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1.2 Problem Definition/Research Gap
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research Objectives
1.6 Definitions of study variables
1.7 Theories Supporting Research Study
2. LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Nature of Role Conflict
2.2 Work- Study Conflict and its Impact
2.3 The moderating role of Supervisor Support
2.4 Research model
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Scales and Measures
3.4 Control Variables
4.1 Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis
4.2 Regression Analysis
4.3Assessing the Form of Interaction
4.4 Summary of Results
5. Discussion, Implications, Limitations and Directions for Future Research
5.4. Direction for Future Research
There is no God but Allah and Muhammad (peace be upon him) is his messenger. I am solely obliged to Allah almighty for his blessings, my efforts were nothing but his blessings enabled me to complete this project
I express my kind gratitude to my sweet parents & teachers for their continuous support and care. For sure, this project is nothing but an outcome of their sincere support & prayers. I also proudly express my feeling filled with love for my all-family members, who always dreamed superior position for me
I am deeply thankful for the contributions of my proposed supervisor Dr. Khurram Shahzad in the field of research. His style of teaching and the way he takes the class has really helped me to define an ideal teacher
He is my role model in the field of HRM research, and I know they will always server as a source of inspiration for me and for many others
Salman Ahmed Khan
Table 3.1: Frequency Distribution
Table 3.2: Reliability of Scales
Table 3.3: Results from One-way ANOVA
Table 4.1: Descriptive Analysis
Table 4.2: Correlation Analysis
Table 4.3: Hierarchical Regression Analysis
Table 4.4: Moderated Regression Analysis
Table 4.5: Summary of Hypothesis
Figure 1: Moderation Graph
Figure 2: Moderation Graph
Figure 3: Moderation Graph
Figure 4: Moderation Graph
In order to meet the overpowering job requirements and meeting career related opportunities a large chunk of employees of different organizations be likely to enroll in higher education degree programs. On contrary, in order to meet the educational expenses and unforeseen nature of employment conditions a large number of students seek paid work. Fulfillment of this dual role demand has created tension between both roles i.e. student and employee which ultimately causes work-study conflict. This study examines the impact of work-study conflict on Job Satisfaction, Presenteeism, Burnout and Turnover Intentions with Moderating Role of Supervisor Support among the employees who are working in different organizations and studying in universities.
The sample consists of 350 working students of universities employed in different organizations of Pakistan out of which 281 questionnaires were received in a correct form making the response rate of 80.2%.
The results of this study depicted that work-study conflict has significant negative relationship with supervisor support and significant positive relationship with presenteeism, burnout and turnover intentions whereas insignificant relationship with job satisfaction. Supervisor support has significant positive relationship with the job satisfaction and has significant negative relationship with the presenteeism, burnout and turnover intentions. Results also show that there is moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work-study conflict (WSC) and presenteeism and also between the relationship of WSC and burnout. But there is no moderation between the relationship of work-study conflict (WSC), job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Implications and future direction of the study are also discussed.
Recent generations have seen a lot of changes in social spectrum and they are taking up multiple roles with different perceptions and goals. The rising cost of education, future unpredictability and job requirements have made it essential for a large number of students to find work and workers to opt for higher education. More education is required to perform more complex jobs (Rosenzweig, 1995). On the other hand, workers all around the world have become more aware of the opportunities available for them which have created a competitive atmosphere in the market. So as to contend workers are trying hard to improve their professional as well as educational profile. With the advancement of technology, more educated workers are needed to fulfill the jobs, hence attainment of more education increased (Rosenzweig, 1990).
Markel and Frone (1998) suggest that work and education tend to be the most important spheres of life. An increasing number of students in higher education are now combining education and employment concurrently (Hofman & Steijn, 2003). It also supports the work of Micldewright et al. (1994) who suggested that students get encouraged to find out work as soon as possible because of the unseen future of the industry.
Another reason of combining education with work, as confirmed by students was gaining work experience which would help them in finding a better work opportunity in future (Nolan & Hagen, 1989). Students believe that job helps them to develop a number of personal and social skills such as communication, clients dealing, self-confidence which they learn in an office environment and by dealing with different people. This also develops a sense of responsibility and competence amongst students which they gain by performing the assigned tasks at work (Coventry et al., 1984).
As it’s evident, that attainment of higher education by workers and engagement in full time work by students is increasing across different countries including Pakistan, which is somewhat and somehow affecting different aspects related to work and study. In recent years, educational expenses have risen so high that it became unavoidable for a student to combine work and study at the same time (Lipke, 2000; Curtis & Lucas, 2001; Curtis & Williams, 2002). Both work and study have their own demands which are expected to be fulfilled in a dedicated manner. Hence, a working student has to fulfill the demands of both roles for performing well at workplace as well as at university. While performing these two roles and fulfilling their demands at the same time, a working student encounters a conflict between these two roles i.e. employee and student. As roles become more differentiated in developing societies, there is likely to be stronger role conflict between the student role and the employee role (Yabiku & Schlabach, 2009).
Numerous working students experience the ill effects of over work, and this is particularly valid for the individuals who are bound to perform extra obligations at work and university without the reciprocal changes in their role relations. In such a circumstance, working students are the victims of clashing role relations from professional and educational sides. Inability to understand and take the diversified roles may lead towards failure to coordinate effectively amongst both roles, which will eventually become a cause of conflict and dissatisfaction in education and work later on. This is evident from the way highly working students encounter problems at work, at university or in the society.
Even though combining work and study can be an energizing challenge for people who are performing both roles in the meantime yet it can likewise be a major source of anxiety. Together work and study require more time and energy; as a result, it becomes difficult for a working student to meet requirements of both roles and hence they continuously encounter negative and positive aspects of work and education. Numerous organizational factors contribute in adding anxiety levels, work stress often bring about disorders such as anxiety, depression, uneasiness, mental distress, illnesses, and ceaseless agony (Sauter, Hurrell & cooper, 1989). It is often observed that numerous skilled working students on the edge of their career, struggle hard to manage with their expert driving forces. It would, in this manner, be advantageous to study the results which develop as an aftereffect of work-study conflict.
Role conflict was defined as the degree to which a person encountered stress in one role that were contrary with stress in another role (Kopelman, Greenhaus, & Connolly, 1983). High levels of workload may lead to psychological preoccupation with uncompleted tasks at work, even when an individual is trying to fulfill the demands of another role. Role conflict arises when two or more kind of role pressure exists in a work, and fulfillment of one of these pressures hinders the completion of another (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964).
A role conflict also arises when employees get engaged in higher education to fulfill their job requirements and to achieve a higher cadre in organization; on the other hand students opt to find paid work in order to meet their financial needs and to gain work experience. Past research by the authors (Mills & Ashford, 2004; Lingard et al., 2003) shown that students were working adequately long hours and face conflicts with university education. Work study conflict can take individuals to an environment across their education and work while not being completely dedicated to each culture (Hodgson & Spours, 2000).
Past research studies on work-study conflict do not reveal diverse conclusions describing its impact on various psychological variables and how this impact gets moderated by a moderator. By testing the impact of work-study conflict on four variables i.e. job satisfaction, presenteeism, burnout and turnover intention with moderating role of supervisor support and testing those in a combined form will help to identify the effects on these variables altogether adding a new dimension to the existing literature of work-study conflict. However, it is a premeditated fact that most of the research in this area has been conducted in Western perspective. In countries like Pakistan where number of working students are increasing day by day, it is significant to conduct a comprehensive research in this field and noticeable is the fact that no defined studies have been conducted yet, that implies to buffer the conflict between work and study.
There are few studies which have focused on the employee-student relationship and role conflict effects which arise as a result of combining work-study among university students (Lenaghan & Sengupta, 2007). Most of the research has been focused on different kind of role conflicts such as Gender Role Conflict and Work Family Conflict but a very little focus has been given to an important role conflict i.e. the Work-Study Conflict. A large number of research studies have been conducted on the role conflict related to work-family (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Barnett & Hyde, 2001; Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1986). According to Hofman and Steijn (2003), educational interest in combining work with education is increasing, still a little is known about it.
In order to explain the impact of work-study conflict only few theoretical models have been developed and remarkably many discrepancies are found. Past studies on work-study conflict have mostly been done in USA, UK and Australia which were focused more on part time work and high school or college students. Lingard (2012) argued that the conflict between work role and life’s other roles is a significant component. Small amount of research has been found examining the impact of Work-Study Conflict and in Pakistani context no such research has been conducted which contributes in studying this kind of conflict and its impact on different psychological factors. According to Aycan et al. (2000), Pakistan is the under researched country. So there is a need for research on such topic containing conflict between work and study.
Following are the specific research questions:
1. What is the relationship between work-study conflict and supervisor support?
2. What is the impact of work-study conflict on job satisfaction?
3. What is the impact of work-study conflict on presenteeism?
4. What is the impact of work-study conflict on burnout?
5. What is the impact of work-study conflict on turnover intention?
6. What is the relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction?
7. What is the relationship between supervisor support and presenteeism?
8. What is the relationship between supervisor support and burnout?
9. What is the relationship between supervisor support and turnover intention?
10. Does supervisor support moderate the work-study conflict and job satisfaction relationship?
11. Does supervisor support moderate the work-study conflict and presenteeism relationship?
12. Does supervisor support moderate the work-study conflict and burnout relationship?
13. Does supervisor support moderate the work-study conflict and turnover intention relationship?
This study stands unique in terms of context and examining the impact of Work-Study Conflict between workers who opt to enroll in higher studies programs. So this study will be an enhancement in the literature of work-study conflict.
This research is comparatively and potentially a novel thought in Pakistani context and particularly in education and work setting since it intends to develop and test a moderated model. The main aim of the study is to better understand work-study conflict, supervisor support and psychological factors i.e. job satisfaction, presenteeism, burnout, and turnover intention. These psychological factors have been individually tested with work-study conflict and supervisor support. However, the need is to present a compact and moderated set of variables for universities and employers to evaluate and assess the reasons for their students/employees to encounter these psychological factors. Besides, the study can also help in developing a better awareness of factors which are associated with the increase or decrease of work-study conflict among the working students which will resultantly help in developing a better understanding of the issues in question.
