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Chapter One: Introduction
Chapter Two: Literature Review
Chapter Three: Methodology
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
Chapter Five: Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations
List of References
There seems to be controversy as to what really motivates employees (teachers). In the researcher’s own observation, different employees tend to have preference for different motivational factors and therefore perceive them as being motivational to their performance. This is because we all differ in our interests and understanding and therefore react differently on different aspects. While one employee may prefer being offered a car, another will prefer recognition, promotion and appreciation instead. Thus making it difficult to understand what really motivates employees to perform well. This Chapter therefore presents the background, problem statement, purpose, specific objectives, research questions, hypotheses, scope and significance of the study.
This background is broken into four perspectives, namely; historical, theoretical, conceptual and contextual;
The aspect of job performance has been of great concern to many scholars. Indeed, several previous researchers have had interest in job performance in different contexts. For example, Sewava (2002) looked at task environment, burnout, psychological contract and teacher performance in Uganda using Kampala District as the case study and came to the finding that there was a positive co-relation between work environment and teacher performance in Uganda. Ssenabulya (2007) looked at management of appraisal practices and performance of teachers in primary schools in Kampala District and empirically found out that there was a positive relationship between teachers’ performance and the management of appraisal practices. Ndagire (2000) studied organizational justice, psychological contract, organization commitment and work performance in Uganda Revenue Authority and found that there was a positive relationship between organizational justice and job performance. Nampa (2007) was interested in supervision and teachers’ performance in Catholic founded secondary schools in Luwero District and came to the finding that teachers’ performance was positively related to the supervision practices. Yet Kisembo (1995) related impediments to effective performance of teachers’ in selected secondary schools in Kabalole District, Uganda and established that the working environment was one of the major impediments to teachers’ performance. Kasekende (2000) researched on organizational fit and the performance of Dairy Corporation, Uganda and came to the finding that job performance and organizational fit were positively co-related. Ntulume (1998) looked at training programs and workers’ performance using Uganda Post and Telecommunications Cooperation (UPTC) as his geographical scope, and came to the finding that training of workers had a positive correlation to their performance.
Kiwanuka (1991) assessed the effect of entrepreneurship behavior on the performance of small food processing firms in Kampala and established that there was a positive relationship between entrepreneurship behavior and performance of small food processing firms. Mperiwe (2007) assessed management of instructional materials and performance of teachers’ in primary schools in Kampala District and found that there was a positive relationship between teachers’ performance and management of instructional materials in Kampala primary schools. Mucweezi (1999) looked at the effects of recruitment and selection practices on performance of selected family owned business in Kampala and found that the way employees are recruited and selected has a positive influence on employee job performance. Ddungu (2002) related accommodation facilities and job performance of primary school teachers’ in Rakai District and established that when teachers are provided good accommodation, they develop high interest in their work and hence resulting in better performance. Babuhai (1991) assessed on the factors affecting the performance of investment promoting agencies using Uganda Investment Authority as the geographical scope and to the finding that motivation is one the major factors that positively affect performance. Okwir (2006) looked at the contribution of motivation practices and performance of secondary school teachers’ in Lango sub-region and empirically found that without motivation, teachers cannot work effectively and efficiently. Kamukama (2001) looked at the effects of pricing based on absorption costing technique on financial performance of Uganda Railways Corporation. Mumbe (1995) related leadership styles with primary school teachers’ performance in Busia District and came to the finding that the type leadership style practiced in any school, had positive influence on workers performance. Kamwine (2004) looked at management of appraisal scheme and teachers’ performance in government aided secondary schools in Kampala District and found that there is a positive relationship between employee performance and management of appraisal schemes. Similarly, Busingye (2006) assessed appraisal systems and teachers’ performance using Nagongera National Teachers’ College as her geographical scope and this correlated to Kamwine’s findings.
Mashereka (2007) looked at motivation practices and teachers’ performance in Kabale urban secondary schools and came to finding that teaches performance in Kabale is positively correlated to motivational practices. Mujuni (2006) researched on salary and employees motivation to work using Rakai District Local Council and found that when employees are paid on time, they are motivated to perform effectively. Kisitu (2004) assessed school management training and the performance of primary school head teachers in Kampala District. Kisitu came to the finding that when head teachers go for further studies, this improves on their performance. Toto (2003) researched on the patterns of motivation and performance levels of teachers in selected secondary school in Uganda. Nalugya (1999) looked at factors affecting performance of Makerere medical extension services. Emojong (2004) studied in service training programs and their effect on the performance of staff at the Uganda Revenue Authority (URA). Alaki (2007) looked at the effects of the work environment on the performance of pupils’ health institution using Mulago Hospital as the area of study. However, none of those studies was on performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District context, which gap the proposed study wished, to fill.
