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1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND
1.2 Research background on Bangladesh
1.3 Research question:
1.4 Research objectives:
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Purpose of literature review
2.2 An overview of the E- Government services
2.3 Description of E-government services
2.4 Objectives of E-government
2.5 Characteristics of E- government
2.6 Implementation challenges:
2.7 Bangladesh prospective
2.7.1 Internet connection
2.7.2 Internal network
2.7.3 Security issues
2.7.4 Central database
2.7.5 Problems of Financial sectors
2.7.6 Use of computers
2.7.7 Lack of Funds
2.7.8 Lack of public awareness
2.7.9 Awareness about e-citizen portal:
2.7.10 Lack of training and skilled workforce
2.7.11 Lack of political desire
2.7.12 Lack of infrastructure and planning
2.7.13 Change management
2.7.14 Low purchasing power
2.7.15 Inadequate of harmonization in government/ bureaucracy
3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research viewpoint
3.3 Research Approach
3.4 Research design
3.4.1 Qualitative data
3.4.2 Qualitative data
3.5 Research strategy
3.5.1 Case study
3.6 Research method
3.7 Data Collection
3.8 Data analysis
3.11 Research scope and limitation
4 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
4.2 Data analysis framework
4.3 Analysis of findings
4.3.1 Demographic information
4.3.4 Internet experience
4.3.5 Awareness level of the e-government
4.3.6 E-government experience
4.3.7 E-government services usage
4.3.8 E-government services advertisement
4.3.9 Implementation of e-government
4.3.10 Challenge of the technology
4.3.11 Resistance of change
4.3.12 Effectiveness of government websites
4.3.13 Internet facilities
4.3.14 Progression of e-government
4.3.15 Enough E-government facility
4.3.16 Rating the government initiative towards e-government
4.3.17 Rating the current e-government services
4.3.18 E-government and well-being of the society
4.3.19 Main Challenge of e-government
4.4 Discussion of findings
4.4.1 Demographic data, Age and Occupation
4.4.2 Internet experience, awareness, experience and service usage
4.4.3 E-government services advertisement
4.4.4 Implementation of e-government, Challenge of the technology and Resistance of change
4.4.5 Effectiveness of government websites
4.4.6 Internet facilities, Progression of e-government and E-government service facility
4.4.7 Rating the government initiative and E-government and well-being of the society
4.4.8 Main challenge
5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7 Appendices: Survey guide
This dissertation core study is on examining the e-government and the impact it has on the people of Bangladesh. The research had structured objectives that aimed at providing an understandable on the present situation of e-government in Bangladesh. Including giving out a platform to analyse the public perceptions about e-government in Bangladesh and assess the opportunity of e-government in Bangladesh. Finally the objectives will evaluate the implementation challenges of e-government in Bangladesh.
In the literature review, secondary sources were the most used material. Reviewed journal books and other authoritative secondary literature helped to draw the definition of the e-government services from the global view point and chronologically to the Bangladesh environment.
Using the case study of the whole society this study provided and in-depth understanding of the situation of the e-government services in the ground. Using the survey to collect the qualitative data, the survey guide questions were carefully crafted to provide a holistic view of the current and the expected growth of the e-government service. From the survey more that 60% of the survey were deemed legitimate and thus this marked and qualified this study to conform to the minimum requirement of scientific study.
The limitation of this study can be contributed to the size of the population sampled in relation the cost and the time constraint the sample size was small. The findings were thus based on the oversimplification attribute where the respondent view represent the whole society.