The relationship in the model can be supported by two theories i.e. Social Exchange Theory (Homans, 1958) and Conservation of Resource Theory (Hobfoll, 2001). Social Exchange Theory states that it is an exchange of action, substantial or elusive and somewhat remunerating or immoderate between at least two persons. The Conservation of Resource Theory states that people have an inborn as well as a learned vigor to make, promote, preserve, and guard the quality and quantity of their resources. Stress arises when they failed to do this, like in work-study conflict, which results in anxiety and typically pursue from a course of slow drain out of resources without compensating the resource gain or replenishment.
This research has its advantages for employers/managers and universities in particular. With these factors, employers and universities will be in a better position to understand the working students thus finding out better paths to reduce work-study conflict and its aftereffects. Additionally, factor like supervisor support is directly dealt by the supervisors providing employee enough room to work and study efficiently and effectively. The trust is a mutual thing between the management and the individual; however, greater care has to be taken by the supervisors in finding out ways to avoid the work-study conflict and its outcomes among employees.
The present study has its practical implication that leads the management of organization to divert their attention to this independent variable and taking it into account at the time of making their policies and defining the organizational norms and culture. Employees in an organization want adequate support in their career. Personal growth helps the employee’s skills and abilities in performing his/her tasks. It is worth mentioning that a constant improvement in the abilities and skills of the individual, higher education helps maintaining the motivation level of the individual, in turn, reducing the aftereffects of work-study conflict among the employees. The present study allows the management of organizations and universities to recognize the needs of the working students in Pakistan. The same is followed by the levels of personal growth, trust and intrinsic motivation in terms of the level of contribution of supervisor support. Up till this time literature has not tested these variables in an integrative form associated with the impact of work-study conflict.
The research is based on psychological practice that is supporting the employee through their supervisors and enabling them to overcome psychological pressures and increase satisfaction. The study is also significant as it associates with the relationship between supervisors and employees in work setting having a relationship of mutual exchange that when the employee gets supervisor support then how this relationship gets affected by increase in level of job satisfaction and reduction in the levels of presenteeism, burnout and turnover intentions that are caused by the role conflict among the working students particularly in the context of Pakistan. The study also provides a moderated model which has been missing providing a considerable gap for research in the literature of work-study conflict. Undoubtedly, Pakistan has a varying culture from other developing countries in the world; therefore, the contextual contribution is much expected from this research. This study holds a significant value for the organizations and universities operating in Pakistan.
Following are the research objectives of this study:
1. To find out the relationship between work-study conflict and supervisor support
2. To find out the impact of work-study conflict on job satisfaction.
3. To find out the impact of work-study conflict on presenteeism.
4. To find out the impact of work-study conflict on burnout.
5. To find out the impact of work-study conflict on turnover intention.
6. To find out the relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction.
7. To find out the relationship between supervisor support and presenteeism.
8. To find out the relationship between supervisor support and burnout.
9. To find out the relationship between supervisor support and turnover intention.
10. To find out the combined effect of work-study conflict and supervisor support on job satisfaction.
11. To find out the combined effect of work-study conflict and supervisor support on presenteeism.
12. To find the combined effect of work-study conflict and supervisor support on burnout.
13. To find the combined effect of work-study conflict and supervisor support on turnover intention.
“The simultaneous occurrence of two (or more) sets of pressures such that compliance with one would make difficult or impossible compliance with the other" (Wolfe & Snoek, 1962).
Supervisor support was defined as the “extent to which supervisors/managers support and reinforce use of training on the job” (Holton et al., 2000). Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, and Rhoades (2002) have defined supervisor support as “the degree to which employees form general impressions that their superiors appreciate their contributions, are supportive, and care about their subordinates’ well-being”.
“A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (Locke, 1976)
“Reduced productivity at work due to health problems or other events that distract one from full productivity” (Hummer, Sherman, & Quinn, 2002; Whitehouse, 2005).
According to Maslach, “burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who do ‘people work’ of some kind” (Maslach, 1982).
Intention to turnover is defined as “one’s behavioral attitude to withdraw from the organization whereas turnover is considered to be the actual separation from the organization” (Aydogdu & Asikgil, 2011).
The idea of supervisory support originates from social exchanges between the supervisor and the individual and depends on social exchange theory and the standard of correspondence. Social exchange theory is a type of motivational theory, clarifies that a fundamental type of human connection occurs when people mutually exchange their resources (Emerson & Cook, 1978). It suggests that every kind of relationships which are formed between supervisor and subordinate are based upon cost benefit analysis. If the benefit in returns is more than the cost incurred, then subordinate and supervisor are likely to stay in the relationship.
Moreover, the law of reciprocity suggests that employees will feel a sense of obligation to pay back the promising conduct of supervisor (Eisenberger et al., 2004; Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982; Rousseau, 1990). In other words, we can say that if a supervisor treats his subordinates well and shows concern towards them then the subordinate will feel an obligation to act in such a way which has some value for the supervisor and the organization i.e. achieving the set goals objectives (Eisenberger, Armeli, Rexwinkel, Lynch, & Rhoades, 2001). An employee may assess the level of concern and support given by the supervisor through promotions and compensation, regularity and honesty of praise and appreciation, and volume of job autonomy (Hutchison & Garstka, 1996; Shore, Barksdale, & Shore, 1995). Past research shows that normally employees make an exchange relationship with supervisor which is based upon a perception that how much an employee’s efforts are supported by the supervisor e.g. (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986; Wayne, Shore, & Liden, 1997). Employees pursue equilibrium in exchange relationships with their supervisors by developing such attitudes and behaviors which is matching with the level of supervisor’s commitment to his/her employees.
Social exchange theory is a paradigm of cross discipline having its roots in anthropology (e.g., Sahlins, 1972), social psychology (e.g., Gouldner, 1960) and sociology (e.g., Blau, 1964) and that times back at least to the extent the beginning of 20th century (e.g., Mauss, 1925). The process of social exchange usually contains a sequence of inter-dependent and conditional relations among two person or parties causing in specific kinds of compulsions which may lead towards a superior quality relationship (Blau, 1964; Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005; Emerson, 1976). Moreover, Social exchange theory explains further that if both parties in a relationship want to continue then they must perceive an exchange or receiving something which has value. This perception demonstrates a phenomenon which is known as norm of reciprocity. According to Gouldner (1960), when one party treats the other party well in an exchange relationship then it compels the other party to do the same or return the favor where it is due. What is regularly traded in organizational context is devotion and dedication. This feature of social exchange has been depicted as social exchange relationship (e.g., Cropanzano, Byrne, Bobocel, & Rupp, 2001). In a social exchange relationship, employees show devotion and faithfulness to their organization through diminished turnover and absenteeism along with elevated performance (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). In return, employers also show concern towards employees not only by providing them compensation package but also by showing respect, care and value for the well-being of employees. Consequently, employers and employees explore a two-way path of social exchange, on which both sides can be mutually compensated.
According to the role theory when a person experience vagueness/ambiguity and conflict while performing a role (intra-role) then he/she encounter some unwarranted results. Role theory also suggests that performance of multiple roles at the same time lead towards inter-role conflict and hence, successful performance of each role becomes difficult for a person, due to simultaneous clashing requirements, exhaustion, or contradictory behaviors amongst roles (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1986; Kahn et al., 1964).
The COR model recommends that people try to obtain and sustain resources. Stress/anxiety is a response to a situation which includes a danger of losing resources, losing resources actually, or absence of desirable increase in resources. Resources may consist of objects, situations, individual characteristics, and drives. Last three categories are particularly applicable for this research study. The conditions of being a student and an employee are examples of work and study resources that are desired and valued. Individual characteristics are also known as buffering resources against stress. Self-esteem is also known to be such kind of a resource (Rosenberg, 1979). Time, knowledge and money are a part of one’s energies and together they permit to collect other resources. Individuals encounter stress if those lose these resources or face any threat of losing them.
Model of COR theory clarifies stress results for intra-role as well as inter-role stress. For instance, workers undergoing role conflict at work may start believing that they are unable to perform their job effectively. Resultantly, they may be compelled to put a greater amount of their resources into their occupational role because of a paranoid fear of losing their status at work. COR model suggests that stress is caused by inter-role conflict because in the process of manipulating roles between work and life’s other role, an individual loses his/her resources. These dangers of losing resources and/or actual loss of resources lead towards a negative psychological state, where an individual encounters psychological tension, depression, anxiety and dissatisfaction. Some kind of behavior, like intention to quit from the work role is required to switch or protect the vulnerable resources. If this kind of behavior left untaken, the resources may get washed-out to such extend where burnout is likely to ensue (Hobfoll & Shirom, 2001; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998).
Conservation of resources theory has been applied by different studies to find out the reasons for occurrence of burnout on two specific aspects: work demands and individual resources. Work demands contain role conflict, role ambiguity, events’ pressure, work pressure and work overload. Individual resources comprise, resumption contingencies, social support, opportunities of job enhancement such as autonomy, policymaking and automation.
COR theory suggests that humans want to obtain, retain and care for those things which they remark as valuable and that stress can be comprehended in view of potential or actual loss of resources. Moreover, Hobfoll (2002) has contended that individuals who are less vulnerable to resource depletion also possess greater sums of resources.
The word ‘Role’ is utilized to denote a group of inter-related meanings and beliefs that direct and controls an individual’s behavior in a social set. The meaning of this terminology is well explained by Good (1973), "A person is likely to play many roles in the course of a day".
The term Conflict is borrowed from psychoanalytic school of thought according to which, it’s an agonizing emotional state caused by strain because of opposite and clashing desires and expectations. According to Good (1973), conflict is an agonizing or unhappy condition of mind which is caused by a clash of mismatched plans, aims, energies etc.