The main the concern of the study was to establish whether motivation is related to the performance of teachers. The study was guided by three motivational theories, namely; Vroom’s Expectancy, Herzberg’s Environmental (Two-Factor), and Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964 cited in Mullins, 2002) stipulates that an individual tendency to act or behave in a certain way depends on the valence-expectancy-instrumentality times of the expectations that act or behaviour will result in a positive outcome. When for example an employee expects high remuneration, the employee is motivated to work hard.
Herzberg’s Environmental Theory (Herzberg, 1923 cited in Ivancevich, Donnelly, and Gibson, 1996) stipulates that there are factors (e.g. salaries, company polices and administrative rules) in the work environment that contribute to the behaviors of workers. Herzberg asserts that management has to create a conducive working environment for workers to achieve organizational goals. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory (Maslow, 1954 cited in Chandan, 1987) stipulates that human beings are motivated by the desire to satisfy many needs (e.g. physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization) which are arranged in a hierarchical manner. Maslow argues that managers have to formulate proper administrative policies for employees to perform their duties effectively. Underpinning these theories (i.e. Vroom’s Expectancy, Herzberg’s Two-Factor and Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) are concepts like remuneration, work environment and administrative policies, which are hence, exploited in this study in explaining teachers’ performance in Kyampisi Sub-county. It was on the basis of these three Theories that this study proposed that performance of government- aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub County, Mukono District could be influenced by motivational practices.
The dependent variable in the study was teachers’ performance. Gove also defines performance as the act or process of carrying out something in fulfillment of a claim; promise or request or action of representing a character in a dramatic work. Kamwine (2004) defines teacher performance as the process through which education instructors’ carry out their duties to achieve organizational goals. Mashereka, (2007) defines teacher performance as a process whereby teachers execute or carry out their work within or outside the school system satisfactorily to the extent that output when measured or seen will show desirable behaviors. In this study, teacher performance refers to teaching, supervision, evaluation and monitoring.
The independent variable in the study was motivation. Saleemi (1997) defines motivation as the process of satisfying the needs and motives of an individual to work effectively and efficiently for desired ends. Dale (1990 cited in Saleemi, 1997) defines motivation as an inspiration process which implies the members of a team to pull their weight effectively to give their loyalty to the group to carry out properly the tasks that they accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has under taken. Gove (1993) defines motivation as a process of stimulating the active interest of workers to perform or act as required. In this study, motivation referred to a process in which education managers and administrators provide remunerations, create a conducive working environment and create proper administrative policies for teachers to their job.
The study was conducted in Kyampisi Sub-county; Mukono District where the performance of government- aided primary school teachers was consistently been reported to be low. For example, Sserwanja (2009) observed that government aided- primary school teachers in Kyampisi instead of being at their schools during working hours, they spend much of their time selling things in Kabembe, Kalagi, and Nama markets mainly on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays respectively. Kiwanuka (2001, March 8th) observed that primary school teachers in Kyampisi Sub-county arrived at their schools past 10:00 am and that on most Fridays, few teachers turn up for work. Kiwanuka also observed that most teachers had resorted to heavy punishments. Sentongo (2003 March 18th) observed that most teachers in Kyampisi Sub-County fail to mark pupils’ books and examines. They resorted to “doctoring” of marks (where doctoring means forging pupils’ results). In this study it was proposed that motivation could be one cause of the performance of primary school teachers in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
Statement of the Problem
No country is better than its education system just like no school is better than its teachers. So, for academic institutions to achieve academic excellence, academic members of staff have to exhibit certain levels or standards of performance in terms of proficiency and personnel characteristics (Musaazi, 1987). Unfortunately, the performance of government-aided primary school teachers in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District has consistently been reported to be low and or poor (e.g. Kiwanuka, 2001 March 8th; Sentongo, 2003 March 18th; Sserwanja, 2009) with most teachers’ coming to schools late, not marking pupils examinations hence doctoring pupils results. This has led to several undesirable outcomes such as deterioratation of pupils’ performance, increased dropouts at this level. The implication for all these is that the pupils’ future is put out at stake given that they are taught poorly. This affects the immediate society they live in and the country at large because they will not be productive.
In other words, once primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county are not performing to their expectations, illiterate or semi- literate pupils will be promoted to the next levels. While there could be several factors relating to teachers performance in the said schools, motivation may have played a major role because motivating staffs is a necessary tool at the work place for it incites, influences one’s actions, behaviour towards the intended, desired goals. Hence the need for this study appraising the role of motivation on performance of government-aided primary school teachers in Kyampisi Sub-County, Mukono District.