Figure 1: Corruption, political, social and ICT ranking
Table 1: computer users at government offices
Figure 2: Awareness about e-citizen portal
Figure 3: Response chart
Table 2: Demographic table
Figure 3: Demographic pie chart
Table 3: Age distribution
Figure 4: Age pie chart
Table 4: Occupation
Figure 5: Occupation of the respondent
Table 5: internet experience
Figure 6: internet experience chart
Table 7: Awareness level
Figure 8: Awareness level of e-government service
Table 8: e-government experience
Figure 9: e-government experience chart
Table 9: e-government services usage
Figure 10: service usage
Table 10: advertisement
Figure 11: advertisement
Table 11: implementation
Figure 12: implementation chart
Table 12: challenged by tech
Figure 13: challenged by tech
Table 13: Resistance of change
Figure 14: Resistance of change
Table 14: effectiveness of the website
Figure 15: effectiveness of the website
Table 15: Internet facilities
Figure 16: Internet facilities
Table 16: progression
Figure 17: progression
Table 17: e-government facilities
Figure 18: e-government facilities
Table 18: e-government rating
Figure 19: e-government rating
Table 19: e-government services
Figure 20: e-government service
Table 20: well-being of society
Figure 21: well-being of the society
Table 21: main challenge
Figure 22: main challenge
This chapter illustrates the introduction part of the topic in an era of information and communication technology (ICT). The uses of information and communication technology not only for personal use but also in border expect. ICT includes different kind communication devices or applications, radio, television, phones, computer, network hardware and software, satellite system, etc. it has various types of uses. In the simple term, it is a tool to communicate with each other for different purposes. As example government may use this to contact citizens. Currently, Bangladesh faces various kinds of problem like other developing country such as corruption, efficient government services, lack of transparency and accountability, lack of standard of public administration and failing to give effectively to deliver public services. These problems indicate that an immediate reform initiative needed. E-government can be the best reform initiative government can take to minimise the problems as other countries were been successful. In the late 1990 ICT introduced this unique idea for the operation named E-government. However, the idea of e-government first comes in a literature named ‘IT in government’ in the 1970s (Grönlund 2005). There were not many journals and seminar happened about this topic across the world. In between 1998 to 2003, there was 167 research paper found by Anderson and Henriksen in 2005. Developed countries start implement this idea since 1990 followed by USA (Grönlund 2005). World summit on the information society, world IT forum and the preparatory global forum in the information society, funded by UN and UNESCO are working to enhance the interest and implementation process globally.(Sobhan et al. 2004)E-government also knew as electronic government. E-government is an ICT related initiative includes basic computerisation, interlinked the services via ICT network and making a platform for delivering services to citizen and other stakeholders to the business community. It also builds a relationship between a government with citizen and businesses via ICT. In a simple term, e-government can be interpreted by use of an ICT application to achieve efficiency, transparency, accountability and better response of the government. E-government is not just sending an email or type in the computer. ICT replacing the manual process of government called e-government for cost and time effective service and greater transparent service to the government stakeholders.
E-government services may vary from different types. It can be very basic and very sophisticated too. The stage of the given information can be formed in three phases, information stages, transaction stages and value added services.(Sobhan et al. 2004) Information stages are the basic service like forms, critical notices, tenders, contact points. Transaction services are kind of transaction service like a different kind of online applications, tax and utility bill paid online, business permit, among many more. Moreover, in the value added stage service government provide comprehensive service to the establishment of business, sending a child to school, changing address, among many more.
E-government has four components which are government to citizen (G2C), government to business (G2B), government to government (G2G) and Government to Employee (G2E). G2C is the interaction between governments to the citizen. As an example, Bangladesh government uses e-citizen portal www. Bangladesh.gov.bd to communicate to the citizen as UK government useswww.gov.uk. This portal includes information on different topics and all the e-service given by the government. However, UK citizen portal is richest compare to all another developed country portal as Singapore when Bangladesh G2C portal better than a very basic one(Sobhan et al. 2004). One of the interesting parts of UK portal includes all the components of E-government.
G2B is the interaction tool for the government to business. All the necessary information about doing business in electronic platform named G2B. Tax filing, licence application, business environments, supplier’s information, legal information about the business can be included in this feature. Malaysian e-protein web site can be the best example of G2C (Sobhan et al. 2004).
G2G involves communicating government to other local parts of the government or another department. Internal communication system between central government to the other arms of government. It includes email communication and software application to track current projects. It may also include a different database of a different department.
