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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 7
1.1 Background of the Study 7
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Objective of the Study 9
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 The Scope of the Study 9
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Limitation of the Study 10
1.8 Research Methodology 10
1.9 Organization of the Chapters 10
1.10 Definition of Terms 11
1.11 Profile of Organization 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.0 Introduction 13
2.1 Definition of Succession Planning 13
2.2 Theoretical Literature 15
2.2.1 Theories of Succession 15
2.2.2 Framework for Succession from Select Denominations 18
2.2.3 Critic/ Assessment of Concept for Succession 20
2.3 Empirical Literature 22
2.3.1 Factors for Effective Succession 26
2.3.2 Models of Succession 28
2.3.3 Factors for Ineffective Succession 30
2.4 Conceptual Framework 33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34
3.0 Introduction 34
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Population and Sampling 34
3.2.1 Study Population 34
3.2.2 Sampling Technique 34 6
3.2.3 Sample Size 35
3.3 Data Collection Method 35
3.3.1 Constitution 35
3.3.2 Questionnaire 35
3.4 Validity of Instruments 35
3.5 Administration of Data Collection Instrument 35
3.6 Method of Data Presentation 36
3.7 Brief History of Bethel Prayer Ministry International 36
3.7.1 The Founder and the church 36
3.7.2 The Period of Challenges 36
3.7.3 Succession Practice of the Church 37
3.7.4The Growth of the Church 38
CHAPTER FOUR: DATAPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 39
4.0 Introduction 39
4.1 Data Presentation and Analyses 39
4.2 Summary of Findings 45
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESYIONS 47
5.1 Introduction 47
5.2 Conclusion 47
5.3 Recommendations 48
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research 50
Christianity in Ghana is traceable through the missionary and undoubtedly the local initiatives between the fifteenth and nineteenth century respectively. However, according to Cyber Journal Research, “Indigenous Christianity came into being precisely in Africa through the initiatives of the concerned indigenous Africans who think or felt that Christianity should better be expressed in the African perception and worldview.” According to Cephas Omenyo,“the period between 1920 and 1930 gave birth to a number of African Indigenous Churches (AIC). The very early ones sprang up from the tours of prophets such as William Wade Haris, John Swatson and Kwame Sampson Oppong.” In order to understand succession practices in African Pentecostal churches today, there is need to look at it very carefully from a biblical perspective since it is dealing with spiritual leadership. Obviously, the Old Testament example of Moses to Joshua (Joshua 1:1-18), was considered one of the greatest leadership succession practices in the Bible. Looking at leadership succession from the New Testament aspect, especially from the Pauline epistles, Perry Stepphas said that, “since New Testament times, the discussion of leadership succession in the church has always been polemical.” What this New Testament aspect, especially in the Pastoral Epistles, means is that succession deserves a more sober investigation in the ancient Mediterranean world. In the context of Acts Chapter 6:15; 1Tim 3 and Titus 1, the structure of leadership is dealt with adequately. Apparently, biblical texts and its words when it is understood exegetically usually bring to light what transpired in the days of the Apostles. The leadership succession can be traced from the time New Testament church was given birth. Consequently, it has impacted contemporary Pentecostalism including African Independent Churches (AIC). According to Peter Clarke, “by 1840s it had become clear to many missionary societies that if Christianity was to take root and expand in Africa it would be necessary to raise a class of a highly trained Africans to govern and administer the local churches.” In view of looking at various understanding of succession, we would now enter into the task of evaluating the way succession is practiced and managed in our churches today. Edward Connor said: Though, modern Pentecostalism is traceable to a reasonable extent to the Northern American Pentecostal experience of 1901 and 1906 under Charles Fox Parham and William Seymour respectively. According to Edward, his experience began in a non – denominational Bible School in Topeka Kansas on 1st. January 1901, when a Sunday school teacher Agnes Ozman, after being prayed, with for the baptism in the Spirit, experienced a powerful interior renewal and began to praise God in an unknown tongue, later identified as Bohemian. As others experienced, especially, from 1905 on in Los Angeles, an enthusiastic Movement took form. Faricy Robert also said the Bible school is called Bethel Bible Institute and the head was a Methodist minister, apparently this evaluation exercise would be considered in the Bethel Prayer Ministry International of which this essay is set forth to look at as well as indigenous role of leadership in the continent of Africa precisely in the Pentecostal arena of Ghana. 1.2 Statement of the Problem
Through the effort of Bethel Prayer Ministry International, Christianity in Africa especially Ghana has been recognized by some scholars like Kingsley Larbi from the perspective of Pentecostalism. Within the first ten years of its establishment, they have opened branches in fifteen countries worldwide, including Ghana where it has influenced the style of praying in the Pentecostal. Specifically, this refers to what they term binding, breaking and bombing, generally called breaking. Incidentally, one could hardly get the comprehensive history of the church after the sudden death of the founder Bishop Dr. Paul Owusu Tabiri. Moreover, not quiet long, the then general secretary Apostle NiiBoye, who was supposed to arrange for election for the chairmanship position also died unexpectedly. That was quite a mystery for the church. Most Pentecostal churches get erased from the system totally when the leader is no more and some also could not be recognized in the society. This essay is focused on the evaluation of the church’s method of succession to see whether it has helped the church to grow or decline.
The overall objective of the study is to bring to light the indigenous role of leadership succession and the emergence, rapid spread and growth of Bethel Prayer Ministry International. The objective of the study is to ascertain the effective work of the pastors in the church before and after the death of its founder, Bishop Dr. Paul Owusu Tabiri, and the actual vision and approach of succession planning concerning the future of the church. Specifically, this research objective includes the following: To find out whether the implementation of leadership succession was applied adequately. To assess and evaluate the rapid growth of the church in the time of the founder before his death. To assess the problems associated with the administration of the church from the beginning up to date. To find out whether the leadership structure has helped the church to expand or not. 1.4 Research Questions
The under listed research questions were formulated to enable to the researcher order to find answers to the issues that are significant to the study thus: What approach was used in the implementation of the church leadership succession? What were the strategies used to bring about the spread and the rapid growth of the church? What were the problems associated with the administration of the church? How has the leadership structure helped the church to expand or not?
The study covered the period from 2005 to 2014 after the death of the founder, Bishop Dr. Tabiri in 2005 and to document what transpires in their leadership roles at the Head Quarters and how it was practiced. Moreover, this work lays emphasis on the succession practices of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International. In addition, only select items in the questionnaire were be used to complete Chapter’s three and four.
The researcher believes that the significance of this study cannot be overemphasized. The preferred knowledge accumulated from the study obviously would enable both the researcher and the student to discover exactly how to approach leadership succession and succession planning, and bring to board how to put the church onto the route of growth in spite of challenges. This research sought to gather the accurate information to correct different kinds of perception about the history of Bethel Prayer Ministry International. If one fails to correct the mistake of history, one will repeat the mistake of history. Therefore, the study could help to correct mistakes of the past, study the society, as well as the Pentecostal churches, to appreciate the contribution of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International towards the development of the Ghanaian society and Pentecostalism. Moreover, this could inform the churches to realize the role to play in leadership succession as spelled out in the Bible to embark on quality leadership and enhance community development.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Due to the distance from Winneba to Accra, where the Head Quarters of the church is situated, it was not easy to get the respondents at the appropriate time for the accumulation of information needed for the study. As a result of these, it tended to affect the quality and the quick completion of the study.
1.8 Research Methodology
The research method used was both qualitative and quantitative. In the qualitative method, relevant literature was sourced for, especially primary sources such as the constitution of the church, while the tool for quantitative method was questionnaire. In all, one hundred (100) were selected for their views on the study. Participants were selected on their willingness to participate irrespective of their level of education or gender. The research population targeted had its interest in people who are 30 years and above. This range was chosen with the view that they would be mature enough and familiar with the historical development of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International.
1.9 Organization of the Chapters
This research was organized in five chapters. Chapter one covered the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives or purpose, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the study, research methodology, the organization of the chapters, definition of terms and profile of organization. Chapter two talked about the various theories that relate to the subject matter such as introduction, theoretical literature, empirical literature and conceptual framework made in the area of study. Chapter three also covered the general design of the study and research methodology outline. Chapter Four showed the results and discussion of the findings. The fifth and final section drew the summary, conclusions and gave recommendations on the entire study. 1.10 Definition of Terms
According to the new dictionary of Christian Theology, it is a movement of Christian renewal typified by the first Christian Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit, descending upon the fearful apostles, transformed them into bold, ardent and convincing evangelists. It is characterized by the reappearance of the charism of glossolalia, healing, miracles, etc. whence it is also known as the Charismatic Renewal.
