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81 Seiten, Note: 60.02
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4 THE AIM OF THE STUDY
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
2.1 THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.2 HEALTH AND SAFETY
2.3 APPLICABLE HEALTH AND SAFETY LAWS TO CONSTRUCTION
2.3.2 The Labour Act
2.3.3 The Workmen’s Compensation Law in Health and Safety
2.4 INEFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SAFETY ON THE CONSTRUCTION
2.5 CAUSES OF POOR SAFETY IN THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR
2.5.1 Reasons for the poor record
2.6 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION
2.6.1 Causes and types of Accidents on Construction project site
2.7 STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
2.8 CAUTIONARY MEASURES
2.9 CONSTRUCTION PARTIES RESPONSIBILITIES IN SAFETY
2.9.1 Safety duties of government agencies:
2.9.2 Safety duties of employer:
2.9.3 Safety duties of the Contractor
2.9.4 Duties of employees on safety
2.10 COST OF ACCIDENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.11 QUANTIFICATION OF COST
3.2 THE STUDY AREA
3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3.1 Sampling and Sampling Techniques
3.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.6 DATA COLLECTION
3.6.1 Identifying the possible causes of accidents as a result of ineffective management of safety at the construction sites
3.6.2 Determining the level of accidents caused by ineffective management of safety at the construction site
3.6.3 Identifying strategies for curbing ineffective management of safety at the construction sites
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD
DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.2. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS
4.2.2. Educational Level
4.2.3. Number of years of experience in constructional practices
4.3. CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS AT CONSTRUCTION SITES
Poor planning at site
4.4 LEVELS OF ACCIDENTS ON THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
4.5 STRATEGIES FOR CURBING INEFFECTIVE SAFETY MANAGEMENT
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 ACHIEVEMENT OF THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
5.3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
In addition, there is the need to develop strategies to curb them and are as follows:
5.6 PROSPECTIVE RESEARCH
Table 2.1 Causes of Accidents on construction project site
Table 2.2: Roles of construction parties in assuring site safety
Table 2.3 Safety Executive Accident Cost Calculator
Table 4.1. Causes of accidents at site
Table 4.2 Levels of accidents on site
Table 4.3 strategies for curbing ineffective safety management
Figure 4.1. Level of education of respondents
Figure 4.2. Years of experience in construction practice
The construction industry is inherently risky, with a substantial number of accidents. Moreover, most construction firms aims at completing projects on time, especially with different projects at hand thereby neglecting the safety aspect of the workers. In most Ghanaian construction companies, adequate concentration is not allocated to the areas of health and safety and this has been a great problem over the years in which Accra Metropolis is no exception. To support in addressing this issue, this work planned with the aim to recommend strategies for curbing ineffective management of safety on construction sites. In order to achieve the said aim, the objectives set up include; to identify the possible causes of accident as a result of infective management of safety, to determine the level of accidents caused by ineffective management of safety at the construction sites and to identify strategies to curb ineffective management of safety at the construction sites. Survey questionnaires were administrated to five (5) major construction companies in the Greater Accra Region in which the data collected was also analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and the Relative Importance Index (RII) was also used in ranking. It was therefore revealed from the findings that poor planning at site, unsafe working conditions with others are some of the major causes of accident at site. In addition, falling victims was identified as the most serious level of accident on site. Construction companies should consider the need for special training for workers and also to create a group of internal health and safety monitory experts were some of the recommendations made.
I dedicate this work to my dad Mr. Lawrence Ahenkora Boamah whose love and support turned all fears into desires to succeed.
My outermost thanks goes to the Lord God Almighty. Whose grace and mercies has brought me this far.
A special thank you also goes to my supervisor, Mr. J. C Danku for the maximum and expeditious support offered as part of his supervision of this work. Also a thank you to Teaching Assistant Stephen Akunyumu for his support and advice.
A special thank you also goes to the staff and management of, Mikadu Construction, Vanguard properties, PSA Builders, Gibson Construction and UT Properties for their time and contribution.