Role conflict is defined as an event of two or more sets of forces at the same time, such that fulfillment of one would make other more intricate (House & Rizzo, 1972; Kahn et al., 1964; Pandey & Kumar, 1997). According to Kahn et al., (1964) the role is the consequence of desires of others concerning precise behavior in a specific position. The role conflict is adequately depicted as a mental strain that is achieved by clashing forces applied by the role. Role theory proposes that such a conflict occurs when people take part in various roles that are incompatible (Katz & Kahn, 1978).
We encounter conflict between different roles when we find ourselves dragged towards all the roles we hold. Garavan and Murphy (2001) suggested that work-study requires agreement and mutual consent from key players in this process, i.e. the student, the employer and the university. Otherwise together Work and study can affect both roles i.e. employee and student. For every study which assumes the fruitful outcomes of student employment, there is a convincing study which claims the opposite (Aper, 1994). Researchers have always been interested in studying the effect of multiple roles and inter-role conflict. Working full time while getting higher education can be source of greater stress for a person who is an employee and a student at the same time. Past research has shown that excess work of 10-15 hours per week is not favorable to student learning (Curtis & Lucas, 2001). One logical explanation may be that, work affects spare time, students be likely to decrease relaxation and socializing time instead of study time (Fjortoft, 1995). British research suggests that university students find it difficult to balance between work and study; as a result they experience somewhat high level of pressure (Humphrey et al., 1998). This pressure can affect performance at work and university adversely. Academic activities get affected by working long hours (Hansen & Jarvis, 2000). Alternately, workload can cause high level of psychological and physical exhaustion which can badly affect an individual's capability or drive to perform other roles effectively (Mortimer, Finch, Dennehy, Lee & Beebe, 1994). Recent research suggests that a large number of university students get employed in paid work which creates conflict and stress between both roles (Vickers et al., 2003).
Role conflict is a type of role demand, it takes place when two or more centers of role pressures exist in the workspace of an individual, and fulfillment of one of these role pressures affects the completion of another (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964). Role conflict presents instability in light of the fact that the employee is not sure whether every last bit of her or his role demands are effectively adjusted. Encountering contrary or beyond reconciliation expectations connected with numerous roles, or with one role, is believed to be mentally uncomfortable for people and to create pessimistic emotional reactions (Schaubroeck, Cotton, & Jennings, 1989). Role conflict between university and work can be a cause of absenteeism, anxiety and turnover. (Lenaghan & Sengupta, 2007).
Facing mismatched or incompatible expectations linked with multiple roles or with a solo role is supposed to be psychologically difficult for persons and to produce adverse emotional responses (Schaubroeck, Cotton, & Jennings, 1989). Existence of two or more role pressures in a person’s workspace lead towards role conflict which is a type of role demand, fulfilling one these pressures hinders the fulfillment of another (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964). Uncertainly also come into existence because of role conflict because the worker is vague that whether all of his/her role demands are balance successfully or not.
Cohen and Will (1985) suggest that if an employee perceive the presence of support for tackling work related issues neutralizes the adverse aftereffects of work stress i.e. role ambiguity, role conflict, underutilization of skills and quantitative work overload on employee’s well-being. According to the role conflict literature, social support has been identified as a significant resource or managing tool by different models of stress, which can decrease the adverse effects generated by stressors (Gore, 1987; Thomas & Ganster, 1995). Social support is also known as relational exchange which consists of emotional concern, contributory aid, knowledge, or assessment (House, 1981). Researchers have contended that the level of supervisor support a person receives in a particular situation may change the entire process of stress. For instance if a person is facing conflict at his/her work but on the other hand he/she receives the right amount of supervisor support will stop conflict from occurrence. Similarly, in case of work-study conflict although a working student may face conflict from role demands but adequate amount of supervisor may lessen this conflict. For better understanding of impact of work-study conflict, it is importance to consider the supervisor supper both at organizational and university levels.
Supervisor support received by employee in a work domain may help in creating a more positive environment at work. For instance, a supervisor with supportive attitude may transform difficult working circumstances into less stressful by discussing problems faced by an employee and being flexible when difficulties arise (Roskies & Lazarus, 1980). This kind of supervisor support has been found to decrease the degree of role conflict an employee faces while fulfilling the multiple role demands. For instance, in same kind of work situations, lower role conflict was reported for workers who had supportive supervisors (Goff, Mount, & Jamison, 1990; Jones & Butler, 1980). On contrary, high degree of role conflict was reported where supervisor support does not exist or lacks (Burke, 1988; Greenhaus et al., 1987). Supervisor support has also been found to upset the effect of conflict on outcomes. For example, level of job satisfaction of employees has been facilitated by supportive supervisors (Parasuraman et al., 1992). Stephens and Sommer (1993) found in their research study of role conflict that supervisor support moderates the influence of perceived role conflict on organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Thus, the supervisor support in the work setting is a significant aspect in the overall assessment of the role conflict phenomenon. Specifying the significance of role conflict issues to persons while performing multiple roles and fulfilling their entirely different role demands, supervisor support keeps a negative relationship with role conflict.
H1. Work-Study conflict will be negatively associated with Supervisor Support
Job satisfaction remained a significant topic throughout the years (Akfopure et al., 2006). In an organizational setting, job satisfaction is known to be a vital and anticipated goal because as compare to unsatisfied employees, satisfied employees perform at greater levels (Chambers, 1999). Job satisfaction clarifies the happiness of a person with his or her occupation. Level of job satisfaction of an employee can be affected by number of factors.
According to Spector (1997) the term job satisfaction refers to the feelings of individuals regarding their jobs and different aspects related to their jobs. This view is supported by Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) as they define job satisfaction as the degree to which workers like their work. Lambert, Barton, and Hogan (1999) define job satisfaction as “the achievement of satisfaction of certain needs that are related with one’s job.” Another definition of job satisfaction in organizational context is that, satisfying or positive mental condition coming about because of the assessment of one's work or work experiences and as accomplishing or helping the accomplishment of one's work values (Nguni, Sleegers & Denessen, 2006).
There are two normal ways to deal with the estimation of job satisfaction. The worldwide methodology surveys job satisfaction in view of a person's overall general response to his or her employment. On the contrary, the composite methodology analyzes the pattern of states of mind a man holds with respect to different features of the job, for example, colleagues, incidental advantages, employment conditions, nature of the work itself, policies and techniques, pay, and supervision (Spector, 1997). People frequently contrast in their level of fulfillment crosswise over aspects (e.g., somebody may be extremely fulfilled by supervision, yet disappointed with salary). The refinement between the two measurement approaches is essential as shown in research that there are just average levels of relations between the worldwide and composite job satisfaction measures (Scarpello & Campbell, 1983).
Herzberg (1966) has differentiated between intrinsic employment factors, also known as 'job satisfiers', and extrinsic employment factors, also known as 'job dissatisfiers'. Intrinsic employment factors were linked with the way of work and experience which were known as "motivators," in light of the fact that satisfaction from these elements was found as a cause to job satisfaction, though "hygiene" factors or extrinsic employment factors were linked with dissatisfaction when left unsatisfied. Demographic features, job attributes, organizational factors, interpersonal contrasts and workplace components are the factors that interact in to a great degree of complexity and as accordingly create satisfaction or dissatisfaction amongst workers. Among these variables, role conflict appears to play a vital role, as indicated by Koustelios, Theodorakis and Goulimaris (2004), it is the most well-known organizational factor influencing job satisfaction. Related research has demonstrated a very revealing and clear negative relationship between job satisfaction and role conflict (e.g. Behrman & Perreault, 1984; Boles & Babin, 1996; Hafer & McCuen, 1985; O'Driscoll & Beehr, 2000; Teas, 1983). In the research studies of Feldman (1976) existence of relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction was concluded. Chang and Hancock (2003) research studies found a negative correlation between role conflict and job satisfaction. Lankau et al., (2006) concluded that the degree of organizational commitment and job satisfaction increase with a decrease in levels of role conflict. As the level of role conflict increases, the level of job satisfaction decreases (Higgins et al., 1992). According to Bhagat et al., (1985) negative relationship has been found between role conflict and job satisfaction. Role conflict has a highly negative influence on job satisfaction (Netemeyer et al.,1990).
Role conflict has been closely related to numerous dysfunctional after effects such job dissatisfaction and mental stress (e.g., Rizzo, House, & Lirtzman, 1970; Schaubroeck et al., 1989). It has been found in several research studies that increased role ambiguity (degree of a worker's uncertainty about roles of his or her occupation, including needs, desires, and so on) and role conflict (the extent to which the work is depicted by conflicting demands) are linked with decreased job satisfaction and poor psychological health. (e.g., Greenhaus et al., 1987).
H2. Work-Study conflict will be negatively associated with job satisfaction.
Most of the research on presenteeism is closely linked with presenteeism caused by health related issues. In fact few researchers have defined presenteeism as an on job problem of employees because of some ailment or any other health issue due to which employee doesn’t remain completely functional. (Hemp, 2004). This study shows disagreement with this narrow interpretation of presenteeism because this is related to abstracting absenteeism, as absenteeism is not being present on job only because of sickness or some other health related problem. There can be a number of reasons behind absenteeism other than health problems. It is better to conceptualize presenteeism just like absenteeism, or we can conceptualize presenteeism as a phenomenon which has almost a countless number of potential causes (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012). With reference to nomological network, this study refers to presenteeism which is related to work stress, its antecedent is job stress and it is actually a type of psychological.
Presenteeism takes place when workers are physically present at workplace, but mentally they are absent. We can say that although employees are present at workplace but their attention and concentration i.e. cognitive energy is not dedicated to their work. In other words, employees are at work, but their cognitive energy lacks devotion to their work. Presenteeism takes place when workers are physically present at workplace, but mentally they are absent. Employees are grinding away, however their intellectual vitality is not dedicated to their work. In few cases, they will be making a halfhearted effort of work while their attention is engaged somewhere else. In some other cases, they won't be working by any means. So contrary to absenteeism, where the worker is either absent or present at workplace, there will be changing degrees of presenteeism.