There are two words to reckon with: kuriokon andekklesia. Kuriokon: According to William Smith, the derivation of the word is generally said to be from kuriokon, “belonging to the Lord.” But the derivation has been hastily assumed. It is probably connected with Kirk the Latin circles, circulus, the Greek kuklos, because the congregations were gathered in circles. Ecclesia, the Greek word for church, originally meant an assembly called out by the Magistrate or by legitimate authority. Ekklesia: According to the New Dictionary of Christian Theology, the word itself is derived immediately from the Greek kyriake (belonging to the Lord) and ekklesia (assembly).In its primary sense, therefore, the church is the worshipping assembly called forth by God. In this study the church of Christians comprises of people who apparently demonstrate their faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.
3. Church History
The era in which the indigenous Christianity largely took up leadership of the various Churches with their European counterparts (in most cases) serving under them as partners in mission or fraternal workers.
According to Faricy Robert, the term refers to those gifts of the Spirit called charisma, or charismatic gifts. And it refers to the movement in the church that emphasizes the renewal of charism that is the charismatic renewal.
It is a trend that saw a significant number of people who had Pentecostal experiences chose to stay in their churches also known as charismatic’s.
6. Binding, Breaking And Bombing According to Larbi, Bishop Paul OwusuTabiri believes that binding, breaking and bombing is a strategy of warfare thus, before one can do away with the forces that fight against him, he first and foremost has to bind them, followed by what he called breaking. This would destroy whatever had been used against the individual. Then the bombing comes to burn the object. This exercise completely destroys the forces that are against the victim or the suppliant. 1.11 Profile of Organization
This section of the work brings forward the brief history of the church as well as how they have demonstrated the leadership succession practice. Apparently the Bethel Prayer Ministry International in the history of Ghanaian Pentecostalism has encountered this kind of succession challenge. They said, our ministry is an outreach ministry, our goal is to reach all manner of people equip and train them. The Founder and First Bishop of this Ministry was the late Bishop Dr. Paul Owusu Tabiri. The late Bishop Paul Owusu Tabiri was first president and first Field Representative of the Full Gospel Business Men’s Fellowship International (FGBMFI) BrongAhafo in Ghana. He received a call from God into full time Evangelistic and Healing ministry in 1988 as an Evangelist in the Church of Pentecost Ghana. He was officially ordained into the Church of Pentecost as an evangelist in 1992. He was led by God to start Bethel Prayer Ministry International
This chapter basically covers focused literature review on leadership succession. Concerning leadership succession, according to A.W Hart, one of the first researchers who gave attention to it, “succession reflects an interest in the quality of a school’s formal leadership and ultimately its effectiveness”.
There are many ways succession planning had been defined to bring to light its relevance to leadership positions. Simon Taylor defines it in the angle of practical approach and aim by which he developed three levels of which it can be understood. Simon Taylor has identified three types of planning that aim at achieving practical goals and objectives of organization as follows: (1) Micro planning deals with forecasting supply and demand for specific groups. (2) Contingency planning covers the situation where possible scenarios are examined and the implications assessed before major decisions are taken.(3) Succession planning is a third type that focuses on manpower planning activity such as recruitment and development of employees in order to fill managerial and top positions. The question is how can this be done? According to Matthew Tropiano who forwarded an idea to how it can be approached, this is what he said, “Strategic, systematic and deliberate effort to develop competencies in potential leaders through proposed learning experiences such as targeted rotations and educational training in order to fill high-level positions without favoritism.” According to the Church of God leadership development, “they commit themselves to identifying and developing individuals whom God has called and given leadership gift and challenging them to become servant leaders”. However, organization can properly be developed through training and learning in order to provide quality leadership to sustain its longevity. I would like to agree with the Church of God in the sense that it does not just train people but seeks to know God’s plan. In line of this Charan et al opined: Succession planning is perpetuating the enterprise by filling the pipeline with high performing people to assure that every leadership level has an abundance of these performers to draw from, both now and in the future. From this perspective, succession planning is seen as management pipeline that accelerates management performance over a period of time. Charans definition looks into the future and this probably influences Scharmer, assertion that succession planning is co-creating, and a transformational stage during which management explores the future. Moreover Garman and Glawe laid emphasis on succession planning to be an organized process in their definition. According to them, Succession planning is organized process comprising the identification and preparation of potential successor to assume new role. However, this definition is short and condensed, but it is not advanced and lacks strength when compared with Charan’s definition. On the other hand, Khumalo and Harris similarly laid emphasis on training programs as well as Tropiano. Referring to an identification of individual skills to enhance leadership positions, G. Spoor explained succession planning by stating: Referring to an identification of individual skills to enhance leadership positions, an organization's succession plan identifies individuals who either possessor are in the process of acquiring the requisite key skills and experience for effective performance ina particular position. Most plans alsoprovide a means to identify candidate development and training needs, as well as eachperson's estimated state of readiness for a specific position. All these ideas are awesome in term of training personals but the Church of God has advanced it as far as the church looks on to God for spiritual directions. The Church of God again believes that, within the priesthood of all believers God specifically selects calls, anoint and commission certain individuals for extraordinary service and leadership. So they urge pastors to train, inspire, equip and release laypeople for ministry in strategic areas of local church and community service (Acts 6:1-7; Eph. 4:11-16; 1Thess 1:4-10).
The theories of succession had been propounded by many scholars. There should be models to follow which can serve as guidelines as far as succession is concern. Patterson and Laub gave their views on servant leadership. However, this case study applied the seven constructs of Patterson’s model of servant leadership (agápao love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment, and service) to examine the role and effect of servant leadership on the succession process within Freedom Automotive, a non-profit organization. Patterson further noted: The current owner, a past owner, and six of the seven executive committee members provided data triangulated by three methods of data collection: the observations of the organization over a 4-month period, the data from company records, and responses to eight in-depth interviews conducted using emergent design. This examination of the succession process in a servant-led organization showed a positive relationship between servant leadership principles and the succession process. At a 2004 servant leadership roundtable conference, Jim Laub presented a paper identifying two primary reasons that servant leadership is espoused by leaders, writers, and researchers: it is the right way to view leadership, and the concept works. In the view of the Church of Pentecost, they can teach what they have learnt or known. We can tell people about our rich experience and the past glories. Nonetheless, we can only give birth to people of our own character. We have the DNA of tomorrow’s church in us. What we do now is what the children and the youth will take up in excess in the next generation. Trust is the key to our mentoring process. Follow my example as I follow Christ. Trust or the lack of it has the potential to facilitate or impede the success of the church’s life. For example, lack of implementation of General Council decisions and church policies by any minister or church officer is a betrayal of trust. Implementation of such decisions and policies help to restore trust in places where it is low. Efforts will be made during the period to increase trust among church leaders. In the words of Patterson and Laub: There emerge few lacks of details from Paterson and Laub. How could one be able to identify the impact servant leadership is what R.K Yin had brought forward. According to him, one strategy to discover the details is through the use of case studies. One business process which holds potential to reflect the impact of servant leadership is succession planning. The church of Pentecost again lay emphasis that, since the future of every institution depends on the young generation catching the vision of the leaders or adults, there will be a deliberate attempt to mentor the children and the youth to know Christ in a personal way, grow in Him and also understand the Church’s beliefs and practices. Paul tells Timothy, “What you heard from me, keep as the pattern of sound teaching ...” (2 Tim 1:13, NIV). Again, he says, “And The things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men...” (2 Tim 2:2, NIV). On the other hand, Bieschke and Stone had laid focus on the follower or the employee saying that, “it is logical that servant leadership would place emphasis on succession planning with its emphasis on the follower (employee) and the follower’s development.” In the words of Dyck, Mauws, Starke and Mischke , while virtually all organizations encounter the need for succession planning, research and literature have not focused on the actual process. In this regard that Brady and Helmic said that, Succession planning was selected for examination for several reasons. It is seen as one of the most critical elements for the continued success of an organization. As well as Gersick, Davis, Hampton, &amp;Lansberg also illustrated. Then right after,Northouse also said that the leader’s focus is on the follower. And there is little or no empirical research in this area according to P. S. Davis &amp;Harveston. What Freedom Automotive had annulled is brought to light by others according to Contee Borders. In that, this case study provided a portion of the research void by studying Freedom Automotive, a for-profit car dealership which had previously been identified as a servant-led organization. Colony Lincoln-Mercury’s leadership merged with Freedom Ford creating Freedom Automotive, an organization created by a leadership succession at the executive level of two automotive leaderships. The case study method of research included in-depth interviews, observations, and the review of company documents. In relation to this view, and having observed Jesus’ approach to succession, Bieschke noted: Many organizations are just one step away from extinction. He further followed this comment by asking if the Christian church would exist today if Jesus had not recognized and demonstrated the need to equip followers to become the future leaders. If Jesus recognized the need for succession planning in his time, then businesses also need to recognize this today. According to Gersick et al, he discussed succession as a process rather than a single event’’. Furthermore McConnell explained that the succession process needs to take a “consistent approach to assembling, analyzing, and retaining information about potential leaders and planning for their further development. Succession planning is needed in every organization which should be one of our priorities in a major sense. The churches have often exhibited the biblical procedures for succession planning as its basis as well practiced by Jesus Himself and followed by the Apostles till date which Bieschke has observed and practiced by the church of Pentecost, Church of God and other Pentecostal churches. The focus of the church today should be on the followers by training them for future. Leadership succession should be recognized with certain prestige. Brady and Helmich realized the importance of leadership succession and especially executive succession when they pointed out that “few events in the history of an organization stand to have greater repercussions on its ultimate success. ” In the view of Greengard, he pointed out that succession planning was not an easy task: “Mapping out the future involves more than an organizational chart displaying the corporate hierarchy”. Yet, despite the obvious need for a succession plan, many companies neglect the task. There should be an idea that, the focus of the servant leader is on the follower rather than the organization. Stone et al, labeled this focus to be the most important distinguishing characteristic between servant leadership and transformational leadership. According to Bieschke’s theory, he relates succession planning as looking for and cultivating future leaders. It must be noted that the church of Pentecost as well as Pentecostal churches biblically focus on training followers to become leaders in the future reflect and brought to light the relevance of succession planning in our contemporary churches, though some churches might lack this due to autocratic leadership.