Finally to all Msc Construction Management students, I say a very big thank you for all the various positive impacts you all made during the studies.
The construction sector is regarded as one of the most accident prone sectors because of its poor safety conditions, (Haslam et al. 2005). Construction project sites involve risk, and prone to health and safety risk because of construction nature and working environment, methods, type of equipment used.
Hughes (2007) stated that the protection of the body and mind from illness resulting from work is health, whiles the defense of people from physical injury is safety. For over twenty-five (25) years, Health and Safety Executive (HSE), also stated that 2800 workers and over die in UK as a result from injuries sustained from construction (HSE, 2009). Cole (2002) stated that safety hazards are some dimension of the environment at work which have the possibility of creating danger to an employee.
Worldwide the construction industry has a greater role in the economy’s growth. Research proves that construction brings on board between 5 and 10 percent of (GDP) Gross Domestic Product in all countries and utilize equal to 10 percent of the people that works. (Ofori, 2012.). In order to boost the economy of the country Ghana, the government of Ghana came out with laws and regulation on activities within the construction industry to help solve problems associated with accidents on construction sites. The laws included, Worksmans Compensation law 1987 (Labour Act 2007) and Labour Act on health and Safety, offices and shops Act 1979 (Act 328).
Most major issues which have much impact on the construction industry have been centered only on the industrialized countries. It is believed that, such matters are not needed by the developing countries. (Ofori, 2012). This research will intend address one of the greater challenges in the industry which is health and safety.
Casio (1996) stated that it is very easy to bypass the safe way to work but often the precursor to an accident. The construction industry will be safe to generate and boost the economy of every country if attention is paid to health and safety regulations.
As recommended by construction researchers and policy makers, employees should be able to carry out their normal work duties in a safe environment, free from accidents and harm. According to the International Labour Organization, (2005), it is estimated that about 6,000 workers die each day as a result of illness and accidents relating to work.
According to Sengupta and Guha (1999), the rate of accident occurrence in the construction sector is more dangerous than that of the manufacturing sector. Majority of employees do not take into consideration much about safety precautions at the work place due to lack of safety regulations and measures in the organization (Ferret and Huges, 2007). Kheni et al. (2006) also stated that Ghana has a higher accident rate than most economic areas. Cotton et al. (2005) adds that, this could be due to deficiency in proficient health and safety management techniques. Moreover, most construction workforce are hired on time-based and casual grounds and hence the working conditions are inappropriately definite (Mitullah and Wachira, 2003), and this creates minute protection on workers’ health and safety.
In developing economies, local contractors encounter diverse obstructions that often prevent the effective management of health and safety (Kheni et al., 2005). Gibb and Bust (2006) determined some variables that could affect health and safety management of construction sites in developing economies. Among such variables were; poor infrastructure, challenges in vocal communication because of high illiteracy level, uncontrolled activities on construction sites as well as corruption. As revealed by Koehn et al. (2000), problems in preparation as a result of illiteracy amounts to the ineffective safety management in countries that are developing.
Most firms in construction, focus on getting the project done especially when there are different projects at hand thereby neglecting the health aspects of the workers. The forgoing difficulties in construction may be deliberated to have adverse influence on the management of health and safety outcomes in deprived health and safety performance of construction sites in developing economies (Kheni et al., 2005). Accra Metropolis is no exception to this. According to Armstrong (2007), pp 829, accidents from work related can have many serious direct and indirect effects on the life of the worker and family. Before health and safety can improve, it is the responsibility of the law enforcers within the metropolis to enforce this law and pay regular site visit. Strategic Forum (2005) suggests that, effective health and safety management practices fosters increased productivity, and cost savings in construction businesses.
1. What are the possible causes of accident as a results of ineffective management of safety at the construction sites?
2. What is the level of accidents caused by ineffective management of safety at the construction sites?
3. What are the strategies needed to curb ineffective management of safety at the construction sites?
The aim of this study is to identify strategies for curbing ineffective management of safety on the construction sites.