G2E is to interact with government employees. It features with salary, bonuses, pension information and other necessary information about employees. It can be a database with all the necessary of information for employees and the government at the same time. With this tool government can easily communicate with the government employees and employee can communicate and get the information easily.
In present world e-government is not a matter of debate or choice anymore. All the developed countries are showing the success story about e-government element to the developing countries like Bangladesh. There is numerous benefit of having e-government such as maximise transparency, cut the corruption, efficient service, build the trust of investors, helping to grow the private sector, decentralised government, etc(Sobhan et al. 2004).
Despite all the advantages the biggest questions about e-government are how it can be introduced and implemented to get most benefits in quick time from it. There is 54.12 million actives excluding many indirect users (Btrc.gov.bd 2016). Users in cyber café and user via other family members are indirect users. Moreover, Bangladesh internet users growth rate is 9.6% between 2011 to 2015 (Worldbank 2015). Although developed country practices e-government for years but Bangladesh started in 2000 itgets active since 2008, by having a strategy named ‘DIGITAL BANGLADESH’ by 2021. In 2002 Bangladesh had an ICT Policy 2002 as formed of e-government as a main vision of this policy was increase efficiency in public administration, reduce wastages of resources, better planning and enhance the quality of services(Btrc.gov.bd 2016). This policy also includes the roadmap about ICT use and build up required infrastructure for ICT. There are numerous challenges to implementing an effective e-government. Only government cannot solve this problem overnight and it is a continues process towards success. The best example regarding this UK was practising e-government for a long time but they make it more user-friendly and made effective platform by introducing www.gov.uk in 2012(Gov.uk 2012).Most Interestingly they are improving this day by day.
According to Transparency international 2016, Bangladesh is a 13th most corrupt country in the world(The Daily Star 2016). Since this country born in 1971, it is suffering from corruption, bureaucracy, lack of transparency and lack of good governance. E-government could be the best solution for these entire problems. Simplifying nature of ICT and speeding service attract governments towards e-government. The fast changing world makes governments understand, explore and adopt electronic service to the citizens (Sattam, Rakan and Yousuf, 2014). Moreover, e-government will make the bridge between citizen and government. Furthermore, it increases the opportunity to open a new business and build skilled workforce (Alshehri and Drew 2011). E-government is the pill for all the ill of government (Schdeva, 2006).
Although there are many benefits about e-government implementation is the main challenge. There are so many different challenges government may face to implement e-gorvermentt services programs. Some main difficulties are a lack of education, lack of infrastructure, lack of training, challenges of changes, political interest, funds, etc. however there is always a solution to all the problems.
There is no doubt about the benefits of e-government in the present world. However, 85% e-government project is failed to achieve its goals (Heeks 2003). Therefore, scholars and practitioners believe that ICT and e-government failed to achieve the promise of efficient and democratic public service (Davis 2004). It is a clear indication of lack of knowledge about this. This research also shows that limited research has been done in this sector, particularly in developing country like Bangladesh and in research some factors has been ignored. That may cause of failure of e-government. It is quite a new concept. This study will help whoever trying to implement e-government and the users of it. This strategywill also provide a depth understanding about e-government. This study will give a current picture about People perceptions about Bangladesh regarding e-government and possible solution to any problem. This current picture will bring the gap about the process of e-government in a general view and also for Bangladesh.it will also provide a recommendation to be successful and will give direction to implement effectively. This research could be the best marketing to young generation about e-government. It may also use academically and will provide a snapshot to the policy makers. This markeeeting can be useful for not only Bangladesh but also another country.
What are the citizen’s perception and attitude towards e-government services in Bangladesh?
What are the available policies to govern the E-government service?
What is the impact of E-government on the service delivery?
- To understand the present situation of e-government in Bangladesh
- To analyse the public perceptions about e-government in Bangladesh
- To assess the opportunity of e-government in Bangladesh
- To evaluate the implementation challenges of e-government in Bangladesh
A chapter where the application and study of the already done research literature will be examined and used to analyse. The literature review will provide empirical and theoretical approaches to the impact of the e-government services to the people. A major review of the investigation of the e-government services to the population of Bangladesh will be provided.