In the level of empirical survey, Zaich emphasized that there were few empirical studies of succession between 1950 and 1960. And he stated: This period of time most researchers focused on management development or chief executive officer (CEO) succession. Succession planning has main related researches in this period. In the succession planning event, Christensen suggested some of the elements which will be included in such a planning process. These elements according to him are; identifying the pool of potential successors, the actual designation of the successor and the notification of both the successor designated and other major power figures. In what way can we identify the potential successors? According to The Apostolic Church constitution, The Church shall have the following corporate structure: (1) The National Council, consist all the Apostles of the church both active and retired (2) The National Executive, consist of the President, Vice and the General Secretary (3) The National Management Officers (4) The National Consultative Meeting (5) The Area Pastorate (6) The Area Presbytery (7) The District Presbytery (8) The Local Presbytery. The National Management Officers who shall be the Management Team of the Church at the National Level and shall be responsible for the day to day administration of the Church. The National Management Officers shall consist of the following: (a) The President; (b) The Vice President; (c) The General Secretary; (d) The Director of the Movement Oversight Division; and (e) The respective Heads of the Administration and Management Divisions. The Area Pastorate, The Area Presbytery’s, The Area Management Officers, The District Presbytery, District Management Officers, The local Assembly, The Local Presbytery, The Local Management Officers, and the Membership of the Church. Zaich focused on management and Christensen on identification of successors while the Church combined both. Though, all these structures were laid by the church, one key thing here is that, most at times, prayer has to be offered unto God for direction so far as the church is belong to God. It is possible through the gift of the Holy Spirit for man to locate Gods direction for His church. According to Community Church constitution, they believed there is a plurality of leadership statement thus, (Titus 1:5 NASB) “Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.” (Acts 20:28 NASB)“For this reason I left you in Crete that you might set in order what remains, and appoint elders in every city as I directed you.” The New Testament clearly teaches that the church is to be led by a plurality of godly me (elders). Their assignment falls into four categories. First, these men are given both the responsibility and authority to skillfully and lovingly lead the flock. Next, they are to feed the flock, offering accurate and insightful teaching of the Scripture. Third, they are to care for the flock. This care is shown in the love, concern, prayers, ministry and adept management of church resources. Finally, they are to protect the flock from harmful influences and beliefs. According to the view of Huang on his studies about succession management systems and human resource outcomes: The primary purpose of the study was to find out whether local firms with a more sophisticated succession plan achieved more favorable human resource outcomes than those with fewer sophisticated plans. In conclusion, there was no significant different in human resource outcomes between companies who adopted succession planning and those who did not. There was an important relationship between the level of sophistication with which succession plans were carried out and human resource outcome. In addition there is line manager involvement, non-political succession criteria, the credibility of succession planning staff, review and feedbacks, effective information systems, were some characteristics, which affected the performance of human resources. Human resource most at times encounter difficulties not only because there is succession plan or not but sometimes sociological environment is also reckoned. The church of Pentecost believes that, (2 Tim. 2:15; Acts 17:11; Acts 18: 24-28; Ezra7:9-11) the ministry is challenged by the dynamics and trends of the contemporary environment. This calls for a constant upgrading and increasing of knowledge and skills in modern trends for all ministers. To be more effective in today’s ministry is to engage in life-long learning processes, which are sharpened through prayer and not just prayer but continues heartfelt prayer. Provision, therefore, needs to be made for relevant resources and training opportunities for the ministers. Hands-on training also needs to continue. Since this generation may be the last link between the old and the new, the task of the present leadership among other things is to prepare those ministers who did not have the opportunity to rub shoulders with the founding leaders within the modern context. Human management is not an easy task in general, therefore to make a plan for succession should be one of the important roles to be programmed by every organization, including churches following the examples of Christ with His disciples. 2.2.3 Critic/ Assessment of Concept for Succession
Apparently succession has uncounted critics and assessments. Paul Cantor one way or the other came out to say: Succession planning cannot take place in a vacuum. It should also be an intensive, comprehensive initiative, much more than a preparation of a list of names that will be tabled if the CEO is hit by a bus. He further indicated that, different succession can be placed on a continuum ranging from relatively simplistic and bounded to relatively complex and comprehensive. At the most simplistic end of the continuum, replacement planning denotes a minimal succession approach in which successors (i.e., replacement) are identified at the top two or three managerial levels, but there is little or no development of those successors other than ad-hoc on the job experience. In this regard, the researcher believes there should be a clear cut succession plan enough to cater for replacement when the need arise. The Church of God in this sense has certain procedures they prescribed and used in filling vacancies. With human resource, anything at all can happen, hence to them, in the event of which an office or elected departmental head becomes vacant due to death, disability, or incumbent in any wise been disqualified, the next in command of the same department has to take over. Similarly if the assistant departmental head is to be replaced due to the above circumstances, then the general overseer will submit two person’s names through mail and one shall be selected through voting to occupy the position. Cutting Edge Information noted thus: Private sector organizations are also engaged in succession planning, and many companies have created innovate plans for workforce development. Dow Chemical Company encourages its long-time management directors to actively participate in succession planning. These individuals must give up management positions at the age of sixty(60) or sixty-five (65) years after their last significant promotion, whichever is later. They can remain on the board of directors until 65. It is obvious, even to the church of Pentecost, that, the Scripture has instructed God’s people to take good care of those who minister among them (e.g. 1 Tim 5:17-18; Num 18:21; Deut 25:4). Apparently, it also directed that such ministers must retire from regular service when they are old (e.g. Num 8:23-26). As the Scripture commands that proper care must be taken of the ministers, so by extension, it is also expected that proper care must be taken of those who go on retirement. On a more serious note, if the ability is there to specific people whom the Lord has blessed with much strength, it is suggest that they can hold the managerial position even until 70 years. Maxwell circulates an article on classic management theory to employees in each facility, and follows up with “a round-table discussion 18 of the key concepts and learning points of the article”. In the view of Waymon: This process helps employees understand how different theories apply to the management of people in the workplace and develop new outlooks on their leadership styles. Maxwell’s idea is simple and would be easy to apply in most public agencies. Managers could use academic literature to educate up and coming employees and facilitate conversations about advancements in their field. This cannot be possible just like that therefore there is a loophole in this strategy. One limitation of this strategy is that it may be difficult to encourage all employees to participate and come prepared to discuss key concepts. In order to create an effective succession planning model, an assessment of current employee skills and interests must be completed. The church of God had what they call the local board of trustees which hold office until their successors are appointed. They are in charge of management and control the affairs of the local church with full right, power and authority yet, certain conditions have to be met by the board. After presenting their propositions at the conference of the local church, two- thirds has to approve by vote. The managers of the church and the members have to come together to agree in order to enhance the morals of the members as well as the betterment of the church. This will help the employees or the members of the church to know different approaches to assess and learn the model of succession. S, Ley explains that, “ it is necessary to perform a needs assessment, as it is essential to identify critical skill sets in order to determine how to most effectively implement all succession planning criteria, such as training requirements’’. In spite of the tremendous growth which the Apostolic Church experienced in the 1940’s, it suffered a major setback in the early 1950’s which nearly led to the collapse of the church. According to Kingsley Larbi, the immediate cause of the succession was the visit of the Latter Rain Movement (led by Dr. Thomas Wyatt) to the Gold Coast (under the auspices of Pastor James Mckeown in 1952) for four weeks evangelistic campaign. This visit was possible for the second succession of the church all because the church is the Lords and have helped the Pentecostal churches how important succession plan could the church survive. Australian Public Service Commission also came with another method of conducting the assessment through capability templates, which can be used as a basis for benchmarking the skills, required for critical roles, guiding learning and development for those individuals identified as having potentials. This is similar to the Church of God leadership development discussed earlier on page 13, where they set themselves to identifying and developing individuals whom God has called and given leadership gift and challenging them to become servant leaders. There should be an awareness of change in leadership to avoid obliviousness in the system of the agency. According to Schall “Succession planning done well involves preparing the agency for a change in leadership, but it also includes assessing what has been valuable and how that can be preserved” in the future.