1. To identify the possible causes of accident as a results of ineffective management of safety at the construction sites;
2. To determine the level of accidents caused by ineffective management of safety at the construction sites; and
3. To identify strategies to curb ineffective management of safety on the construction sites.
In past years, health and safety have been an issue of concern due to high rate of accidents on construction sites. Much is not given to the implication added on to the organization, therefore the findings and recommendations of this study will help increase the awareness of health and safety and implications on project within the construction sector, also to ensure adequate protective tools and equipment are provided to workers on site.
The construction industry consists of two major sectors, the road construction and the building construction sector. The road sector consists of three major agencies which are: Ghana Highway Authority, Department of Urban Roads and the Department of Feeder Roads (mrh.gov.gh). Whiles on the other hand, the building construction sector also has three major agencies, which are: Water sector agencies, Work sector agencies and Housing sector agencies (mwrp.org).
This research focused on construction sites with registered contractors classified under D3, K3 and above who are in good standing within Greater Accra Region.
To achieve the set aim and objectives, these methods will be used:
Textbooks, internet, journals, construction magazines will also be used.
Visits to the sites and offices for the arrangement of the interview for the study. Design and distribution of questionnaires to personnel whose duties are to be more concentrated on health and safety within the industry.
This study will also be organized into chapters:
Chapter one: This will consist of the introduction/ background study, statement problem, research questions, aims and objectives, justification, methods to be used in the research and the scope of study.
Chapter two: Literature review, which brings on board different ideas from various sources especially in the building and civil works sector. Also brings into light the types and various health and safety products to be provided on site and the cost implementation.
Chapter three: This will deal with the methods used for the research. The details of the questionnaires and sample size gathered will also be reviewed in this chapter.
Chapter four: This chapter also will focus on the data collected and analyzed, ranked using bar and pie chart.
Chapter five: This portion states the introduction, achievements of research objectives, findings, conclusions and the recommendations made for further studies.
According to Anaman et al. (2007), the construction sector is defined as an entity of institution with closely connected actions which are involved in the construction of real estate, private, building and public infrastructure. Construction works includes all aspects of executing the project from the start to finish. This also includes site clearance, investigation, demolition and removal, commissioning, maintenance of services like electricity and telephone.
All these processes involve health and safety of workers and management. According to Anaman and Osei-Amponsah (2007), the industry of Ghana has a potency to drive the growth of the economy, even though the commitment of the government is low in the improving of productivity. It further stated that another means of enhancing the quality of the Ghanaian construction industry is by making the safety performance better. It was stated by Egmond et al, (2007), that the construction industry in Ghana is made mainly with more workers that are not able to write and read. Also the Ghana Investment Promotion Centre GIPC (2006), states that the degree of accomplishment of anybody hired by the sector, usually 67.2 percent are unskilled, semi-skilled are 24.8 percent and highly skilled are 8 percent. These percentages are much concerned when it comes to issues of health and safety in the construction sector.
Like other developing countries, the construction industry in Ghana depends on labor methods. Some development projects like road construction, hospital projects, and classroom are constructed using labor. European Commission, (1994).
According to the Confederation of Construction Clients (CCC), (Construction Procurement Guidance, No.10, OGC, 2001), in the commitment to work together to improve performance on construction sites in relation to health and safety, quality and productivity, has also set a reference to cut down the: Occurrence ratio of happenings in relation to work unhealthiness by 40 percent in 2004/2005 and 66 percent by 2009/2010, Occurrence of death and higher injuries by a percentage of 40 by 2004/2005 and 66percent by 2009/2010, Number of days lost during working hours per 100,000 workers relating to work hard and ill health by 20 percent as of 2004/2005 and 50 percent as of 2009/2010.