Through a chronological approach, the literature review provides the reviewed literature from the global standoff, then narrow down to the specific investigations. The idea and concepts will be internalised and a general framework for the reviews structured.
Globally the E-government services have transformed the relationship between a government with citizens, business and other arms of government via integration of advanced information and communication technology strategies (World Bank 2016). E-government aim is to deliver good but cost effective customer orientated public service and shared information through ICT (Ita.gov.om 2016). In simple definition use of emerging ICT to facilitate the public service is e-government (Drucker, 2001). According to Okut-Uma (2001), e-government is the process and structure to deliver government services electronically. Moreover according to Assar et al. (2011), E-government is the use of ICT to improve the quality of government services. The purpose of e-government is to support government operations, provide public services and engage the citizen via ICT (Ctg.albany.edu 2016).According to European Commission (2016), e-government is to provide better and quality public service to citizens by using digital tools and systems. It is not only digital tools but also change the process and changing behaviour to deliver public service efficiently to people. Moreover, e-government helps the organisation, citizens to do the business more easily and quickly at low cost. Furthermore, cross-border public service enables country to achieve digital single market. The best example is European economic zone. However in e-government always has room for improvement. In European countries although ICT is the heart of government process according to digital agenda 2020 for Europe, the government still should put their effort to improve the service delivery system (Digital Agenda for Europe 2016).
Evans and Yen (2006) explains the role of e-government in a simple term and that shows the positive impact on government administration. According to them, e-government will give the service to the citizen like downloading necessary forms, online applications, needed information about daily needs and government activities, online registration service. This online application will save the time for citizens and increase interaction with government. Other benefits e-government will serve to citizens are e-voting, education information, health information, security and legal information and all the information about changes. Canada serves this service via www.canada.ca.To explain the role of e-government towards business. Evans and Yen (2006) said that this system must provide all the necessary information such as regulation suppliers, barriers, advantages, import and export data, tax information registration business licence. In addition the following must be put into consideration health & safety regulation, employee regulation, etc. but all this information has to have a linked to cost saving, transparent and efficient service via ICT. One of the best examples is UK’s portal www.gov.uk and the USA set up a different kind of portal named www.usitc.gov. In first three months, there were 20000 people logged into this to get necessary information and 28000 copies have been downloaded (Evans and Yan 2006). On the other hand, Italy’s e-procurement system attracts more customers and saves 30% of total cost of doing business in Italy (Field et al. 2003). Another major part of e-government is to interact with other arms of government. This allows the government to communicate without redundancy and repetitions. It gives ultimate control on every public service projects. It also helps to monitor the activities all the offices (Evans and Yan 2006).
E-government provides 24 hours service in seven days a week (Basu 2004). The desire goals are inclusive access to government services and information. Moreover it will enhance the transparency to the other function of government which will bring social and economic wellbeing to the citizens (Banerjee and Chau 2004).E-government enables open process that cut down the independence of offices which helps to diminish corruptions (Schuppan 2009). Results on that bureaucracy rate come down as well that helps to attract foreign investment and grow internal business. Several study about developing country shows that e-government promotes the transparency into all government activities (Jun 2014).Several scholars also argue that e-government enables openness and transparency in government services. However according to Wong and Welch (2004)transparency and openness depends on the accountability of public agencies. Their study about 14 countries found that website transparency also depends on the civil service system of the country. It is very difficult to say that whether or up to what e-government systems extend can create an open and transparent system in corrupt culture (Bertot et al 2010). Several studies indicate that government play a critical role to achieve the openness via e-government. Government willingness influences the success of the e-government (Loller 2010).
Adoption of e-government has significant impact on the structure and function in the government administration (Snellen 2000).moreover e-government will break the traditional bureaucrat model and bring efficiency in the delivery of service (Tapscott 1995). Not only that but also this will to break down agencies and jurisdiction barriers to get more integrated service between all the components of e-government (Chen et al. 2006). In another study about the impact of e-government to Korean local government found that e-government transformed bureaucracy system to authoritarian culture towards a more people centric culture and transparency (Ahn and Bretschneider 2011).