Empirical research on succession planning was carried out by Dingmans and Stone, and their findings included that Freedom Automotive does not have a formal written succession plan at either the owner level or the senior executive level. From the perspective of Dingmans and Stone:
This agreed with Bieschke’s reported poll which showed that 94% of organizations have no succession plan at all. Yet, the data from this study showed that there was a succession between Conoly Phillips and Scott Rigell and that there was a strong informal succession process operating at Freedom Automotive. In both cases, the Phillips-Rigell succession and the informal succession process at Freedom Automotive, servant leadership appeared to be a major influence in the actions taken.During the interview with Scott Rigell, he mentioned that he had discussed contingencies with his wife if something were to happen to him then his son only if he qualifies or future son- in-law as a possible successor. He did not feel the need to have a definitive succession plan despite the fact that there was no formal succession plan or process set up at Freedom. In the constitution of Bethel Prayer Ministry International, appointment is done to choose a qualified person not below the rank of an Apostle or Prophet but though they also lack succession planning. The man is having succession planning in mind without implementation, like wards Bethel Prayer Ministry International. To the church of Pentecost, the Headquarters will continue to serve as a center of excellence in the church’s administration. The team of competent administrators will offer administrative leadership and support for the smooth running and progress of the church. The Headquarters will continue to sharpen its effectiveness by offering periodic and relevant training for the staff. The reason why we trained people is to equip them to do what they are doing in a better way, and one way or the other when they were privileged to get to the leadership position, they will have enough idea to lead the organization without realizing of been through succession process. On the other hand, the researcher always says a good follower is always a good leader. Furthermore, Dingmans and stone propounded that, an analysis of the data collected showed that servant leadership did have an impact on the succession process between Colony Philips and Scott Rigell and at Freedom Automotive. The findings, however, also uncovered the lack of a formal succession plan at Freedom Automotive. There appears to be apathy toward the need for a plan at the executive level in the organization. This finding was in line with the literature of Bieschke, but differed from what was anticipated. Freedom Automotive’s extensive training program and employee coaching could be construed as a succession plan, but those interviewed on the executive committee revealed that Scott Rigell and the executive committee had never given much thought or attention to who would lead should a senior member leave or the owner is incapacitated. It was generally assumed that the general sales manager would take that position if such a need arose. There was not, however, a specific program in which individuals were prepared or trained to fill a specific position. Senior leadership had not given thought to the possibility of replacing their positions in the future. In this regard, Dag Mills, the presiding bishop of the Lighthouse Chapel International,“ In any church only one person can be the head or senior minister, he is not the only visionary. In other to bear much fruit, the head must accept that he cannot work alone. The art of being the head is the art of leading a team. To develop effective team and efficiently run it, the head must establish a close-working relationship with associates and junior ministers.” The researcher believes if one fail to plan, is a plan to fail, hence proper preparation prevent poor performance. The lack of a succession plan might be correlated to the absence of turnover at the executive level. The high level of job satisfaction could be directly related to the practice of servant leadership principles in the organization and the focus on the needs and well-being of the employees. This low turnover was also cited as being well below the industry average for all job levels at Freedom Automotive. The low turnover was reflected in interview comments by the executive committee members that most employees elected to stay with Freedom. Having succession planning in mind, the church of Pentecost laid emphasis on to raised young generation for the sustainability of the church in the future as discussed earlier. Although no formal succession plan was found at Freedom Automotive, there was an informal succession process occurring. More importantly, this informal succession process appeared to be motivated by the servant leadership principles practiced by the owner of Freedom Automotive and his executive committee. The general sales managers had been promoted to the position of president of their respective dealerships. The increased responsibility, authority, and operational autonomy (empowerment) delegated to the executive committee members by Scott was not extraordinary in the context of a servant-led organization. Looking at these from the succession perspective; it was extraordinary that the CEO was still very much alive, active in operations, not intending to retire in the foreseeable future. Patterson’s model predicted that Scott Rigell would be motivated by a sincere desire to do what was in the best interest of his senior leadership. The outcome manifested itself in the form of the promotions. Therefore, the leadership succession had already taken place. Scott Rigell commented in the interviews that he was tired of doing things the way he had done them for the past 10 years, had become bored with the car business, and wanted to do other things. As Scott’s corporate interests changed, he allowed his executive committee to have the control required to run their operations and removed himself as a potential barrier. Scott gave them the autonomy to run the organization and did, in fact, implement a nearly complete succession of responsibility and authority. Scott retained responsibility for some of the larger conglomerate financial issues, but the rest of operational decision making was delegated to the respective presidents. While upwards of 90% of the leadership succession has already occurred, there are still issues that need to be addressed. What if something happens to Scott? Will his successor utilize the same servant leadership style or allow the committee to continue running the organization? There is still the need for a smaller scale succession plan to address these issues. According to Dag Heward- Mill, a good assistant minister is compared to a good ambassador. He does not reflect his own ideas and vision, only those of his home country (senior minister). A good assistant can be compared to a good wife. He must obey instructions and genuinely support the head. He must not be independent or difficult to control person. If you are not faithful with another man’s ministry do not ever expect to have your own.(Luke 16:12). The vision may be one but the method to accomplish it might not be the same, why because every dispensation demands certain approaches of which the old ideas might not help so to say. In the church, the successor may not have the same gift as the first leader, but can use part of his gift attach to the one he himself is having. This can effect little changes in the church or the organizational leadership. In this regard Smith, Montagno, and Kuzmenko observed: Servant leadership works better in a stable external environment and transformational leadership works better for organizations facing intense external pressure. When Scott Rigell first purchased Freedom Ford, the dealership was losing money annually and was not in the best of financial conditions. Scott introduced servant leadership principles; within months, the chaotic work environment had stabilized. Evidence in this case would indicate that servant leadership can contribute toward creating a stable organizational environment. As Dag Mills have said earlier on, is that the strategic way for the organization or the church to grow relies on the relationship between the leader and his followers. Scott Rigell might have realized the need for servant leadership. Motivation could also be of serious help in organization today so far as servant leadership is concern. Winston’s model includes a feedback loop to Patterson’s model stated as follows: This additional feedback loop posits that when servant leaders focus on the individuals within the organization with their best interests at heart, the employees reciprocate by wanting what is best for the leader. This reciprocal effect became evident in the executive committee members’ interviews in their comments conveying the love and admiration they have for Scott and their desire to see the business prosper. In this context, Winston’s reciprocal model of servant leadership holds potential for organizations. The disciples of Jesus Christ came with joy that even demons obey them in His name why because authority and power has been given to them by Christ their leader.(Luke 9:1;10:17-19).