The construction industry consists of two major sectors, the road and the building construction sectors. There are two major government ministries that are responsible for the activities and implementation of the policies within the construction industry. The Roads and Highways ministry (MRH) is accountable for the road section and has three major agencies under, which are the Ghana Highway Authority (GHA), Urban Roads Department (DUR) and the Feeder Roads Department (DFR). (mrh.gov.gh). On the other hand, The Water Resources, Works and Housing ministry (MWRWH) is in charge for the execution of policy within, water supply, works, housing, hydrology and sanitation and all activities of building contractors who are certified and classified. This ministry has agencies as, Water sector agencies, works sector agencies and Housing sector agencies (mwrwh.gov.gh).
The Health Ministry (MOH), and through the unit of occupational health of this ministry is in charge for the issues concerning occupational health.
World Health Organisation, (1999) describes health as a way of mental, physical and social well-being and not only in relation to sickness or disease. As a result, health and safety is the preventing and protecting of people from any form of hazards and risk that can arise as a result of harm, injury, unhealthy working environment in the working place. According to Anaman and Osei Amponsah (2007), they stated that the law of health and safety defines a way by which the working environment can strengthen to secure the safety and health of people who are likely to be affected by the working environment.
Also the International Labour Organisation. (1996) describes these as a study with a wide area regarding different special areas and also aims at the following:
Keeping and preserving to the highest position of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all areas of working environments Protect workers in their places from risks as a result of adverse to health Maintaining and placing workers in an environment that adapt mental and physical needs.
World Health Organisation, (1999) also states, workplace that is a place in which managers and workers coordinate together to use a frequent progress in development to protect and boost the health and safety of workers by considering the following, supported on needs that are known:
- Personal health resources in the workplace
- Safety interest in the working environment which include the administration of work and culture at the workplace.
- Concerns of safety in the working environment
In order to achieve the objectives of health and safety, all groups involved at the workplace like, workers, management and officials in the various unions must be committed to the programs of health and safety.
Caldwell (1999) stated that in early 1960’s the number of workers killed in the industry was around 275. By 1970, it reduced to about 200, and decreased again around 135.
There are no formulated laws in relation to health and safety to the construction sector in Ghana. Looking at the greater danger that is in involved in this sector, it has severely affected the accomplishment of the standards of health and safety at site. With respect to civil engineering and building construction works, the major health and safety law that applies in this sector is the Factories, Offices and Shop Act 1970 (Act 328).
There are also some specific laws for health and safety that are applicable to the industry, these laws are: Labour Act (2003), the Workmen’s Compensation Law (1987) and the Environmental Protection Agency Act (Act 490).
The Factories, Offices, and Shops Act 1970, this Acts provides towards, offices, ports, construction and shops. This Acts also supports the manpower, development and labour minister to engage in rules with respect to works in construction and address issues of danger. The 57th section of the Act connects to work under civil engineering and building. There are different sections as clearly stated in section 57(1) of the Act which are also important to works related to building and civil engineering. Under this, construction companies are mandated to register their sites (sections 6-8) and to give an account of any accidents and harmful activities that happen at the workplace to the Factory Inspectorate Department. It is also required under section 19, 20, 25, 26, 27 and 31 to provide toilet facilities, potable drinking water, protective equipment’s, and also take measures to control and prevent specific hazards on site respectively.
Under (section 33-35), the Act also demands medical management in reference to the health of workers, this also a requirement to put in place with respect to access to site and all construction design must be in conformity to safety of workers and all by users of the project.
Different sections of this Act in relation to works under construction include the following: Sections 52-54: indicates the right of inspectors in making sure, safety and welfare of all stakeholders at project site and the functions of the court in situations like these.
Sections 60-73: also lay out the actions to be taken and the legal steps. Sections 74-77 is also associated with the administration of the Act Sections 78-87 also entitles to all other matters in general.
Part XV of this Act, 2003 (Act 651) links to the health and safety and the workplace environment. This is therefore every employer’s responsibility under this Act to check that employees work under safe, healthy and satisfactory context. There are also different sections of this Act that also is in relation to health and safety. They include: broad conditions of employment, protection of wages, organization bargaining agreements.
