Homosexuality, a History (London: Fourth Estate, 1995), 114.
 Ibid. 127
 Ibid. 125 – 126
 Colin Spencer. Homosexuality, a History (London: Fourth Estate, 1995), 292.
 Lee Dode. A History of Homosexuality (Key West, Florida: Arete, 2004), 107.
 Public Agenda. A U.S. History of Gay and Lesbian Rights. http://christiangays.com/articles/rights.shtml.
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