A good follower can be a good leader to my observation. Jay A. Congers focus on the leader’s personality that can serve as concrete bases for effective leadership. According to him, there are certain features that seem to be effective in leadership development programs: “A leader can be a personal model or role model for good leadership. He can serve as a standard-bearer for a new and best way to do business. However, the organization needs to exhibit leadership modeling.” “This is part of the succession planning process. Normative modeling is used to identify the best traits and characteristics of known leaders.” Leadership and behavior modeling can clearly serve as an example especially to the next generation of leaders. The Scripture has shown what one needs to become a leader. To identify the procedure and the Scripture basis of leadership can make succession effective. The beauty and strength of The Church of Pentecost is its application of the principle of the priesthood of all believers. Every area will be motivated to equip, empower and release lay leaders to serve as ministry partners. Again every area will be encouraged to make provision for the sole purpose of giving regular training to the lay leaders. Women with ministry gifts will be developed to assist in services. Ministry opportunities should be created for them in all quarters of the church. . (Rom. 16:1-16; 1 Cor. 16:15-18; Eph. 4:11-15; 1 Tim. 3:1-15; 2Tim. 2:2). In addition to the principles of social learning theory, R Noe noted: “Learning also occurs by vicarious reinforcement. This exists where observers see their role model being rewarded for their desirable behaviors according to Noe.” In the opinion of Lombardo: A modeling display provides key behaviors that trainees should practice. This display presents key behaviors. It is credible to trainees. Trainees are shown the relationship between the behavioral model and its key behaviors. In the end, each organization has to develop and refine its own model. This is a determination of those values, skills, and competencies that drive the organization to an original successful stage. Paul tells Timothy, “What you heard from me, keep as the pattern of sound teaching ...” (2 Tim 1:13, NIV). Again, he says, “And the things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men...” (2 Tim 2:2, NIV) This is used by all Pentecostal churches including Church of Pentecost. Kouzes and others stated,“ Leadership by Example be a role model, a leader must be willing to do what he asks others to do. Blanchard links it that, it builds trust and faith, while showing a willingness to sacrifice. One should not preach or use words, but set an example. Leaders set the tone and model the leadership they desire according to Maxwell. Influence comes not through control, power, or manipulation. The way for a leader to multiply his influence is to focus on producing and growing other leaders. A good leader can be a role model to his followers if only he can discipline himself spiritually to the matters of the church leadership shown by Christ. Christian leadership is not to lord over the people but to serve as an example (Mark 10:45). Spiritual discipline involves prayer, praise, worship, confession, fasting, meditation and study according to Church of God. Going by the concept of Martha K. Allison: Being a role model is not just a matter of leadership modeling or setting an example of strong character. A role model must share his experiences an ash develops the next generation of leaders. There are strategies which should be put into place to enhance succession planning in term of its effectiveness. Strategic Succession planning is a systematic approach to building a leadership talent pool to ensure leadership continuity, developing potential successors in ways that best fit their strengths, identifying the best candidates for categories of positions and concentrating resources on the talent development process yielding a greater return on investment. That is why church of God has set herself to identify those the Lord has called and gifted into His service. So they start training them right from the membership level to exhorter, ordained ministers then to ordained bishops to make succession planning very flexible to the church. 2.3.2 Models of Succession
Santorin came up with the first succession model, which is referred to as “Relay Succession Planning. In this model, He advocates that current CEO of an organization should pass the baton to a successor over a long period of time’’. The impact of companies practicing this model is being evaluated in Santorin's research compared with organizations do not such plans in place according to Adewale. However, it was recorded that organizations that practice relay succession plans performed better because the successors were exposed to corporate challenges and were able to deal with such challenges in the pre-succession phase. Obviously, current CEO was able to pass the baton in real time and this would give the successor the opportunity to test the reins of leadership and at the same time receive training. It is evidence in Santorin's research that those organizations that had internal relay succession model had a higher return on investment over time. However, organizations that implemented relay succession model should perform better in the post-succession phase. Even before Joshua can succeed Moses, it was after the death of Moses that the Lord Himself commissioned shim. Elijah told Elisha if you sees him been taken up then he can received what he had asked but if not it shall not be so. In the Christian churches sometimes prayer has to be offered unto God to choose the next leader through prophecy and thereafter vote is casted.Scharmer came up with the second succession model which is referred to as “Scharmer’s Theory U Model”. In Scharmer’s argument: Top Management Team should embrace and act in order to implement succession planning. In the first instance, this model views succession planning as beginning from the immediate future and supports a concept of a U process of five movements that can make change possible. These movements are; (1) Co-initiating, at this stage, organization establishes a common purpose with all stakeholders about a future event. (2) Co-sensing – is the second movement stage in which an organization sees the need at hand collectively across boundaries. Also, at the stage, new ideas and innovation occur through collective input. (3) The third stage is Presencing, whereby the leadership of organization begins to see the future they envisage. This futuristic plan establishes a foundation for change, thereby spurs an organization to an expected end. Further, at this stage, it is observed that the leadership let go off unresolved past issues and forges ahead to a more realistic future. He goes further to suggest that leadership should make succession planning a long-term concept rather than working on organizational immediate requirements. Kartz argues further that there is need to assess company’ strategy and policy that highlight the required qualifications of the successor in order to have a sustainable and dynamic succession planin place therefore Scharmer’s idea can help an organization to embrace change and implement succession planning strategies in the context of an emerging future. Pentecostal churches or Christian churches should have a laid down plans right from the local and districts levels, regional and national levels and even some to international levels in case an emergency succession has to take place in accordance with the direction of the Lord.
Leadership Substitute Theory
Kerr &amp;Jermier stresses the importance for leaders to recognize that there are factors in the subordinate, the task, or the organization which can make leader’s action unnecessary. These factors are referred to as leadership substitutes by the following consideration: These factors become a substitute for leader behaviors. Such factors can make it impossible for leadership to make a difference. For example, the authors found that formalizing procedures in a professional setting negates the need for leaders to intervene. People in this situation are more satisfied if leaders do not give further directions. In another study, they found that subordinates’ ability, professional orientation, and desire for autonomy make any directives from the leader counterproductive.