The purpose of the study was to establish whether motivation was related to performance of government-aided primary school teachers in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
The specific objectives of the study were;
1. To establish the relationship between remuneration and the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
2. To establish the relationship between work environment and the performance of government aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
3. To establish the relationship between administrative policies and the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
This research intended to answers to the following questions;
1. What is the relationship between remuneration and the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District?
2. What is the relationship between the work environment and the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District?
3. What is the relationship between the administrative policies and the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District?
The research was guided by the following hypotheses;
1. Remuneration is positively related with the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
2. Work environment is positively related with the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
3. Administrative policies are positively related with the performance of government-aided primary teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District.
Geographically, the study was conducted in Kyampisi, one of the twenty-four sub-counties that make up Mukono District. It is located in the Northern end of Mukono District. It boards Nama Sub-county in the south, Goma in the east, Kawolo in the west, Kasawo and Nakifuma in the north. The sub-county has 60 primary schools of which 15 are government-aided and 45 private. The participants included 262 teachers’ of selected government-aided primary schools in the Sub-county. In content, the study focused on motivation as a potential factor affecting the performance.
The study findings are beneficial to Mukono District school administrators and managers in general and the Kyampisi Sub-county in particular to examine how motivation may be positively or otherwise relates to the performance of government-aided primary school teachers in Kyampisi and hence be in position to adjust positively (e.g. through providing remunerations to workers, creating good working conditions and designing better administrative policies) to influence teacher performance. Theoretically, the study would also prompt more researchers in the area having contributed to literature and methodology of such future studies.
Several previous scholars have attempted to relate motivation to job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this Chapter is to review literature relating to the variables in the study. It also presents the theoretical review, conceptual framework or model and literature related to the three respective objectives. The related literature is presented in line with the objectives that guided the study. It is presented in subheading of; remuneration and job performance, work environment and job performance and administrative policies and job performance.
The theories of motivation adopted in this study were Vroom’s Expectancy, Herzberg’s Environmental also known as Two-Factor, and Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964 cited in Mullins, 2002), which is based upon the assumption that people are rational beings who will try to maximize their pay off and choose an alternative that would pay them the most benefit. People assume that motivation to work is strongly determined by an individual’s perception that a certain type of behaviour will lead to a certain type of outcome and the individual’s preference for the type of outcome. The Theory stipulates that an individual’s tendency to act or behave in a certain way depends on the valence-expectancy-instrumentality times of that act or behave will result in a positive outcome.
An individual who has a particular goal must practice certain behaviour to achieve it. That individual will weigh the likelihood that various behaviors will achieve the desired goals, and if certain behaviour seems to be more successful than others that behaviour likely will be one the goal-seeker selects. According to Vroom (1964 cited in Mullins, 2002), under conditions of free choice, an individual is motivated towards that activity the individual is most capable of rendering and which the individual believes has the highest probability of leading the individual to most preferred goals. The Theory proposes three determinants of motivation that influence job performance (i.e. valence, instrumentality and expectancy) as in Figure 2.1:
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Fig.2.1: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Framework
Source: Mullins, L. J. (2002). Pg. 437
Vroom (1964 cited in Mullins, 2002) point’s outs as Figure 2.1 suggests, that people prefer certain outcomes from their behaviour to others. They anticipate feelings of satisfaction should the preferred outcome be achieved. Performance will be determined by an individual’s perceptions that a certain type of outcome and personal preference for the type of outcome. From the framework, it can be seen that each of these three components (i.e. expectancy, instrumentality and valence) has its distinct meaning. Expectancy refers to a probability estimate calculated by a person’s thought processes that a particular act or work effort will produce a particular specified outcome (remuneration, e.g. salaries, fringe benefits, and bonus pays) (Cole, 1997). It is a person’s perception of the likelihood that a particular outcome (remuneration) will result from a particular behaviour or action (effective job performance). The likelihood is probabilistic in nature and describes the relationship between an act (effective performance) and an outcome (remuneration). For example if a student works hard during the semester, the student expects to do well in the final examination. Similarly, if an employee works hard, the employee may expect to perform better and increase productivity hence a high remuneration. According to Vroom (1964) cited in Chandan (1987), a worker must be confident that his or her efforts will be result in better productivity and he or she has the ability to perform the task well.