It is expected of the employee to report any harmful condition to his/her immediate supervisor. If this due process is followed the employer has no right by law to terminate the employment of the worker. The same applies to the employers also to report any occupational accidents that occur at the workplaces to the appropriate agency. The (LA, 2003) also sees to the protective equipment to be given by the employer in accordance to the employers’ activities.
This Act 1987 compels employer to provide expenditure to employees’ helplessness as an outcome of accidents in the process of their employment. It is mandatory for the employer to pay all expenses at the hospital for the harmed worker. For instances where only treatment is needed of the harmed person, the Act states the (the injured) is still qualified to their salary even when treatment is undergoing through an accident occurred during the course of employment.
There are also exceptions to the rule: under circumstances where the injury occurred as a result of the influence of drug or liquor at the time o of accident or deliberately selfharmed. The law also applies to both the private and public sector.
In these past years, site health and safety management has increased in significance in other areas (Boyd, 2009). According to Rawlinson and Farrell (2010), there has been a basic want to sustain the health, safety and wellbeing of workers. Available literature on health and safety management offers grounds that, there is alternating integration of health and safety regulations in small scale enterprises due to specific features they have (Kheni et al., 2008). Baldock et al. (2005) investigation on small firms indicated that, there are distinct changes in companies’ health and safety techniques. Some of the variables obstructing contractors from adopting efficient health and safety management techniques or schemes comprise bureaucracy, employees’ unconsciousness in connection to their privileges and time insistency (Koehn et al., 1995). Gibb and Bust (2006) revealed that negative construction activities, adverse weather situations, and incapacitating socio-economic atmosphere have a bad impact on health and safety management of construction sites in developing economies. In Peckitt et al. (2002) research on health and safety, the results suggested that directors and project managers were usually oblivious of their responsibilities under the health and safety legislation was merely imposed. In developing countries such as Ghana, the proper procedure of construction is progressively outmoded by inappropriate construction (Wells, 2001).
Often clients and construction team bend regulations and proper processes to get their completed structure at a minimal fee (Kheni et al., 2008). Except there is severe implementation of health and safety regulations, minute concern will be assigned to health and safety in such sector atmosphere because the principal goal of the contractor it to maximize proceeds and that small private clients which control the industry is to acquire the complete product at the most minimal cost. Nevertheless, there have been perpetual interest over the number of accidents in the construction industry (Reynolds et al., 2008).
According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety (NIOSA), (2009) the nature of constructing work has a high status of safety incidents and this may include many built in hazardous works and conditions. The following are the different reasons for the poor safety records in the construction industry:
A. Nature of the Site and Project
i) Conditions at site
a) Slope and Nature of site: If the nature of the site is of an uneven surface, it may have an effect the firmness of materials, workers and equipment during working times. (Ringen et al. 1995). Also the site with very steep slope and no precautions taken has the ability through its movement to cause accident.
b) Space Constraints: NIOSA, (2009) also stated that, sites with constrains have the attribute to cause accident and in cases of heavy materials and equipment been conveyed from one place of the site to the other and in addition to worker traffic in construction It stated further that confined spaces present hazardous working conditions. c) Soil State: soil states / conditions differ from site to site. Poor soil conditions affect the stability of equipment, materials. Levitt and Samelson (1993). They explained further that, soil with poor conditions require an extensive site engineering activities. d) Temporary duration of site: Levitt and Samelson, (1993), Reese and Eidson, (1999) argued that the temporal duration of work on site makes it difficult to set up an effective lasting strategy for safety on site.
ii) Project Scope
a) Structure Height: The height of the structure exhibits the risk of collapse if adequate materials are not used and brings about injuries as a result NIOSH, (2009)
b) Soil work and Foundation: NIOSH (2009) states that, there is always a risk of excavated walls caving in if adequate precautions are not taken.
c) Heavy materials: Materials for construction works are typically heavy and of large size, therefore having the tendency to cause injury to workers allocated to work with either by falling or striking. Levitt and Samelson (1993).
iii) Consideration of Design
a) Unclear Design: Rowlinson (2004) stated that unclear designs have an advance inclination to cause accidents because workers may not be acquainted with safety precautions for execution the project.
b) Changing Design: it was also stated by Rowlinson (2004) that, in the stages of construction, certain designs may require a change within short notice, therefore earlier construction site safety planning maybe not necessary to address the new design.