In the case of Acts chapter 6, some were selected to carry on with the work of God while the main characters are prohibited to preach the word of God. Those who think they know better than their leaders becomes problem to their leaders in coat. 2.3.3 Factors for Ineffective Succession
In the view of Zenger, leaders and managers are in focus, some of the factors for ineffective succession is that there’s a familiar adage, “People don’t leave companies; they leave managers.’’ This can be a concerning thought for a manager, especially when an exit interviews reveals that the manager is a contributing factor to the employee’s exodus. Heads of Churches do unethical thing in their capacity as leaders of the team thinking they are the head therefore not accountable to anybody forgotten about God. These unethical actions lead to the disintegration of the teams and churches ultimate goal. A team that breaks up every few years is never going to grow large according to the presiding bishop of the Lighthouse chapel international. In the book of Frauenheim, he state apparently that “Companies increasingly recognize that preparing for high level turnover and grooming new leaders are crucial, in part because business condition in many field are growing and more turbulent’’. Should we say that’s all? No so Berman says “Within the Service Industry, the need for retention and succession planning is an equally critical focus. Anonymous came with the view that though we need people but not just people but people with management leadership minded. The need to have strategic, people oriented leaders becomes vital to any organization. However, Van der Does, state that despite the analysis, managers aren’t capable or willing to utilize the appropriate leadership style in the further development of their people. This is evidence by research conducted by Elliot Leadership Institute development void in the foodservice industry. Those who have a personal relationship with God need to worship God and be taught biblical truths. People who are seeking a relationship with God need a trustworthy and safe place to investigate the claims of Christ. BevansET el opines thus, the principal’s leadership is also strongly linked to the organizational health of the school. .On a more serious note, how can this be known? This is what Blasé said, principal can have a large positive impact on a campus, but they can also have a negative impact. In a large quantitative study, it was found that principal mistreatment can be divided into three levels according to Blasé &amp; Blasé. The first mentioned is indirect and moderately aggressive behavior, which would include such actions as non-support, discounting of teachers thought, and favoritism. The second level is progresses to direct and escalating aggression. Further he said, principal displaying this kind of behavior might spy on teachers, sabotage their efforts, or make unreasonable demands that both the teacher and the principal know are impossible to achieve. The third and the most severe level is labeled direct and severely aggressive, and include such behaviors as lying about the teacher, threat to the teacher, and unwarranted written reprimands. It is also noteworthy that sometimes principals experience these same levels of aggression from the superintendent, their direct supervisor. These kinds of attacks damage relationship and damage school. Greater love hath no man than this that a man lay down his life for his friends (John 15:13) KJV. For the church we need to show love for those we are leading having in mind the ultimate leader in heaven who is watching us. Every human is accountable to God one day whether we believe or not, with this we can we can avoid ineffective factors for succession. In the words of J, Astrachan:“The fact that very few family businesses survive beyond the first generation is thus rather universal and independent of cultural context or economic/business environment. Unlike non-family businesses, the efficient functioning of family businesses is often affected by the life cycle of the founder.” This comment is sometimes not adequate. Kingsley Larbi said one of the major factors leading to the remarkable success of Ghanaian Pentecostalism is its cosmology and soteriology. The words of the founder of the church Jesus Christ and His lifestyle have help the church to survive even until the end of the world. The life style of the founder of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International has contributed to the growth of the church through the gift of God but it can only take the salvific word of God not only the founder’s life style. According to Bjuggren and Sund, an often cited reason for the low survival rates amongst family businesses is the practice by families in handing over their businesses to their offspring, instead of more competent professional managers. Studies have also suggested that failures and break-ups of family businesses occur due to power struggles and internal feuds amongst siblings and members of the extended family, to give up their central roles in the management of the businesses and to relinquish control and power in the businesses. As a result of historical evolutionary reasons, most countries have family businesses constituting the largest category in terms of ownership; estimates do vary, but is above 75 percent in all cases. However, long term sustenance of family business depends on its smooth survival across generations “ Families that successfully survive three or four generations have a complex web of structures, agreements, councils and forms of accountability to manage their wealth according to Jaffe &amp; Lane”. “This seems to be more evident in the west compared to emerging economies such as India. Reflecting on the complexity of the process involved, succession planning has been an area of keen interest for researchers’’. Although ownership and management succession are the key concerns of a large number of business families, they do not devote enough attention to the process involved. A Study by Watts and Tucker, has reported that “families hesitate to address this issue. Succession dilemma is also closely related to the family policy on entry of new generation, retirement of incumbents and mechanisms for resolving conflicts”. Apostles James and John with their mother came to Jesus, asking for position in the kingdom of God as though it is a family issue of which nepotism should be practiced. (Matthew.20:22-23). Nepotism should not be practiced especially in the Christian churches or any organization except if the person qualifies to occupy such position.
This research expands on the practical ideal type conceptual framework for succession planning developed by Sharon Ley” According to Sharon, Patricia Shields: Practical ideal types provide benchmarks with which to understand and improve reality. In this case, the practical ideal type outlines the ideal elements with which all succession planning models should be based. This research compares the current succession planning practices utilized at the Texas Department of Insurance to those of the practical ideal type in order to make recommendations for improvement. The conceptual framework for succession planning indicates whether inputs and processes are adequate so that the intended outputs are achieved. In other words, the conceptual framework summarizes how the inputs and processes help to generate the output of the succession planning process. The conceptual framework for succession planning indicates whether inputs and processes are adequate so that the intended outputs are achieved. In other words, the conceptual framework summarizes how the inputs and processes help to generate the output of the succession planning process.
In conclusion succession planning is a process that helps individuals to develop through mentorship, training, and enrichment in order to prepare them for future job advancements. This process is used primarily by corporate business institutions, although some school jurisdictions are also implementing programs to address succession. The primary approaches identified in succession planning literature include administrative internship programs, employee exchange programs, formal training programs, job rotation, literal job movements, mentorship, and secondments. The survival of every organization relies on the leadership, which is killing most jobs in the system today. Churches looks up to how Jesus practiced succession.
This chapter discusses the research methodology. It deals with the research design, study population and sampling techniques. It also deals with the sampling size and data collection methods. Furthermore, it dealt with the validity of instrument, methods of data presentation andadministration; data collection instrument, such as church constitution, the questionnaires and brief history of Bethel Prayer Ministry International. 3.1 Research Design
Based on leadership structure in 1Tim 1-13, according to Maxwell, every leader should be tested before being given an official position. The preparation of a leader is crucial to their success. However, Acts 1:15-26 and 6:1-7 records the occurrence of succession practice. The design used in this research was simple random survey, of which members of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International were chosen to seek their views on the indigenous contribution on succession practices and succession planning to the growth and development of the church. Data for the research was therefore obtained from two sources: primary and secondary sources.3.2 Population and Sampling
The population for the study comprised the ordinary members of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International. 3.2.2 Sampling Technique
The sampling technique used was simple random sampling. Participants were randomly selected to share their views on the indigenous contribution to the growth and development of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International in Ghana.
The random sampling ensured that, each member of the population has the same chance of being included in the sample. In all one hundred participants were selected for the study. A questionnaire was purposely designed to seek the views of participants selected. 3.2.3 Sample Size
In all one hundred (100) participants were sampled from the ordinary members of the Bethel Church, with the assumption that the constitution engages the ideas of the leadership. 3.3 Data Collection Method
This selection is a detail about how specifically the data were obtained. The constitution of the church was used because it carries the detailed succession information been enshrined in it. Comments quoted in this document as supporting evidence have been edited only for grammatical purposes. Particular attention was paid to maintain the integrity of the meaning of what was said and spelled out in the constitution. Questionnaire was used to test the validity of the constitution.
The constitution of the church has most of the details about the subject matter. It is the fundamental and entrenched rules governing the conduct of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International, and establishing its concept, character and structure. It was used as a primary source to enhance qualitative segment of the research.
A questionnaire is a set of written questions on a given problem which the respondent is require responding to. It must be noted that the questionnaire is meant to elicit information from the respondent about some factors leads to poor succession practices. This is used as quantitative method. 3.4 Validity of Instruments
Expert opinion was also sought to check the content validity of the questionnaires. The internal consistency method was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaires. This was done by slightly changing the wording and positions of the same questions.
Two instruments were used for data collection. First, the church constitution was enormously used for the study as primary data. Second, self–administered questionnaires were designed for the ordinary members of the Church selected for the study. Besides, the researcher devoted his time to observe their succession practices. 3.6 Method of Data Presentation
A case study research method using a simple random approach was utilized. This resulted in an interpretative research study using techniques to gather perceptions regarding how succession planning was perceived by the leadership and the ordinary members of the church.
According to Kingsley Larbi, Bishop Dr. Tabiri was a retired Inspector from the Ghana Police Service, former Brong Ahafo Regional Deacon of the Church of Pentecost and the field representative of the Full Gospel Business Men Fellowship International, Brong Ahafo. He was officially called into the ministry as an evangelist in the Church of Pentecost in 1991. He left the Church of Pentecost in 1995 to lead the Bethel Prayer Camp as an independent ministry at Sunyani. He successfully transformed the prayer camp into a church called Bethel Prayer Ministry International and was assisted by the late Apostle Tetteh Commey. He is undoubtedly the contemporary foremost leader in the healing ministry in Ghanaian Christianity. He popularized the terms binding, breaking and bombing as mighty weapon in spiritual warfare. His ministry was characterized by outstanding healing and miracles. These were the main features that brought his ministry to the lime light. His first deputy was the late Apostle Tetteh Commey. He later came to have his Headquarters in Accra, Kotobabi in a rented apartment later moved to Abossey Okai where the church has her own building as central church attached by offices.