The primary goal of e-government is to improve government’s administration efficiency (Rajon and Zaman. 2008). Not only that but also e-government gives a clear idea about the capability to deliver the service. Other research also indicates that e-government improve the managerial and governance capability of a government. One of the major reasons to implement e-government is to provide faster, cheaper, efficient and effective service to the citizens (Jun et al 2014). A different study shows e-government improves institutional efficiency by cutting down red tape in public agencies (Jun et al 2014).
Transparency influence public officials to behave ethically and it cut the corruption rate. It also attracts more honest people to work for government. In economic prospective that has a significant positive impact. in other word it increase government capacity and helps to establish good governance (Jun et al 2014).
E-government brings many positive impacts on government administration systems. Not only that but also government’s internal process, public service hierarchy, business and government’s projects return on investment, internal business process and public service process efficiency in regards to morale, work approach on internal government employees, sustainability and cost to deliver public service goals (Bwalya 2009).
This also has strong impact to business value creations (Sciencedirect 2015).E-government also helps to grow. One of the best examples is use of ICT service in ‘Green Corridor’ facility of Russia. When Swedish and Finnish trade comes in Russian border it take about 2 hours because of sharing information through ICT. It saves time and money to traders. E-government system enables other country custom to get information quickly and local exporter gives a direction to do the business (Field et al. 2003). Moreover effective e-government system has positive impact on doing business. It made whole process easy and fast. Singapore uses a e-citizen portal for business that accessible worldwide. Before implement this portal it was taking 20 to 25 days to get a licence and has to fill up 21 different forms. Now 1 form and it is taken about 15 second after submitting the form. This give a different kind of services such as government regulation, different transaction method, permits, licences, registration etc (Thompson 2005).
This system also provides a cost effective service to citizen (Bhuiyan 2011). The cost saving is not a small number. A successful e-government system can save more than someone can imagine. Best example is in Denmark electronic invoicing save more than 150 million euro for taxpayers and business saves 50 million euro in a year. Moreover in Italy e-government system saves over 3 billion euro (Digital Agenda for Europe 2016). Another research shows that by implementing e-government USA will save as low as $110 billion and EU will save £144 billion (Symonds 2000).
E-government controls corruption and overall result reduces the poverty in many different countries (pathak et al 2007). Not only that but also it enhanced the quality of service, customer service, accountability and flexibility (Siddiquee and Mohamed 2007). One of the major components of e-government is quality service. In past two decades generating improvement in service has been a primary driver of e-government. There were boost in quality customer focused service. Online service is the part of extensive citizen focused service strategy with an aim of flexibility and transparency. As it is a citizen interaction tool that is why bad service or citizen dissatisfaction may cause a major political issue (Field et al. 2003). However this kind of service must have confidentiality and has to ensure security for all the users. Many countries use cross-agency authentication system to ensure the confidentiality and security. Ireland’s vault project is one of the great examples of this. Moreover government may take initiative like Canada’s service improvement initiative guide. This guide explain step by step holistic method to improve quality of service in public agencies and it is based on the customers prospective and targeted service standard (Field et al. 2003).
Not only quality service but it increases the capacity of public administration to enhance the delivery of much needed value to the stakeholders (world public sector report 2003).
According to West (2004), e-government exchange information between bureaucrats and citizens. E-government saves costs, efforts and reduces the time for government as well as for citizens (Alshehri and Drew 2011).This helps to improve overall trust between government and citizens by improving information flow and encouraging active participation on all the activities of government (Field et al. 2003). Welch et al (2005) found that trust to government increases with use of government website. Moreover Tolbert and Mossberger (2006) found that e-government users trust about local government increase significantly. However West (2004) argues that government uses had no effect about citizen’s trust and confidence about government but he mentioned digital use of reformed government service may have a effects on citizens attitude and Morgeson et al (2011) claims that nonusers of e-government system has more satisfaction and trust about the government than the website users. They also found their research that e-government is relatively new model, there is room for improvement, and Aggressive adoption of e-government may not give the expected result.