Cooper (1994) has defined presenteeism as “people turning up to work, who are so distressed by their jobs or some aspect of the organizational climate that they contribute little, if anything, to their work”. As characterized by Cooper, presenteeism is an outcome of a negative environment at workplace and employees experiencing presenteeism are not working with complete attention. Such workers are prone to lose productivity, commit more errors, give poor quality of work, and be less creative, which leaves negative impact on the managers and ultimately for the organization. Performance of managers is assessed by outcomes, and a major portion of these outcomes are accomplished through the efforts of general workers.
People feel that they will have to face a number of pressures by combining work and study. There are time constraints, and particularly with work, physically it becomes impossible to stay in one role and fulfill demands of the other role (Lenaghan, 2007). Balance in roles help people feel lesser anxiety and a better level of comfort, as compare to the less balanced system faced by people (Lenaghan, 2007). Students face difficulty to handle their ongoing stresses when they feel lack of coping resources and that they do not provide any support (Harpell & Andrews, 2013). A research study conducted by Buda and Lenaghan (2005) directly examined the relationship between these two roles. Findings of this study showed that combining work and study created stress or strain which has a negative effect on well-being. Performing multiple roles at the same time results in conflicting pressures, and these pressures could be contradicting by demanding distinctive roles to contest with a person's inadequate resources of time and in addition the strains connected with one or more roles (Kopelman, Greenhaus & Connolly, 1983; Rothbard, 2001).
Role conflict results in tension and anxiety, low confidence, low job satisfaction, lack of job involvement, low organizational commitment, high turnover intention, and incapability to effect decisions (Rahim, 2010; Rizzo, House & Lirtzman, 1970). The unfortunate reality is that many students and employees, who are experiencing hectic routines in their life (either at university or at work) are striving through life with a mental health disorder which get worse if not treated properly and can lead to a number of psychological issues. While analyzing the phenomenon of presenteeism at individual level, parents, employees with lower salary, workers having poor health condition and the individuals who experience issues setting limits when stood up to with high levels of demands tend to demonstrate higher rates of presenteeism (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Aronsson et al., 2000; Burton et al., 2005).
Presenteeism takes place when workers are actually present at workplace, but psychologically absent (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012). "Presenteeism is the action of workers coming to work regardless of having a disorder that legitimizes absence as an outcome, they are performing their work under imperfect conditions" (Biron, Brun, Ivers & Cooper, 2006). Presenteeism can be referred as loss of productivity that takes place when workers come to their workplaces, but due to ailment or some other reason, they cannot perform their duties completely or in a desired manner. They fail to meet expectations, as well as those with whom they interact might likewise be sucked into the chasm of presenteeism. Presenteeism is an overbearing issue for organizations because employees who come to workplace while having some physical or mental problems create a decline in levels of productivity. Presenteeism is defined as “being at work when you should be at home either because you are ill or because you are working such long hours that you are no longer effective.” (Cooper, 1996). While presenteeism appears to be appealing for organizations at first look, employers have started to understand that it signifies a “silent” but substantial drain on organizational productivity. Few researchers even propose that presenteeism harms organizations far more than absenteeism (e.g., Hemp, 2004). Moreover, errors or “rational mishaps” (Williams & Cooper, 1999) done by psychologically absent workers can be very costly.
According to Gilbreath and Benson (2004) supervisor’s behavior is predicts employees’ psychological health. Role conflict is another feature of job demand, which also a cause of increase in presenteeism rates and was an important predictor of presenteeism tendency for employees with many days of sickness (Biron, Brun, Ivers & Cooper, 2006). Recent research study by Johns (2011) proved that presenteeism was more commonly found amongst those individuals who faced more role conflict. Furthermore, research shows, that continuing experience of stress which is related to work causes one of the extreme possibilities for sick leave (absenteeism) and declined organizational productivity (presenteeism) (Johns, 2003). Individuals who are stressed out may keep on turning up for work and perform ineffectively. As characterized in a Health and Safety Information Bulletin of May 1996, Cox (1993) alludes to this as ‘presenteeism’ i.e. ‘being physically present at work but mentally absent’. The job-control model suggests that such jobs which have high demands (such as time pressure, workload, and role conflict) and those which are low in control (with low authority and autonomy) escalate stress as well as risk for psychological sickness (Vander, 1999).
H3. Work-Study conflict will be positively associated with presenteeism.
If conflicting pressures exist in an environment, it indicates that stress also exists in the environment. A study was conducted by Kaushik Sengupta (Hofstra University) on full time working students. In this study he collected data from 320 students who were working full time or either part time Lenaghan (2007). According to this study, cost of tuition is increasing and due to continuous rise in cost of tuition, the well-being of some students is having a continuous decline. Students have to search various resources to bear their educational expense, whether from scholarships, parents or by getting employed. Unluckily, doing a job besides studying increases stress in a student’s life which is already hectic. A foremost component and a possible outcome of stress is `Burnout’, which is categorized by a conditioned activation state in which feelings and thoughts of worry, uncertainty and fear dominate (Martens et al., 1990; Woodman & Hardy, 2001). Role conflict presents instability in light of the fact that the worker is not sure whether every last bit of his or her role demands are effectively balanced (Jawahar, Stone, & Kisamore, 2007).
Workers encountering role conflict may develop a perception that they cannot perform their job effectively. Hence, they may be compelled to put extra resources into their work role inspired by a paranoid fear of losing their employment status. This extra speculation of resources into the work role signifies loss of available resources which could lead towards negative circumstances including mental strain and dissatisfaction.
The adverse effects of work-study conflict may cause a number of job related attitudes and types of behaviors, burnout is one of them. A person could burnout only if he/she was already “burning”. Burnout appears in the form of emotional drain, disengagement of others, and reduced feelings of accomplishment while working in an organization (Maslach, 1982). Burnout is indicated by working long hours, over burdening and fulfilling the demands of conflicting roles (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998). Burnout is a stage when a person gets highly frustrated and feels impossible to continue. Loss of enthusiasm for work, overburdening, emotional exhaustion and suffocated feeling for an environment are the contributors of burnout. Any negative effect can take place directly, by diminished energy and time for class, time studying with peers, alone and assignment work, or indirectly by its effect on sleep time and other physiologically healing activities (Rothstein, 2007). Burnout is largely an organizational problem caused by long hours work, weak organizational policies, work-family life imbalance and continual peer, customer, and superior pressure. A working student when faces the role conflict will also get encountered with burnout. Role conflict was radically associated to emotional collapse (Jawahar, Stone & Kisamore, 2007). In the context of role conflict, burnout appears when a person feels overburdened and psychologically drained while accomplishing the requirements of different roles at the same time. Tradeoff between different roles such as employee and student, leads towards fulfillment of one role’s demand while leaving the other incomplete. Prior research on burnout has found role conflict to be one of the major causes. Role demands are considered as the determinants of burnout (Peeters, Montgomery, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2005). There are a number of adverse consequences of burnout such as, it declines organizational commitment (e.g., Lee & Ashforth, 1996; Leiter & Maslach, 1988), and raises turnover intentions (Cropanzano, Rupp, & Byrne, 2003; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998). Previous research suggests that university students, particularly those who are working, could be a high-risk group for burnout. Burnout is negatively related with educational performance and a sense of emotional exhaustion related to students’ depersonalization from university life (Schaufeli, Martinez, Marques Pinto, Salanova, M & Bakker, 2002).
H4. Work-Study conflict will be positively associated with burnout.
Turnover is an individual's evaluated likelihood that they will remain an employing organization (Cotton & Tuttle, 1986). In the meantime Tett and Meyer (1993) characterized turnover intentions as ‘’conscious willfulness to seek for other alternatives in other organization’’. Analyses on turnover intentions and its antecedents have underlined intent to quit as opposed to actual turnover as an outcome variable. There are two reasons behind this; firstly, workers have chosen ahead of time the choice to leave the association. This is in accordance with attitude-behavior theory (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) that an individual’s intention to behave in a certain way is the close forecaster of that behavior. Results on the investigation of the relationship between turnover intentions and real turnover have provided help and proof on the important link between these variables (Lambert et al., 2001). Therefore, Price (2001) proposed turnover intentions develop as option in measuring real turnover.
Factors which can influence turnover are not limited in number; there are a number of factors which can forecast turnover intentions. This comprises organizational, attitudinal, behavioral factors. Research findings also suggest that factors related to work such as, individual characteristics and factors related to external environment as determinants of an employee’s turnover intention. (Tyagi & Wotruba, 1993).
Factors such as role ambiguity, role conflict and work overload have been identified as stressful characteristics related to one’s job because these factors are associated with outcomes such as weak psychological health, turnover and job dissatisfaction (e.g. reviews by Beehr and Newman, 1978; Schuler, 1980).
Literature has identified association between role conflict and several unwanted outcomes such as lower job performance, lower job satisfaction, lower organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions. (Fisher & Gitelson, 1983; Jackson & Schuler, 1985). Sometimes it is difficult for an individuals to fulfill all demands of a particular role he/she is performing. Facing incompatible or contradictory expectations related to various roles, or related to a single role, most of the times produce psychological disturbance for individuals and create emotionally harmful impacts (Schaubroeck, Cotton, & Jennings, 1989). A full time employee may also find difficulty to deliver according to the utmost satisfaction of his management and job requirement due to the over burdening caused by work and study load. Emotional drain and job uncertainty are positively related to turnover intentions (Jackson, Schwab, & Schuler, 1986; Ashford, Lee, & Bobko, 1989). Past studies reveal that unclear or contradictory role demands causes role strain (Kahn et al., 1964; Netemeyer et al., 1990), which promotes dissatisfaction and resignations (Fisher & Gitelson, 1983; Jackson & Schuler, 1985; Lyons, 1971).