3.7.2 The Period of Challenges
Giving a brief background of the challenges of the church, it is observed and noted that after the death of the founder, the General Secretary Apostle Nii Boye Armah was then in charge to assigned someone to be an acting chairman according to the former constitution as not amended. However prior to his next plan of action in terms of the appointment, he died suddenly. This incident has put the church in a serious and a tight corner with negative imaginations commence coming up as to which the church can survive. As a result, the former General Secretary of the church in the person of Apostle Samuel Gyamfi had to step in as well as allowed by the same constitution. Then the General Council comes in to follow the amended constitution for the election of chairman. The wife of the founder, Apostle Georgina Tabiri as co-founder in the registration document of the church, lots of rumors came in as to which she might have wanted to take over though the constitution does not permit. She allowed the constitution to take its course. 3.7.3 Succession Practice of the Church.
Appointment: Appointment is done to choose a qualified person not below the rank of an Apostle or Prophet. According to their constitution as amended in article six, Apostles, Prophet, National Heads and regional heads shall constitute an electoral college to put forward candidates for chairmanship to be ratified by the general council. Electoral College shall be done by a secret ballot supervised by an electoral commissioner appointed by the executive council. The candidate who secures the highest vote at the Electoral College shall be presented to the General Council for ratification by two thirds majority of members present and voting. If the candidate presented fails to obtain two-third majority vote from the General Council, the Electoral College shall bring forth the second person and if he also fails the two-third then the College again present the third person for ratification and if he also fails then the first two candidates who drew the highest number of vote shall be presented to the General Council for election on a simple majority basis. Finally to them if where there is prophecy it shall be judged on its own merit. Qualifications: Article six exhibited that he must be a Pastor not below the rank of an Apostle or Prophet.
Voting: According to their constitution, voting is obviously done by secret ballot.
Terms of Office: The term of office spelled out apparently in their constitution is two terms of five years each.
The Chairman: Finally, the former general secretary of the church in the person of Apostle Samuel Gyamfi was elected the first chairman of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International who is now in his second term of office succeeded Bishop Dr. Paul OwusuTabiri. He is an educated vibrant young man with first degree in theology and master’s degree in conflict resolution, who God is using in different dimensions to sustain His church.
In order to put the study into its actual context, the study of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International is vital to comprehend the flexible and underpinnings which have sustained Pentecostal Christianity in Ghana. The next chapter seeks to give the Data presentation of the study The Role of Pastors in the Church:
Overseers who prove themselves capable of Pastoral work shall be called and ordained into the pastorate. They perform duties such as to feed and care for the sheep, to administer the Lord’s Supper, visit the sick, bless marriages, baptized new converts, dedicate children, bury the dead, teach and preach the gospel and do all other things incidental to the calling.
Statistically through critical observation the rapid growth of the Church in term of its numerical growth has diminished compared to the time of the founder. Due to certain challenges the church has faced earlier on after the death of the founder. But to the glory of God the church is doing well though there is more room for development.
This chapter presents analysis, interpretations and detailed discussion of the findings in the study. The constitution of the church, critical observation and a questionnaire as a research instrument was used to gather the data. Purposely to bring to light the indigenous Ghanaians initiative of succession practices in the history of Bethel Prayer Ministry International, after the death of the founder in 2005. 4.1 Data Presentation and Analyses
Table 1: Showing people opinion whether the leadership structure of the church is good enough.
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According to Table 1, greater percentage of the respondents with a total of 50% (30% D and 20% SD) clearly admitted that the church leadership structure is not good enough. It means that the people need change in the leadership structure. Statistically, they have seen that the church is not growing as it supposed to be, compared to the time of the founder although leadership administration of that time was also not enough. There is not enough unity in the leadership of the church, even some do lobby for position of which they do not have what it takes to be there. Some of the Apostles are called regional Apostles but just taken care of only one area of that region. The people want to see new structure of leadership administration with the prestige it deserves. To embark on proper succession planning, there should be a well define leadership structure from the locals, areas, regions and then the national as well as specified by the constitution which is to be amended. This is where before one gets to the national level; he or she could have gain more experience through his or her service from the local, districts, area and region. Table 2: Whether the role of pastors in the Church on average to enhance succession planning.
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In the analysis of this table, a total of 50% (24% D and 26% SD) of the respondents, believed there is lack of pastors roles to be displayed to enhance succession planning of the church. Obviously, because there is no succession planning the role of the pastors is not on average to encourage succession planning. The researcher observed from their view that they want succession planning to be established. Where there is no succession planning in organization, power struggle begins from the mind of the individual, moreover some are not even qualified for it. Sometimes those who are relatives to the founder might have thought it is a family inheritance if there is lack of succession planning. Succession planning will even alert the pastors from the bottom whether one is qualified to climb the top or not. Succession planning helps provides next three or four people on line to be voted upon right after last term of the leader. Table3: Opinions from people whether the church leadership has played a major role in Ghanaian Pentecostalism.
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66% of the respondents (36 % A and 30% SA) positively believed that the church has really contributed to Ghanaian Pentecostalism based on the sustainability of the church after the death of the founder, although there are loopholes in their leadership. Because of the survival of the church in spite all challenges, they believed is a credit to Ghanaian Pentecostalism. Mostly Pentecostal churches have certain fears when it comes to leadership positions. After the death of the founder many thought the church might not stay nor survive but to fall into the ditch. But the executives with the general council were able through the grace of God to sustain the church though they have more room for development. It is evident that, the survival of the church is through the grace of God, because many do not understand how could founder of the church died and not quiet long the general secretary also died. It also evident that, ten years now when the founder died, the church is still alive. The researcher believed as for this one they did well because two top most people to die just like that is not easy for the church where there was no written succession planning. However they did their best though it was tough to them that are why there is the need to implement succession planning to avoid same challenge in the future. Table 4, views to whether the church has a defined and effective succession planning.
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Table four shows that the greater percentage of the respondents with the total of 66% (4% D and 62% SD) that the church does not have a definite succession planning.Similarly from table 1, the people are very mindful of succession planning to be established. This they believed can help the church leadership to promote the growth of the church. This will enable personals to work hard by means of knowing what they are supposed to do.It is evident in the entire tables that the people are hungry for change in the church leadership administration of which emphasis is much laid on succession planning. This would enable and energize the young men to feel at home and to be proud of their leaders. With immediate effect the church leadership should try as hard as they can to embark on this succession planning. Table 5: Opinions whether the church voting system for election is good enough.
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Apparently, 46% of the respondents (26% D and 20% SD) believed that the church voting system needs a change. The researcher has also observed the presentation of one person to be voted upon by the church leadership is one way or the other not accurate enough. This means the church constitution needs amendment. The respondents believed that, for one person to be presented to the general council without knowing the rest that follows is not the best therefore this system should be changed. Simply they are eager to see the executive or the Electoral College to present the entire three candidates to the general council. The researcher with his observation suggests vehemently that the church leadership should adopt a simple voting system of bringing all the candidates forward. This should be done in other not to waste the people’s time by putting them into bracket. The one with the highest votes should be giving the norm. Initially they present one person first and if he fails the two thirds, the second person comes in and if he also fails then the third person and if he also fails before they votes on the first and second with the highest votes. The respondents believed they should reject the initial way to adopt the suggested idea. Table 6, views to whether the leadership should engage in consultation of others sometimes in term certain decision makings.
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Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the respondents (6% A and 82% SA) with the view that the leadership should consult others sometimes whiles making certain decisions; this is believed to bring to light quality leadership which can also serve as part of succession planning. The people want to say ideas are not in one person’s head but some down there have something to offer though it is not their turn yet they can be consulted for their views for feedback especially in the areas of their specialization. This can be very effective for the growth of the church especially when the leadership structure is changed. When succession planning is well implemented right from the local to national, there the leadership will know what each and every one is doing to promote growth in their various jurisdictions. This is where the consultation is need for the church to experience a dynamic growth. The respondents are ready to be called upon to share ideas that can enhance the tremendous growth of the church. In counseling there are two terms we use to describe such availability of the youth as fitness and readiness.
Table 7: Ages of Male Gender.