One of the other major benefits related to cost is e-government save resources (Seifert and Bonham 2003). Saving resources helps government and local business to save cost for the projects. This helps business to grow more. In a survey in USA shows 86% believed that e-government improved the quality of service and 63% believes it reduced the government cost (Gupta and Jana 2003). Furthermore e-government is the employment of ICT to enable e-democracy to policy making (Nika 2015). According to Field et al (2003), e-government can support for better outcomes of major areas in government such as Health, Education, security and welfare services. This may use as major enabler to deliver public administration services. It also delivers values in the service. E-government helps to achieve better government that promote better economic policy. In a simple words it helps business to grow, helps to have a strong ICT sector that’s enable to have a better e-government system as well as earn money by exporting , develop a trained workforce , helps to grow e-commerce etc and the positive impact on economy goes beyond domestic market (Field et al. 2003). Asogwa (2013) also mentions that e-government system enhance the development of ICT industry as brightest industry and improve creativity by develop skilled workforce in ICT sector. Moreover this enhances overall country’s ICT infrastructure capabilities.
According to Mundy and Musa (2010), e-government system prefers whereby people can actually come and complain or get the information and find possible recommendation or the solution of the problem. Not only that but also it gives the facility to the citizen to interact with the government whenever they like and from anywhere (Asogwa 2013).
Despite all the benefits of e-government, effective implementation is the biggest concern to achieve the better results. Especially implementation strategy in developing countries based on theories and the experience from developed country. Due to high demand of e-government, developing countries jump to follow developed country strategy without consider different aspects when there was a clear difference in social and technological factors (Chen et al. 2006). Results on that about 20-25% project got abandoned after start and about 30% failed to achieve major goals of e-government (Chen et al. 2006). United nation surveyed in different years about the readiness of member countries about e-government and they result shows technologically developed country are most successful when African and Asian countries are bottom of the global ranking. They also mentioned developed countries are in advanced level while developing countries are in emerging level of e-government (United Nation 2015).
A study about Nigeria found that inadequate of consultation, inadequate of power supply, inadequate of privacy protection and security. Also, low internet penetration, technological barriers, cultural barriers, unskilled manpower, bribery and corruption are the main challenges to implement e-government in Nigeria as well as other developing countries (Asogwa 2013).According to Aladwani (2016), political issues, stakeholders, strategy and social issue are the reasons to failure of e-government in Bangladesh. Other study mentioned financial, technical, man power capacity and legal issues can be reasons for the failure too (Moon 2002).
E-government process sometime does not consider its expected users, its expect user to adapt the system (Verdegem and Verleye 2009). If the e-government system excludes its users, it may cause poor design, refusal to adapt which may result ultimate failure (Baldwin et al, 2012).
It is vital to take different institutions and cultural dimension in consideration (Schuppan, 2009). Cultural implication is one of the major obstacles to implement e-government than technical (Feng, 2003). In developed country like UK and Japan, cultural issue had negative impact to acceptance and adoption of e-government (Swartz, 2003). Cultural issue is intangible so a good plan needed to implement e-government successfully (Weisinger and Trauth, 2003).
According to United Nation (1999) corruption is the act used by public authority for his or her personal gain. Corruption is the most serious challenges that e-government system face. Although every countries are facing the problem of corruption but rate of corruption is higher in developing countries. Therefore implementation of e-government is effected significantly in developing countries (Aladwani, 2016). A study about china also mentioned that corruption is the major challenge they face about e-government (Zhang 2015).