Sometimes declining performance in different roles compels a person to choose between one of his/her roles in order to lower his stress, strain, exhaustion and to achieve better performance and sense of achievement in one role. A turnover intention is a mental verdict which exists between an individual’s mind set with reference to continue the job or to leave (Jacobs & Roodt, 2007). When a person gets stressed out and strongly feels that he/she is unable to keep a harmony between the roles and cannot continue to perform different roles at the same time, such drive becomes the cause of turnover intention. Across a range of organizational contexts, research has consistently shown that experienced stress has deleterious effects on employees’ mental and physical health, as well as on organizational outcomes such as job performance and employee turnover (Kahn & Byosier, 1992; O’Driscoll & Beehr, 1994; Schaubroeck et al., 1989; Viator, 2001).
H5. Work-Study conflict will be positively associated with Turnover Intension.
Supervisor support is the extent to which workers believe that supervisors offer workers encouragement, support and concern (Burke et al, 1992). The level of supervisor support may influence performance of employees; however, role stress can mediate this influence. For instance, provision of resources can be an important by which employees can be facilitated by their supervisors (e.g., by providing equipment and running training programs) Guzzo, Richard and Gannett (1988). On the other hand, employees who do not receive required facilitation from their supervisors encounter high level of role conflict (Rizzo, House and Lirtzman, 1970). That is, without the provision of material support from supervisors, employees may not be able to perform required tasks regardless of the fact that they know what needs to be done. Moreover, if an employee feels that the supervisor is over-critical, he/she may not be willing to try any unconventional solution with an aim to meet client's demands, raising the possibility for role conflict (Michaels, Cron, Dubinsky and Joachimsthaier, 1988). Likewise, supervisors who do not support their subordinates, also fail to communicate with them properly (Burke et al., 1992). If a worker feels that essential information regarding performance expectation, ways to meet these expectation and other everyday events related to execution of work is not conveyed properly then role ambiguity is likely to arise (Rizzo et al., 1970).
Later on ambiguous role demands lead towards role conflict. The backing and concern shown by supervisors, act as a strong contributing factor to job satisfaction in a wide-ranging variety of work environment (Yukl, 1989). If a worker feels that supervisor is thoughtful i.e. show concern and worker also receives socio-emotional support from supervisor in general, this will result in uplift for organizational environment and direct increase the level of job satisfaction (Kopelman et al., 1990). Supervisors, who are supposed as usually helpful to the employees, support to increase the level of job satisfaction amongst employees (Babin & Boles, 1996). Workers usually develop common opinions regarding the extent to which organization and supervisors give value to their contributions for organization and show concern about their well-being (Eisenberger et al., 1986; Kottke & Sharafinski, 1988; Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). The level and quality of social support provided at workplace as perceived by workers is intensely linked to job satisfaction (Eisenberger et al., 2002) and to burnout (Brown & O’Brien, 1998). According to a research study, job satisfaction is significantly linked with the social support provided by the supervisor (Pienaar, Sieberbagen & Mostert, 2007).
A standout amongst the most imperative indicators of job satisfaction is backing given by the organization as per the outcomes of numerous studies linked with the forerunners of job satisfaction (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002; Stamper & Johlke, 2003). Supervisor with a supportive behavior was found to influence job satisfaction positively. (LaRocco & Jones, 1978). A number of research studies proved that low levels of supervisory and management support leads to increased stress and lower job satisfaction (Jaramillo et al., 2005; Toch, 2002). Role of supervisor in an organizational setting and autonomy over work, decision making and resources possessed by an officer have direct officer’s autonomy over tasks, decisions, and resources have straight effect on workers’ physical and psychological health (Ganster et al., 1996).
According to Bateman and Organ (1983) “satisfaction received by an individual is the outcome of efforts done by officials of an organization”. Supervisor support creates “facilitating associations with colleagues that provides a comfort for them in learning” (Mink, Owen & Mink, 1993). Keeping this thought in view, is it considered that learning and development of employees is facilitated by supervisor support (Ellinger, Ellinger & Keller, 2003). Large number of researchers has proposed that social support buffers psychological issues, job dissatisfaction and even employees turnover (Himle, Jayaratne & Thyness, 1989).
H6. Supervisor support is positively associated with job satisfaction.
H7. Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction such that the association between work-study conflict and job satisfaction is weaker when supervisor support is high.
Presenteeism takes place when individuals are present at workplace physically but mentally they are absent (Cooper, 1996). Past research has proved that supervisors can have substantial influence on workers, and these influences have been considered in terms of employee commitment, well-being, presenteeism, job satisfaction and some other outcomes (Jernigan & Beggs, 2005; Wager et al., 2003).
Job resources have ability to motivate employees which lead towards higher work engagement, lower cynicism and higher performance, besides that it buffers the health affecting ability of job demands (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Bakker & Evangelia, 2008). Supervisor support is one of the important jobs resources which is directly linked with work engagement (Mauno et al., 2007) and in addition to this, neutralizes the effects of job demands and strains relationships (Xanthopoulou et al., 2007). Supervisor support can gratify employees’ belongingness needs, to be looked after and esteemed, which vitalizes their versatility to adapt to hardship (e.g. working with physical discomfort). According to recent research findings supervisor support not only increased the level of job satisfaction, but also relieved strains brought up by role conflict.
Supervisors may also have positive impact on employees’ level of experienced anxiety. Yarker, Donaldson-Feilder, Lewis, and Flaxman (2007) distinguished 19 bundles of supervisory behaviors to be useful in dealing with workers' anxiety and pressure, including overseeing job resources and load of work, managing work issues, expanding availability and prominence, and assuming liability. Gilbreath (2001) discovered practices, for example, arranging work to deal with its requests, adjusting workloads fairly, and trying to visualize situations from employees' ends to have specifically strong negative relationships with job stress of workers. Hence, employees experience less stress and level of presenteeism gets lessen if they are working with a supervisor who gives them value and show concern regarding their well-being as compare to the employees who are working for a supervisor who treat them poorly and unfairly.
It is realized that supervisor can highly affect employees’ confidence and their working behaviors (Fleishman & Harris, 1962; Walker, Guest, & Turner, 1956). For instance, Stout (1984) found that supervisor’s conduct was identified with workers' well-being issues and their level of emotional, physical, and psychological depletion. Karimi (2008) suggested that well-being of employees and their intrinsic job satisfaction get highly affected by supervisor support. Donaldson (2003) said, “Any individual who has ever worked for any other individual will let you know that one's supervisor has a colossal impact on the level of anxiety in the work environment”. Peterson (1999) discovered absence of thoughtfulness by administration to be the significant determinant of stress among workers he contemplated.
Occurrence of negative events in work environment and also cases of adverse behavior from supervisors will be specifically compelling when ascertaining predictors of employee’s presenteeism related to job stress (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012). Employees who bear role pressure from domains other than work environment may encounter more presenteeism in work environment (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012).
Research particularly shows that a workplace with supportive environment supportive workplace decreases role conflict, role stress and its adverse effects (Schaubroeck, Cotton & Jennings, 1988). According to Karasek and Theorell (1990) social support such as supervisor support builds inspiration to grow new forms of behavior in challenging circumstances on the grounds that it cultivates a positive feeling of identity, taking into account the socially affirmed value of the person's contribution to collective objectives. As it were, they propose that employees who feel upheld by their supervisors and colleagues are liable to be more inclined to learn answers for new issues, an adapting procedure that is relied upon to build their feeling of dominance. Moreover, Jourdain and Vezina (2014) suggest that employees, who experience lower level of resources in terms of decision making power, authority and supervisor support have a tendency to be more disposed to presenteeism. Regarding work factors, increased level of presenteeism was connected with expanded overtime, and with diminished employment stability, profession opportunities, trust in colleagues, job satisfaction and supervisor support (Caverley, Cunningham, & MacGregor, 2007).
Seers, McGee, Serey, and Graen (1983) demonstrated that for those workers who needed to deal with high level of role conflict, job satisfaction was anticipated by supervisor support. On the other hand, for those not encountering stress brought up by role conflict, supervisor support was immaterial for job satisfaction. A supervisors with the view that life's other role are more important than work could offer employees some assistance with maintaining equalization even with contending demands, in this way lessening role conflict, anxiety, and presenteeism (Gilbreath & Karimi, 2012).
H8. Supervisor support will be negatively associated with presenteeism.
H9. Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and presenteeism such that the association between work-study conflict and presenteeism is weaker when supervisor support is high.
In context of work-study conflict, supervisor support plays a vital role. Support provided by coworkers, especially by immediate supervisor is an important coping resource (Melchior et al., 1997). Supervisor support can significantly lower the increasing impacts of role conflict of employee-student and prevent the occurrence of burnout. According to past research findings three important sources of social support are: friends and family, coworkers (Ganster, Fusilier, & Mayes, 1986), and immediate supervisor (Berger-Cross & Kraut, 1984). Moreover, Dunseath, Beehr, & King (1995) revealed that supervisor support is extremely significant for employees to gain job satisfaction and stress avoidance. It is expected for a person having different roles to encounter stressful situation at different stages of his/her role performance, at such point supervisor support can be a relieving factor to pass up stress. Several researchers (e.g., Carlson & Perrewe´, 1999; Parasuraman, Greenhaus, & Granrose, 1992) said that social support decreases the harmful causes of role stressors by helping employees to tackle with stress. Social support (e.g. supervisor support) can work as a moderator to the level it restricts pasting of resources or allows achievement of other resources (Hobfoll, 2002). It is generally believed that employees who enjoy practical and social support by their immediate supervisor have greater tendency to bear emotional exhaustion with less harm than their inadequately supported colleagues. (Muhammad & Hamdy, 2005; Etzion, 1984; House, 1981; La Rocco & Jones, 1978).
Past research have depicted that coping resources can significantly decrease the occurrence of burnout (Melchior, Bours, Schmitz, & Wittich, 1997). Social support has its core as well as modest effects on burnout (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993). Consequently, we anticipate that supervisor support will moderate the relationship between work-study conflict and burnout. The impact of role conflict on burnout will reduce with increasing supervisor support. Controlling resources (e.g. supervisor support) can prevent burnout and moderate the relationship between burnout and role conflict (Brotheridge, 2001).