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Table 8 Age of Female Gender
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In the analysis of table 7, 28 of the respondents are male representing 56% and 22 are female representing 44%. From this table, a total of 44% which comprises the ages 30-35 and 36-40 of the respondents in the category of male are said to be youth, whiles 12%(4%;41-49 and 8%; 50-above) adult. Similarly, a total of 42% which comprises the ages of 30-35 and 36-40 are youth and 2% of the ages of 41-49 were adult. This is a clear indication that the young men are so much anxious about the leadership administration of the church. Obviously, this is to be taken into critical consideration, because the youth are the future leaders and from their point of view there are loopholes in the church leadership’s administration. They also want to say that they need a change, because even looking at the qualification for chairmanship there is no way the youth can be engaged. Moreover, young men and women of our day can do a lot in terms of church administration. Even in the Old Testament times and the time of Christ the youth played key roles in leadership. The youth with their enthusiasm desire to initiate new ideas in the administration of the church, unlike in the past when people used to say, “Young men don’t know anything.” The fact that some young men have failed in their responsibilities should not be the reason to make sweeping generalizations. Meanwhile, some are trained and others not. Table 9: Education Levels ofMale.
Table 10: Education Levels of Female.
Table not contained
In the assessment of this table, 26 males representing 52% and 24 females representing 48% totaling 100% are all educated irrespective of their levels. The highest percentage is from the tertiary level with 18% in the category of males; coincidentally 18% percent is the highest from the category of females. This means that based on the educational levels of the people, they see the need for amendment in the church constitution. This is one of the reasons why they response massively to the researchers questionnaire of the leadership to consult others in term of certain decisions, because they felt they have something to contribute to the leadership development of the church. From the view of the researcher, educated personals are always mindful of administrative ideologies. Succession planning could not be taken lightly otherwise the church will not emerge with the kind of growth it deserved. As life should not be static but dynamic so the church should also be, ready to welcome new ideas. 4.2 Summary of Findings
This study of research was conducted to investigate into the leadership succession practices of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International after the death of its founder. Their way of succession is transcribed in their constitution and beside, one hundred people were allowed into the study and data of the research was collected from sources like the constitution, questionnaire and observation. Findings show that although Bethel Prayer Ministry have contributed to Ghanaian Pentecostalism, positive changes should be made on: The leadership structure of the church The church’s voting system. The roles of pastors to enhance succession planning in the church. Method of decision making. The effective manner in which the researcher designed the study and conducted the intervention activities has clearly exposed him to a number of findings for discussion. Though the constitution has prescribed the procedure for the churches succession practices, yet there are more rooms for development of which there should be the need for amendment. During the pre-intervention of the constitution and the questionnaire administered, some of the respondents admitted that although they have the knowledge of the subject matter but certain changes has to be made. Succession planning was not implemented the way it deserved; this was due to the caliber of persons in the leadership position during the time the constitution was made.
Details of the data collected through the constitution, observation and questionnaires have been presented in this chapter. The purpose is to bring to light the indigenous Ghanaian initiatives in the history of the Bethel Prayer Ministry International, Ghana. 5.2 Conclusion
It is evident from above that, the sudden death of the Founder and the General Secretary has led to the slow progress of the Church. However they have exercised and implemented succession practice Therefore the Chairman with his leadership position and members alike embarked on evangelistic campaigns which succeeded in winning some of the setback souls to the church and regaining the churches overseers which some decided to take to themselves. Today, Bethel Prayer Ministry International can raise their heads in praise to God for the initiative and sacrifice made by Apostles, Prophets, Evangelist, Pastors, Overseers, Field workers and members for the widespread growth of the church on the continent and beyond. This Ghanaian /African initiatives, succeeded in sustaining the church after many doubt to enhance Ghanaian Pentecostalism and global Christianity. Succession planning and its practices play a vital role in our organizations today which leads to the sustainability and longevity of every organization both religious and non-religious. It also motivate the followers in a way as they were been prepared for leadership positions in the future. Motivated employees help organizations survive as motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, managements need to understand what benefits succession planning could fetch to the organizations after they had been retired or whatever. Therefore organizations and other institution should engage in succession planning to keep their employees from burning out the future hope of the organization.
It is also apparent that, the Bethel Prayer Ministry International has suffered greatly as a result of numerous internal misunderstandings, which affected not only the numerical growth yet the church, was sustained. Most of the Pentecostal Churches in Ghana and for that matter those in Africa as well usually struggle heavily to be able to implement proper leadership structures from the initial stages. In certain cases they fought for leadership positions and nevertheless sometimes they fails when they are given the chance. Despite all, useful experience was gained and the researcher was happy for embarking on the study. The researchers pleasure includes the sustainability of the church, can see succession planning from within the church for future implementation, and the fact that expected changes were realized, the leadership performance and the attitude of the pastors has improved. 5.3 Recommendations
Obviously, there is no doubt that, the Bethel Prayer Ministry International has gone through several challenges both internal and external. To embark on the actual growth of the church, there should be respect for individuals despite their rank. The leadership of the church should endeavor to provide supportive environment for pastors and treat them with equity. They should facilitate good team working system, support, respect for the roles and contributions of others to provide a friendly environment. They must ensure that, transparency; accountability, democracy and the concept of Christian steward become integral part of the Church’s life. Thus, not only must these principles been shrined in the church constitution but also leadership must begin to believe and implement these principles adequately. The Church leadership must also do away with nepotism, discrimination, compromise and selfishness, among others, to ensure fair play for the clergy as well as members to work for the common good of the church. There should be consultations to involve others in decisions which have a direct influence on their work, especially when their opinions have the potential to make a difference. The following recommendations can also prevent the church from retrogression. The leadership should endeavor to implement proper succession planning right from the local, districts, area, and region then to national.Elders of the local church should not be detectors to the Pastors in term of finance. Though pastors do not handle money but they should control money together with the local board of trustees. To make the ministry attractive, pastors should be well trained to avoid poor delivery of biblical teachings and preaching. Moreover it would help them to be exegetical to avoid beeneisegetic and allegorical. At the national or any other programs, appeal for fund should be done but it should be moderate. The leadership should not only be asking the people to give but they should also give to support them. Furthermore, the leadership should avoid poor salary structure and welfare of its pastors and workers. However, levying the local assemblies should be considered, other than that the local will always be making appeal almost every time this will expel people from the church. Sometimes, national programs become excessive to the extent that the local could not have the enough freedom to develop its territory. Apparently, there can be decisions from the leadership which might not be favorable with the pastors, especially probable decision. While the decision not is certain, it should be discussed at the area level, and if possible selected people from the regions should be involved to suggest their views for feedback. The leaderships should avoid saying, “we are the leaders and whatever we say is final’’. Again concerning the church succession practices, the leadership should look into it critically. For instance, a young pastor can be gifted in leadership but because he is not a recognized apostle or prophet, he cannot contest for chairmanship or General Secretary’s position. All the three candidates chosen by the Electoral College should be presented to the General Council at once to be voted for with a defined percentage. Executive members and pastors to campaign for any candidates neither seen or unseen should be avoided. To rebuke a pastor in the presence of elders or church members should be discouraged. The leadership should keep documents of all church properties and make sure they involve themselves in times of purchase with some percentage given to them from the Head Quarters. The leadership should make the vision of the church clear to be to its pastors. The leadership should endeavor to invest in the members in diver’s ways such as education etc. Exchange of pulpit for the purpose of raising fund for the Head Quarters should be done in competent branches rather than certain areas that need help. Besides, whenever members hear about change of pulpit, most of them will not come to church because of the appeal for funds. For the church to enjoy ultimate growth, the next leader should focus on the welfare of the pastors. However, the recruitment of pastors should be major emphases for the church leadership, because choosing pastors without taking them through proper orientations, interviews and trainings, makes the church to find it difficult to effect growth. The local branches should set good standards son that even when pastors are transferred to any branch they will not be found wanting. If not so, sometimes the result would be discouragement and resignation. Dismissals of some faulty pastors who refuse to take correction are also to be considered to avoid losing competent people. Finally the leadership should adopt the system whereby the churches can be interdependent. 5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
Referring to the researchers experience in conducting this particular research, it is recommended that other researchers could research into the impact ofsuccession practices and planning. Further research could be done onstrategies that would enhance the perception of leadership in the Pentecostal arena for the sustainability of Pentecostalism in the African continent. Finally further research could go into the impact of misapplied methods of leadership performance.
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