B. Nature of Workforce:
i) Consideration of Workers:
a) Trained workers: Workers that are untrained mostly have a chance to cause or be in accidents at site. Toole (2002), depending on the nature of project, you are likely to find workers who are trained and those not.
b) Experienced Workers: when one is experienced in his/ her field of work, the percentage of causing accidents on site is low while those without experience are more likely to be involved in accidents on site. (Levitt and Samelson, 1993)
c) Labor Consideration: It was argued by Weil (1992), that labour unions are known to give its members adequate training with reference to professional safety through their apprenticeship programs, went on further to explain that, union workers have been found to perform better with respects to safety at their work places. With almost a percentage of 17 from U.S construction trade workers were also noted to be part of the union which implies the usefulness and positive impact it brings on board in areas of safety. (BLS, 2016).
d) Unqualified Subcontractors: The industry patronizes the services of subcontractor’s or special services. In cases where inexperienced or unqualified subcontractor are used, the accident rate is likely to increase. Some are usually not well trained in aspects of site safety. (Rowlinson, 2004).
e) Welfare Problems: Any time there is a welfare problem, it leads to unconcern behavior and resistant to work, thereby have a good chance of an outcome in hazards on safety at site. (Fang et al, 2006: Langford et al, 2000)
C. Industry Process
a) Competitive Tendering: The main aim of this tendering process is to seek the lowest responsible bidder. King and Hudson, (1985) stated that, the smaller the bid, the lower the margin of the contractor and the possibility to factor safety into the project will be low.
Safety was defined by Ngowi (1996) as the prevention of individual injury or damage in property which may arise as a result of accident, Cox and Cox (1996) also defined safety as “a state of freedom from unacceptable risk of personal harm”. A practicable definition in relation to construction site, is when an individual can work about his/ her daily duties without undue risk. Ridley and Channing, (2003) described accident as an unplanned or unexpected event that comes about as a result of causes that may result in injury or disease or damage to a property, a loss, or combination of both.
Hinze (2006) also defines accident as an unplanned event that is not always result in injury. The Advance English Dictionary (AED) also defined accident as anything which happens suddenly or by chance without a cause. Maybe the easiest and simplest way of defining accident is occurrences that are incapable of been controlled. In most instances, activities that lead to accident can be controlled and that indeed brings about safety. By the provision of safe working conditions, impressive safety training and adhering to the use of safe working procedures and working tactics are some of the aims of preventing accident.
Heinrich el al. (1980) describes some prominent attribute of accident occurring series: Unsafe Act: insecure performances of persons, like removal of safeguards, non- adequate lighting systems all results in accidents.
Accident: occasions like, contact of person as a result of flying objects also brings about injuries and accident.
Individuals fault: lace of knowledge on safe working practices, brings about physical or mechanical hazards.
Injury : these are fractures as a result of direct accidents.
The great significance difference between the cause of accident and happenings of accident is the cause of accident can be prevented before the happenings.
The risk of danger faced by workers in the construction industry is very alarming due to the fact that construction site is a busy place with different activities ongoing.
HSE (2004), identified some causes of accident as the effects of unsafe working conditions, Ferret and Huges (2007) also stated and attributed unsafe conditions to some major causes which are: unsafe acts of workers, management reactions and unsafe conditions. These unsafe acts, other factors and management related factors are shown in Table 2.1. The causes indicated in Table 2.1 is likely to lead to massive cost for a contractor (Lancaster et al. 2003). HSE (2006), gave instances that accidents negatively affect the rate of productivity, brings about rise in the cost of insurance and also likely to incur legal actions against the firm. Accidents also leads to health implications such as respiratory problems, eye problems, hearing damage, psychological stress. It went on further to state that accidents can also:
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