Since 1970s, research studies have proved that supervisors have emotional impact on psychological well-being of employees (Gavin & Kelley, 1978; Sheridan & Vredenburgh, 1978). These research findings cumulated continuously through the decades of 1980s and 1990s (Duxbury, Armstrong, Drew, & Henly, 1984; Landeweerd & Boumans, 1994; Martin & Schinke, 1998; Seltzer & Numerof, 1988). For instance Stout (1984) found that supervisor conduct was linked to employees’ well-being issues and level of employees’ emotional, physical and psychological exhaustion.
Recent research study by Karlin, Brondolo, and Schwartz (2003) found that supervisor support is negatively associated with high blood pressure issue for the workers who face high stress situations. Likewise, Wager, Fieldman, and Hussey (2003) found that employees face high blood pressure issues while working under a supervisor who is perceived to be less favorable, and the deliberate difference was too high and enough to create a potential danger element for the growth of serious heart disease. In related research studies (Karimi & Nouri, 2009; Karimi, Karimi, & Nouri, 2011) reported that the level of perceived administrative/supervisor support in the work environment is connected with encountering work-family conflict and workers’ perceived degree of welfare. Gilbreath and Benson (2004) suggest that supervisors possessed a more substantial impact on well-being of employees than colleagues, friends and family.
It is clear that supervisors could have a key impact on what workers encounter at work, and the list of those outcomes which are connected with supervisor's conduct keeps on growing. Research findings of Hoobler and Brass (2006) suggest that abusive supervision was linked with family damage, proposing that ill-treated workers discharge aggression induced by supervisor after they return home. Such kind of findings are not so surprising when considered by someone, for various workers, the supervisor is the most dominant psycho-social character in the work environment (O'Driscoll & Beehr, 1994). Furthermore, supervisors are a predominantly available influence point from where to change the work environment (Bunker & Wijnberg, 1985). Supervisors ought to perform a role in making more beneficial work environments in light of the fact that they can dispose of or lessen the impacts of some adverse work factors distressing the workers. Even supervisors with inadequate control over other working environment stressors may control their own particular conduct (Stout, 1984).
According to research findings of Hetland et al. (2007) supervisor’s negative behaviors is more strongly related to burnout as compare to supervisor’s positive behaviors. Supervisor Support helps in reducing psychological anxieties and which results in decreased burnout and job dissatisfaction (Lloyd, King & Chenoweth, 2002). Social support is presumably the most common situational variable which has been projected as a prospective buffer against stress at workplace (e.g., Haines, Hurlbert & Zimmer, 1991; Johnson & Hall, 1988). Organizational support (supervisor support) is considered to be coping resources (Hobfoll, 1989) which can prevent the occurrence of burnout as well as it moderates the link between burnout and role conflict (Brotheridge, 2001). Social support is referred to have fundamental and in addition moderating impacts on occupational burnout (Cordes &Dougherty, 1993). As far as the fundamental impact, there is a direct link between social support and occupational burnout, and as far as the moderating impact, impacts of work stressors on burnout can be moderated indirectly by social support (Halbesleben, 2006).
H10. Supervisor support negatively associated with burnout.
H11. Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and burnout such that the association between work-study conflict and burnout is weaker when supervisor support is high.
Turnover intension can be defined as preparedness to change or quit a position held by a person. Literature reveals that turnover intention can occur due several reasons and role conflict is one of the major reasons. Supervisor moderates the relationship between burnout and outcomes of work such as turnover intention (Muhammad & Hamdy, 2005).
A worker's intention to quit from his organization refers to a worker’s own psychological verdict that she/she does not want to be a part of his/her organization anymore (Lee & Mowday, 1987; Sager, Futrell, & Varadarajan, 1989). As per the standard of reciprocity, supervisor support is contrarily connected with workers' sentiments of needing to end their job with their present organization. Eisenberger, Fasolo, and Davis-LaMastro (1990) contend that continuing job is one of the ways by which employee can recompense his/her supervisor. In view of social exchange theory, workers will choose to continue the exchange relationship if the advantages earned from the exchange relationship exceed the costs (Emerson & Cook, 1978). Number of advantages received from an exchange relationship gets increased when employees start perceiving that his/her supervisor shows concern and care about them. Hence, providing supervisor support ought to adversely affect a worker's turnover intentions (Eisenberger et al., 2002; Stinglhamber & Vandenberghe, 2003). In view of this, it is theorized that there is an adverse association between supervisor support and turnover intentions. Social support (supervisor support) controls or neutralizes the link between job stressors and workers’ adverse reactions (House, 1981). Link between job stressors and worker reactions can be abolish or weaken through elevated amount of social support (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek & Rosenthal, 1964).
Supervisors straightforwardly impact the everyday work experience and can provide valued support in execution of work tasks (Stinglhamber & Vandenberghe, 2003). Contributory social support which is linked with the assistance provided by supervisors for the performance of work tasks has been connected with actual turnover and well-being of employees (Eisenberger et al., 2002). Such support may offer workers some assistance with feeling enabled to settle on choices about how to perform their employments. Moreover, supervisors practices have been appeared to mold workers' opinion about employment related stressors and afterward turnover intention (O’Driscoll & Beehr, 1994).
Supervisors can buffer the effects of work related stress which may cause by conflict between different roles possessed by an employee. A supervisor can do so by providing emotional and instrumental support to an employee. Emotional support is described as keen listening and caring about an employee, whereas instrumental support can be given by physical support and proficiency in accomplishment of a task (Kaufmann & Beehr, 1986). In general, people feel less stress when they enjoy social support. In the organizational stress literature, several researchers (Carlson & Perrewe´, 1999) have argued that social support eases the stress levels. Supervisors can substantially support to reduce anxiety (Perkins, 1993). Conflict at works reduces self-esteem and cause depression, and conflicts with supervisors results in job dissatisfaction. (Frone, 2003). The supervisor support helps in reducing job tension, role conflict, turnover and burnout.
Past studies strongly depict that immediate supervisor plays a vital role in employee turnover intentions (Maertz et al., 2003; Maertz et al., 2007; Payne & Huffman, 2005). Specifically, levels of turnover intention decrease with an increase of social support such as supervisor support and increase with a decrease in social support. Staff turnover was expected in part by low degrees of superior support (Hatton & Emerson, 1998). Concluding the past research finding a hypothesis is developed regarding the moderating relationship of supervisor support between work-study conflict and turnover intention.
According to Moore (2002) level of burnout gets reduced through social support received from supervisors and ultimately reduced degree of burnout also reduces the degree of turnover intention. Kalliath and Beck (2001) also reported a similar kind of result when effect of social support was experimented on two elements of burnout i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. They have found that indicators of burnout get reduced through supervisor support and also it has shown direct and indirect impact on turnover intention. Social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) refers, increased levels of social support is likely to result in more affective association and sense of liability toward the organization (Shore & Wayne, 1993). Past research has discovered negative relationship between supervisor support and intention to quit (e.g., Kuvaas & Dysvik, 2010).
According to Humphrey et al. (2007) social support (supervisor support) or the degree to which an employee receives advice or assistance at work from their supervisors or colleagues (Karasek, 1979) was intensely negatively associated with turnover intention. This observation goes parallel and refers research work on organizational support theory (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, & Sowa, 1986) according to which workers who feel that they receive satisfactory conduct from their employer will also feel a sense of liability to repay their employer by showing positive attitude and suitable behaviors, this include decreased levels of intention to quit and actual turnover (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). In an organizational setting one of the sources of social support, informational and emotional support is Supervisors while being main persons in preventing job stressors in the work environment (Himle, Jayaratne, & Thyness, 1989).
H12. Supervisor support will be negatively associated with turnover intention.
H13. Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and turnover intention such that the association between work-study conflict and turnover intention is weaker when supervisor support is high.
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This is a correlation study in which the impact of work-study conflict on Job Satisfaction, Presenteeism, Burnout and Turnover Intentions among the working students of university level was studied and also effects of moderation of Supervisor Support were captured.
This is a field study because participants i.e. working students of university level enrolled in different universities were contacted to fill the questionnaires in their natural university environment.
The data for this research has been collected at one time so the data is cross-sectional in nature.
There is no or minimal research interference and this research is based on field study. As questionnaire was used for collecting data so the interference of the researcher was minimal in the work setting.
The unit of analysis for this research thesis is individual who is a student in university as well as doing job in an organization whether public sector or private.
The population of the current study comprises of the students of universities who are doing job in different organizations of Pakistan .
The study is based on convenience sampling. The data was collected from the employed individuals who were also studying in university.
Questionnaires were distributed in English to 350 working students of universities employed in different organizations of Pakistan out of which 281 questionnaires were received in a correct form making the response rate of 80.2%.
Following table shows the sample demographics:
Table 3.1: Respondents Demographics
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This table is composed of the respondent’s demographics Characteristics. It shows that 51.6% employees of the sampled employees were male and 48.4 % were female. Age of the 72.6% of samples employees were from 20- 30 years, 18.5% from 31- 40 years, 4.3% from 41-50 years. 43.1% of the employees were married and 56.9% were unmarried. 33.5% of the employees of the sampled employees had job experience of less than 1 year, 40.9% of the employees had job experience of 2 to 5 years, 7.50% of the employees had job experience of 6 to 10 years and 18.1% of the employees have an experience of more than 10 years. The job nature of 40.9% of the employees is non-managerial and the job nature of 59.1% of the employees was at managerial positions. 17.4% of the employees have last degree of 14 years. 67.3% of the employees have last degree of 16 years. 15.3% of the employees have last degree of 18 years.
The variables which are being considered are described in the theoretical framework. Work-study conflict is the independent variable, supervisor support is the moderating variable; job satisfaction, presenteeism, burnout and turnover intentions are dependent variables.
A 39 items questionnaire was used that consists of two parts; first part of the questionnaire consists of demographic data that includes information about work experience, nature of job, last degree/qualification, marital status, gender and age. While the second part focuses on respondents’ view regarding work-study conflict, supervisor support, job satisfaction, presenteeism, burnout and turnover intention. 5 points Likert scale is used to measure respondents’ view from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. All questions of variables are relevant according to the nature of the study. The participants in this study were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. So their names were not appear anywhere on the questionnaire in order to retain their confidentiality.