A study about Australia found access in ICT is the major problem for them. More specifically internet, mobile phone coverage is the issue. In Remote part of Australia internet service are not great as in cities, results analysed that big parts of the major population who lives in remote part of Australia are not receiving the service via e-government. That is the reason why there was a political debate regarding more privatisation for ICT infrastructure to deliver the e-government service to every part of Australia (Dugdale 2005). This study also mentioned about ‘digital Divide’ as another obstacle for e-government. As example not everyone have personal computer. Another study about South Africa shows 45% of total population lives in rural area where ICT infrastructures are not developed as town. Computer penetration are low as well that has a bad impact on e-government service (Mutula and Mostert, 2010) These studies demonstrates lack of ICT infrastructure and political willingness about e-government can be the challenge to implement.
Continues electricity supply is the core tool of ICT development. Without electricity e-government service cannot be delivered. However with mobile internet there was a small proportion may be able to get the service but to deliver its need electricity as well. Many developing countries suffer for deficit in electricity supply as South Africa. Study about south Africa mentioned cause of this deficit ICT sector cannot develop and in long run it has a negative impact e-government system (Mutula and Mostert, 2010)
Another major issue to implement e-government is lack of skilled workforce. Not many countries has skilled workforce to run and there was lack of skills in users as well. in house skills within the government to implement and lack of possible problems solution is a problem to implement e-government. Guidance from outside agency may bring success in short-term period but for long run government must have skilled workforce for success (Lam 2005)
Lam (2005) also mention lack of fund can be a serious problem as government implementing e-government has no previous knowledge to run such a project. Funding in right time for right things is very important. He also mentioned that privacy and security issue could be major concern for its user, especially for business. Trust between government and users plays a major role to implement e-government successfully (Warkentin et al 2002). However experts can ensure the security and safety in websites and develop those by regular monitoring. This is also important the data collection is the backbone to get success in e-government. Government should ensure users are getting the access to data in seamless fashion (Lam 2005). Lam (2005) also said lack of willingness to share the data between two different agencies of government is a obstacle of e-government. Government should have a policy to solve this issue.
To implement e-government Bangladeshi government make a national ICT policy 2002 to establish transparent, efficient, responsive government which will develop skills of citizen, enhance the social equity and give the cost-effective service to people (Bhuiyan 2011). That will help to achieve e-government, hence a middle income country by 2021 and a developed country by 2040 (Bhuiyan 2011). ICT is the most popular terms in Bangladesh. Almost every middle class family has a computer. Providing internet service, website design and development , opening cyber café , attending ICT seminar and fair, ICT news are the part of the culture no. although ICT sector was been dominated and controlled by BTTB (Bangladesh telegraph and telephone board) but in recent times private sector leading the way to spreading and developing ICT sector in Bangladesh (Hasan 2003). Ministry of science and telecommunication and technology is leading the way to current development of ICT sector by promoting and developing infrastructures to achieve the goal (Digital Bangladesh) declare by government by working with private sector. They are responsible for laws and regulation like intellectual property right, privacy and security, information technology act based on the framework given by UN etc. this vision of this department is to achieve ICT knowledge based society. They also take action plan ‘roadmap for ICT development’ based on ICT policy 2002 (Bark 2016).
Currently Bangladesh has the official website also known as web portal of Bangladesh named www.bangladesh.gov.bd consists different department website of government and 59 agencies. This also consists important documentation, forms, national newsfeed, tax regulation, census documents, budget, customs and income etc. all the government agencies uses email system to communicate each other but this is in primary stage (Bark 2016). However there is no IT department to supervise the websites. Moreover for existing website there is no attempt to update with up to date information and there is lack of depth information in government website. More interestingly researchers found personal or private organisation website is better than government own websites (Hasan 2003).
In terms of communication with and within government agency are still based on traditional telephone and fax. However there is slow progression in electronic communication. Very little proportion of government agency use electronic communication. As example board of revenue takes initiative to link customhouse with electronic networking system (Hassan 2003). Hasan (2003) also mentioned government does not use different application software in office management. This kind of initiative may promote application software industry that is very popular worldwide. That can enhance the chance of export and make office work more easy and quick. It can also enable transparency and monitoring.