Six items were adopted from the scale of work-study conflict developed by Lenaghan and Sengupta (2007). In order to measure work-study conflict of working students of universities, statements of items will be modified. Sample item include, “My family/friends dislike how often I am preoccupied with my work while I am at university”.
Four items were taken from the scale of supervisor support developed by Karasek et al. (1998). Sample item include, “My supervisor is concerned about the welfare of those under him”.
Six items were adopted from Brayfield and Rothe (1951) to measure Job Satisfaction. Sample item include, “I feel fairly well satisfied with my present job”.
Six items were adopted from Koopman et al. (2002) and modified the items statements to measure presenteeism of the working students. Sample item include, “Despite having my (workload), I was able to finish hard tasks in my work”.
Burnout was measured by eight items that were taken from the Exhaustion subscale of Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Bakker, Vardakou, & Kantas, 2003). Sample item include, “There are the days when I feel tired before I arrive at work”.
Three items were adopted from the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (Cammann et al., 1979). Sample item include, “I often think about quitting”.
Table 3.2: Reliability of Scale
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Table 3.2 specifies the reliability of the scale. According to Nunnally, 1978 the Cronbach alpha is the most widespread determinant of (reliability) that is internal consistency. It is mostly used when we have multiple Likert scaled questions in questionnaire that form a scale and we are interested in determining whether the scale is reliable or not. This table shows that all scales are in the range of acceptance. The value of alpha for Work-Study Conflict is 0.765, for Supervisor Support its 0.866, for Job Satisfaction its 0.774, for Presenteeism its 0.627, for Burnout its 0.781 and for Turnover Intention its 0.651.
One way ANOVA has been performed to control for the variations in dependent variable(s), if any. The results of one way ANOVA shows that there were significant differences in job satisfaction, presenteeism, burnout and turnover intention across job nature whereas no significant differences were found across total work experience, last degree/qualification, marital status, gender and age. So, only job nature was controlled for this study.
Table 3.3: Results from One-way ANOVA
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Following table shows the descriptive statistics of the variables of this current study.
Table 4.1: Descriptive Analysis
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This table 3.2 shows the descriptive statistics of our study. This shows the maximum and minimum value, at which the responses lie, and also the mean and standard deviation of the variables. The minimum value of Work-Study Conflict is 1.17 and maximum value is 5 with mean of 3.52 and with the standard deviation of 0.800. The minimum value of Supervisor Support is 1 and maximum value is 5 and the mean that is shown in table is 3.06 and the standard deviation in this variable is 1.15. The minimum and maximum value of Job Satisfaction is 2.17 and 5 respectively with 3.67 mean and the standard deviation of 0.661. The minimum and maximum value of Presenteeism is 2.17 and 5 respectively with 3.47 mean and the standard deviation of 0.553. The minimum and maximum value of Burnout is 1.88 and 5 respectively with 3.51 mean and the standard deviation of 0.558. The minimum and maximum value of Turnover Intention is 1.67 and 5 respectively with 3.53 mean and the standard deviation of 0.716.
Table 4.2: Correlation Analysis
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* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
* p < .05, ** p < .01, ,JobN=Job Nature, WSC=Work study conflict, SS= Supervisor support, JS=Job satisfaction, Pretsm= Presenteeism, BO=Burnout, TOI=Turnover Intention
Table 4.2 tells us about the correlation analysis. Correlation is the most important statistical tool which gives us information about whether there is any relationship between the variables or not.
Correlation lies within the range of -1 to +1, -1 shows that a strong negative relationship exists between the two variables and +1 shows that a strong positive relationship exists between the two variables. Zero shows that no relationship exists. The correlation calculations for our study provided the following results.
Correlation between Work-Study Conflict and Supervisor Support is -0.365** which is close to -1 so it means there is a strong negative relationship between the two variables hence with the increase in the Work-Study Conflict there would be a decrease in Supervisor Support. Correlation between Work-Study Conflict and Job satisfaction is -0.042 which is insignificant means that there is no association between them. Correlation between Work-Study Conflict and Presenteeism is 0.498** means that there is significant positive relationship between them. Correlation between Work-Study Conflict and Burnout is 0.500** means that there is positive significant relationship between them. Correlation between Work-Study Conflict and Turnover Intention is 0.428** means that there significant positive relationship between them.
Correlation between Supervisor Support and Job Satisfaction is .168** means that there is positive significant relationship. Correlation value between Supervisor Support and Presenteeism is -0.308** means that there is a significant negative relationship between them. Correlation between Supervisor Support and Burnout is -0.336** means that there is a significant negative relationship between them. Correlation value between Supervisor Support and turnover intention is -0.318** means that there is a significant negative relationship between them.
Table 4.3 Hierarchical Regression Analysis of Work study conflict and Supervisor Support
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*p< .05, **p< .01, ***p< .001
Table 4.4 Moderated Regression Analyses
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*p< .05, **p< .01, ***p< .001 , WSC=Work study conflict, SS= Supervisor support, JS=Job satisfaction, Pretsm= Presenteeism, BO=Burnout, TOI=Turnover Intention
The results of the regression analyses were plotted in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4. As shown in Figure 1, even at low level of supervisor support, job satisfaction shows insignificant effect on it i.e. there is no significant moderation of supervisor support between work study conflict job satisfaction at the level of (B=.233, p>0.05). Figure 2 indicates that at high WSC, participants with low SS had a higher presenteeism than those with higher supervisor support. The slope for low SS participants is positive and significant i.e. there is significant negative moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work-study conflict and presenteeism at the level of (B=-.328, p<0.001). Figure 3 also shows that at high WSC, participants with low SS had a higher burnout than those with higher supervisor support i.e. there is significant negative moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work-study conflict and burnout at the level of (B=-.384, p<0.001). Figure 4 shows that even at high level of supervisor support there is insignificant effect on turnover intention i.e. there is no significant moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work-study conflict and turnover intentions at the level of (B=-.206, p>0.05)
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Figure 1: The moderating role of supervisor support on the relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction.
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Figure 2: The moderating role of supervisor support on the relationship between work-study conflict and presenteeism.
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Figure 3: The moderating role of supervisor support on the relationship between work-study conflict and burnout.
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Figure 4: The moderating role of supervisor support on the relationship between work-study conflict and turnover intention.
H1 stated that work-study conflict will be negatively associated with Supervisor Support, results shows that there is significant negative relationship between work study conflict and supervisor support at the level of (B=-.546, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H1.
H2 stated that work-study conflict will be negatively associated with job satisfaction, results shows that there is insignificant negative relationship between work study conflict and job satisfaction at the level of (B=.020, p> 0.05). So the results does not supports hypothesis H2.
H3 stated that work-study conflict will be positively associated with presenteeism, results shows that there is significant positive relationship between work study conflict and presenteeism at the level of (B=-.302, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H3.
H4 stated that work-study conflict will be positively associated with burnout, results shows that there is significant positive relationship between work study conflict and burnout at the level of (B=-.293, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H4.
H5 stated that work-study conflict will be positively associated with Turnover Intention, results shows that there is significant positive relationship between work study conflict and turnover intentions at the level of (B=-.310, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H5.
H6 stated that supervisor support positively associated with job satisfaction, results shows that there is significant positive relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction at the level of (B=-.102, p<0.01). So the results supports hypothesis H6.
H7 stated that supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction such that the association between work study conflict and job satisfaction is weaker when supervisor support is high, results shows that there is no significant moderation of supervisor support between work study conflict job satisfaction at the level of (B=.233, p>0.05). So the results does not supports hypothesis H7.
H8 stated that supervisor support will be negatively associated with presenteeism, results shows that there is significant negative relationship between supervisor support and presenteeism at the level of (B=-.104, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H8.
H9 stated that supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and presenteeism, such that the association between work study conflict and presenteeism is weaker when supervisor support is high. Results shows that there is significant negative moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work study conflict and presenteeism at the level of (B=-.328, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H9.
H10 stated that supervisor support negatively associated with burnout, results shows that there is significant negative relationship between supervisor support and burnout at the level of (B=-.091, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H10.
H11 stated that supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and burnout such that the association between work study conflict and burnout is weaker when supervisor support is high, results shows that there is significant negative moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work study conflict and burnout at the level of (B=-.384, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H11.
H12 stated that Supervisor support will be negatively associated with turnover intention, results shows that there is significant negative relationship between supervisor support and turnover intentions at the level of (B=-.122, p<0.001). So the results supports hypothesis H12.
H13 stated that Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and turnover intention such that the association between work study conflict and turnover intentions is weaker when supervisor support is high., results shows that there is no significant moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work study conflict and turnover intentions at the level of (B=-.206, p>0.05). So the results does not supports hypothesis H13.
Following table shows the summary of results of this study:
Table 4.5 Summary of Accepted/Rejected Hypothesis
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Total number of Hypothesis = 13
Number of Accepted Hypothesis = 10
Number of Rejected Hypothesis = 3
Due to rise in cost of education and increasing demand at work, both students and employees opt to perform multiple roles i.e. students as workers and workers as students for their survival, better career and growth. While performing these roles they encounter some psychological factors which were treated as dependent variables in this research. The main purpose of the research is to study the impact of work-study conflict on job satisfaction, presenteeism, burnout, and turnover intention while examining the role of supervisor support as moderator. Findings of this research have alike implications for all organizations and universities. Employees and students are facing intensified demands at work and university, so their well-being should be a great matter of concern for employers and universities. This research has used a moderated model of work-study conflict while examining its impact. The whole sample was consisted of working students from different universities and organizations as they have main stake in this research.
First we have examined the relationship between work-study conflict and supervisor support hypothesizing that work-study conflict will be negatively associated with supervisor support. Hypothesis was supported by past literature and research findings suing that work-study conflict and supervisor support possess a negative relationship i.e. supervisor support act as buffer to neutralize or reduce the conflict ascended by clashing demands of work and study (Cohen & Will, 1985; Gore, 1987; Thomas & Ganster, 1995; Roskies & Lazarus, 1980; Goff, Mount, & Jamison, 1990; Jones & Butler, 1980). Results of this study also supported past literature ascertaining that there is significant negative relationship between work-study conflict and supervisor support. So the results supports hypothesis H1.
While relating job satisfaction with work-study conflict, it has been found that there is insignificant negative relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction, opposing the hypothesis H2. Although most of the previous research studies supported the hypothesis and shown a clearly negative relationship between role conflict (work-study conflict) and job satisfaction (Behrman & Perreault, 1984; Boles & Babin, 1996; Hafer & McCuen, 1985; O'Driscoll & Beehr, 2000; Teas, 1983) but results of this study do not support negative relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction. Some evidences have been found that there is an insignificant negative relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction (Widyani & Sugianingrat, 2015). Major reason for this relationship in Pakistani context can be unemployment, due to which work-study conflict does not have a negative relationship with job satisfaction.
Presenteeism was taken into account as is it a common issue faced by people performing multiple roles and fulfilling opposing role demands. This phenomenon was never been tested particularly in relation with work-study conflict before. Past research studies shows a positive relationship between role conflict and presenteeism (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Aronsson et al., 2000; Burton et al., 2005) which provided a base for hypothesizing this relationship. Results of this study also supported this relationship revealing that there is significant positive relationship between work study conflict and presenteeism.
Various theoretical concepts were presented to explain the occurrence of burnout. The study clearly depicts that work-study conflict is positively associated with burnout. Burnout increases with an increase in conflict between work and study. Past studies also show a positive relation between both variables and recognized role demands as precursors of burnout (Lee & Ashforth, 1996; Peeters, Montgomery, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2005). Results of this study show that there is significant positive relationship between work-study conflict and burnout. So the results supports hypothesis H4.
This study further reveals that there is a positive relationship between work-study conflict and turnover intention. As past literature supports the positive association of this relationship, respondents have also substantiated this fact that increasing conflict between their jobs and studies tends them to leave the organization. Current study also supported past literature showing that there is significant positive relationship between work study conflict and turnover intentions.
Social support such as supervisor support is known to be a buffer against stressors in an organizational setting. Support from supervisor help employees to reduce adverse effects of conflicting role demands and help them to increase level of satisfaction and well-being (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002; Stamper & Johlke, 2003; LaRocco & Jones, 1978; Jaramillo et al., 2005; Toch, 2002; Himle, Jayaratne & Thyness, 1989). Same has been hypothesized and shown in result of this study that supervisor support positively associated with job satisfaction, results shows that there is significant positive relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction. On the other hand results do not support the literature claiming that supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and job satisfaction. Instead results of this study show there is no significant moderation of supervisor support between work-study conflict job satisfaction. As depicted earlier in this study that work-study conflict has an insignificant relationship with job satisfaction, provides base to the rejection of this hypothesis. Same has been claimed by Botha (2007) that supervisor support does not affect relationship between role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload and job satisfaction.
While talking about presenteeism, results of current study supported both hypotheses H8 and H9 stating that hat there is significant negative relationship between supervisor support and presenteeism and also there is significant negative moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work study conflict and presenteeism. So the results supports hypothesis H9 as supervisor support is proved to be a coping resource to deal with many negative outcomes of role demands and role stressors. Supervisor support helps employees to stay engaged with their tasks not only physically but mentally as well (Schaubroeck, Cotton and Jennings, 1988; Caverley, Cunningham & MacGregor, 2007; Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012).
Supervisor support in organizations is an important factor to reduce the negative outcomes arouse by role conflicts. Many researchers have highlighted the importance of social support as moderator (e.g. supervisor support) in buffering the unfavorable consequences of role stressors on burnout (Burke & Richardson, 2000; Cordes & Dougherty, 1993; Demerouti et al., 2001; Duke et al., 2009; Rees & Freeman, 2009). Research findings from this study also depict that increase in supervisor support results in decreased level of burnout and also supervisor support moderators the effect of work-study conflict on burnout as most of the respondents clarify through the results that support from their immediate supervisor helps them to reduce the conflict between their work and education and also prevent them to encounter burnout. This study confirms the past literature of supervisor support and burnout showing significant negative relationship between supervisor support and burnout and this study also confirmed that there is significant negative moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work study conflict and burnout.
Supervisor support also helps to reduce the tendency of turnover intension by reducing the conflicting effects of work and study. Turnover intention and burnout get reduced with provision of social support (e.g. Supervisor Support) to an individual as an intercession program (Dierendonck et al., 1998). As past studies reveal that supervisor support acts as a moderator to reduce turnover intention, this study also confirms this negative relationship as most of the respondents responded in same manner. Results show that there is significant negative relationship between supervisor support and turnover intention. So the results supports hypothesis H12.
Supervisor Support has a negative association with turnover intention but while acting as moderator between work-study conflict and turnover intension, our study negates the hypothesis H13 i.e. Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict and turnover intention. Although previous researches illustrate that supervisor support does moderates but this study shows insignificant results regarding role of supervisor support as moderator between work-study conflict and turnover intention. Same has been proved in a research study conducted by Thirapatsakun, Kuntonbutr and Mechinda (2014). It depicts that even if supervisor support is provided to an individual encountering work-study conflict, it cannot reduce the level of turnover intention in context of Pakistan. There are number of reasons such as supervisor support helps to reduce the anxiety faced by an individual through work-study conflict but it remains unable to reduce the work load of both roles. Another reason is that most of the working students are between 20 to 30 years old, at this age individuals are in their beginning or mid-career level and they have urge to surpass at a faster pace. For this purpose individuals have an increasing trend of job switching in Pakistan and they keep on looking for better opportunities which is an ancestor of higher turnover intention that could not be reduced through supervisor support. This study shows that there is no significant moderation of supervisor support between the relationship of work-study conflict and turnover intention.
It is significant to conduct research studies on inter-role conflict such as work-study conflict continuously because number of working students is also continue to grow day by day.
Universities are required to be made aware of the fact that the time obligations needed for study can impede with work obligations for working students and to find out ways to deal with it, such as examining how class timetabling including day-time, evening, weekend and on-line alternatives can support students with balance in work and study. Most of the universities should extend to include weekends programs for working students. Libraries, computer labs and study support centers should have extended opening hours over evenings and weekends.
Universities and organization may also seek to run seminars or conference sessions for working students in managing possible inter-role conflict because working students need to be aware that their study and work commitments can be affected by work-study conflict. Information regarding stress management and time management to manage fatigue, reduced effort, irritability and distraction may be valuable.
Employment conditions also keep their impact on academic performance of working students. Immediate supervisors, line manager and Human Resource departments required to be made aware of, and they should also promote awareness that study time and educational commitments can be impinged upon by work. Time issue can be offset by organizational policies and studies can be looked positive by encouraging such a supportive work culture. Initiatives can incorporate advancing study leave, the capacity to arrange adaptable work hours, and the provision of calm space to study during lunch breaks.
To comprehend why a few students endure in their studies and others surrender it is imperative to ponder at working students' level of inspiration for studying additionally to consider the number, quality and nature of contending activity choices, for example, work and recreation activities.
Recruitment and employment specialists for example, may utilize data about students' work and relaxation experiences to distinguish work related abilities and relegate jobs (Horgen, Hanson, Borman, & Kubisiak, 2000).
In conclusion, balanced activities, apparent relevance of work and autonomy in performing extra-curricular activities seem favorable for a person’s academic study and well-being, which resultantly support students in job search and workers in career success. This study is also beneficial for the other researchers as well as managers in analyzing the outcomes of work-study conflict among the working students of Pakistan and how supervisor support tends to manage these negative outcomes.
A cross-sectional methodology could be restrictive because of the incapability to determine a thorough understanding of the intricacy of variables. However, the cross-sectional methodology gave an effective and prudent method for surveying the usefulness and hypothesis of our model before taking part in all the more expensive longitudinal research study (Markel and Frone, 1998). The procedure of self-report method has some of its defects in valuation, as it can be difficult for respondents to analyze personal experiences over some time period. There may be a propensity to think just about a late experience or an illustration that emerges over different cases. On the other hand, the utilization of self-report measures appeared to be intelligent since the study was occupied with catching steady, inner conditions of the respondents that couldn't be controlled.
At last, the data were not gathered from a delegate test of all working students and in this manner the generalizability of the present results may be constrained and due to the time constraint inadequate sample size is chosen. So the study should be carrying out on a large sample size in order to get the more reliable and consistent results.
Regardless of these potential methodological restrictions, the aftereffects of this research study propose that further research would be beneficial. Conceptual model of this study would give a helpful starting to the precise study of work-study conflict and well-being of students. Future longitudinal research studies more illustrative national specimen would give a much more grounded test of the reasonable model utilized as a part of this study. Public sector employees and private sector employees had high group differences in undergoing inter-role conflict which should be investigated further. Work-study conflict can be seen on other factors too like organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, work performance, academic performance, breach of psychological contract etc. which will increase the literature of the work-study conflict.
The results show that the work-study conflict is positively associated with presenteeism, burnout and turnover intention means as the work-study conflict rises, presenteeism, burnout and turnover intentions also get increased amongst the working students of Pakistan. It has also been depicted from the results that if the individual has supervisor support then the level of presenteeism and burnout gets decreases but it does not have any impact on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Supervisor support moderates the relationship between work-study conflict, presenteeism and burnout means that if individual receives supervisor supports then this support will regulate the level of presenteeism and burnout caused by work-study conflict, contrary to this supervisor support does not regulate the relationship between work-study conflict job satisfaction and turnover intentions, which means supervisor support cannot stop the employee from having the turnover intentions and it does not affect the level of job satisfaction when he/she is facing the work-study conflict.
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Impact of Work-Study Conflict on Job Satisfaction, Presenteeism, Burnout and Turnover Intentions with Moderating Role of Supervisor Support
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