Project named ‘electronic governance in Bangladesh’ taken by ministry of science and communication and technology that responsible to provide all the necessary tools (pc, printer, server, gateway) and build infrastructure for e-government. This will also ensure internet connectivity to every department of government and build a central pool of ICT professionals includes web developer, system analysts, programmer, hardware and network engineers and system manager. Activities like payroll, inventory will be computerised. Lastly it will link each ministry to each other and will make sure regular update of information. Another project named ‘support to ICT task’ is taken to develop ICT infrastructure in local government.(khan 2016)
Bangladesh government also link 50 out of 64 districts with fibre optic cable for high speed network. To develop ICT industry government exempt customs duty and VAT on computer software, hardware and other related accessories. 83 companies export software at this moment and to increase this market government set up export promotion bureau at Silicon Valley in USA. However government are still unwilling to follow electronic trade that easy, faster and cheaper because of existing law accept paper based documents, signature and verifying business activity. Bangladesh urgently needed an electronic commerce like Singapore electronic transaction act of 1998 (Hasan 2003).
However, good thing is Government make an ICT incubation to encourage new business to develop and export software. Government also setting up a high tech park at cost of 43.5 million USD that will be a house of ICT enabled service industry, products, equipment, assembly point with the support of hi-tech university for research and development.
To develop skilled workforce in ICT sector computer courses are compulsory in secondary and higher secondary level since 2005 and universities are producing about 5000 computer science graduate every year. Government also considering provide necessary ICT equipment to 10000 institutions to promote training in ICT. Moreover there is ICT internship programme for 6 months basic training to develop skilled workforce (Khan 2016).
However according to global information technology report Bangladesh is on 109th position out of 143 countries in 2015 when in 2014 was 119th. This report shows readiness in networking based on infrastructure facility. However in this report also mentioned about political environment position 135th. In terms of usage Bangladesh is in 120th position and economic and social impacts 106th of ICT (Dutta et al. 2015). This report shows current situation about ICT sector in Bangladesh.
Figure 1: Corruption, political, social and ICT ranking
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: self developed
Despite all the benefits of e-government, it is very slow and difficult task to implement .especially in developing country like Bangladesh face range of complex situation for its implementation. Although it is a priority in government agenda but progress is limited and hampered by many restriction and challenges like financial crisis, infrastructure and lack of knowledge and skills (Faroqi and Siddiquee 2011).
As e-government is cost effective and ambitious project, so without clear money flow country like Bangladesh finds difficulties to implement the project. moreover unskilled, lack of knowledge, literacy rate, bad planning and low ICT penetration are the major challenge Bangladesh facing to implement and to make more effective (Hassan 2015).
According to JahangirAlam (2012), there are 10 problems to implement e-government effectively in Bangladesh. Those are internet connectivity, internal network, security issues, central database problems, funds, no automation systems of government websites, use of computer, problems in financial sectors, public awareness about e-government and lack of training. Moreover Chowdhury et al. (2006) said lack of awareness about e-government, lack of training, lack of ICT infrastructure, lack of political desire; poor change management and lack of skilled workforce are the major implementation challenges.
There are 56.167 million people use internet out of 160 million. Moreover out of 56 million 53 million are mobile internet users(Btrc 2016). Although many government offices have internet connection only one third of whole population has the privilege to use internet at home however growth rate for internet is 9% when world internet penetration rate is 7.9% (Internetlivestats 2016).
There is no internal network between different ministries and government agencies. Because of that they cannot share information between ministries. This is due to lack of ICT facilities (jahangiralam 2012)
threats may come internally (misuse by employees) and externally (terrorist organisation, hackers, criminal organisation, intelligence and investigation agencies). This attack may come for financial sector or on user’s data (Basu 2004).
there is no central database for the citizens of government that causes problem in the time of emergencies and to identify people (M 2015).
it is not possible to transfer money via internet between two banks in Bangladesh as central bank of Bangladesh is not allowing the transaction because there is no proper agreement with international payment gateway (jahangiralam 2012)
Although government offices have computer but there is lack of interest of using computer by government officials. They do not feel comfortable about this change and do not know how to use properly. A Research about computer use in 50 offices to 100 employees shows in below table:
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