Instrumentality as a factor relates to a person’s belief and expectation that performance will lead to a particular desired reward. According to Chandan (1987), instrumentality refers to confidence employees have in their employers that their expectations will be achieved (Mullins, 2002). The degree of association of first level outcome of a particular effort to the second level outcome-which is the ultimate reward. It is the working environment that enables an individual to achieve the intended goals. The extent to which the worker perceives that effective performance will lead to the desired reward. The worker must be confident that such high performance will be instrumental in getting desired rewards (Cole, 1997). For example, working hard may lead to better performance, which is first level outcome, which may result in a reward like raise in pay or promotion or both, which is the second level outcome. According to Maicibi (2005), if a person believes that high performance will not be recognized or lead to expected rewards, that person will not be motivated to work hard for better output. Therefore, according to vroom (1964) as cited in Chandan (1987: 257), for any organization to achieve, the set goals, workers must be confident that such high performance will be instrumental in getting desired rewards.
Valence is the feeling about specific outcomes, the attractiveness of or performance for, a particular outcome to the individual (Cole, 1997). It is the strength of the belief that attractive rewards are potentially available. Valence is the value a person assigns to the desired reward. The person may not be willing to work hard to improve performance; the reward for such improved performance is not what that person desired. Vroom asserts that a person may be motivated to work hard, not to get pay raise but to get recognition, status, and another one may be interested in job security than with status. It is not the actual value of the reward but the perception and value of the reward is the mind of the worker.
The other aspect of the model is the effort expanded (motivational force). According to Vroom, the combination of valence and expectancy determines the persons’ motivation for a given form of behaviour. This is the motivational force. The force of action is unaffected by outcomes, which have no valence, or by outcomes that are regarded as unlikely to result from a course of action. Vroom also explained that it is the combination of expectancy, instrumentality and valence that created a force to motivate an individual to put effort to achieve a level of performance and then obtain a reward for the performance. Another aspect of the model is the individual characteristics of workers and their role perception. A worker’s characteristics like skills, experience and knowledge are of vital importance in performance. The way the worker perceives the roles to perform can also affect performance. The last aspects of the model are the rewards. These can be positive rewards, which are either intrinsic or extrinsic. The former satisfy the external needs and the latter the internal ones. There also negative rewards for example being ostracized for being a high performer, transferred and expected to always be a high performance. Vroom asserts that management should provide reasonable remuneration to workers for them to perform effectively and efficiently if organizational goals are to be achieved. Underpinning this Expectancy Theory are concepts like expectancy (e.g. remuneration), valence and instrumentality, which were hence exploited in this study in explaining performance of primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi sub-county, Mukono District.
Herzberg’s Environmental Theory (Two-Factor Theory) (Herzberg, 1923 cited in Chandan, 1987) stipulates that a person’s relation to work is a basic one and that the person’s attitude towards work would determine the person’s organization related behaviour. The Theory emphasizes factors in the environment that contribute to the behaviour. Therefore, it seems natural to believe that people who are generally satisfied with their job will be more dedicated to their work and perform it well, as compared to those people who are dissatisfied with their jobs. So, if this logic seems justified then it would be useful to isolate those factors and conditions that produce satisfaction to result into effective and efficient job performance and those that produce dissatisfaction leading to poor performance. Herzberg (1923 cited in Chandan, 1987) called these two categories of factors as hygiene (maintenance) and motivational factors as shown in Figure 2.2:
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Fig. 2.2: Herzberg’s Environmental (Two-Factor) Motivational Theory Framework
Source: Chandan, J. S. (1987). Pg. 252
According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors (job context factors) do not motivate people; yet they must be present, or dissatisfaction will arise. According to Koontz and Weihrich (1988), the word “hygiene” is taken from the medical field, where it means taking steps to maintain your health but not necessarily improve it. They gave an example that bushing your teeth helps prevent cavities but does not improve the condition of your teeth. Similarly, hygiene factors in this theory of motivation prevent decay but do not encourage growth. They simply prevent dissatisfaction and maintain status quo. They produce no growth but prevent loss. The absence of these factors leads to dissatisfaction and hence poor job performance. The elimination of dissatisfaction does not mean satisfaction and these factors simply maintain a zero level of motivation. These factors are primarily extrinsic in nature and environment-oriented related to job context and job content. These factors include wages, salaries and other types of employee benefits, company policies and administration rules that govern the working environment, interpersonal relations with peers, supervisors and subordinates. Cordial relations with all prevent frustration and dissatisfaction. Working conditions and job security; the job security may be in the form of tenure or a strong union could support it. Supervisor’s technical competence and well as the quality of supervision; for example, if the supervisor is knowledgeable and patent with subordinates and explains and guides them well, the subordinates will be satisfied.
Motivational factors are related to the nature of work itself (job content), and are intrinsic to the job itself. These factors have a positive influence on morale, satisfaction, efficiency, and higher productivity. These include, the job itself; to be motivated, employees must like and enjoy their jobs. They are highly committed to goal achievement and do not mind working late hours to do what is to be done. Their morale is high as evidenced by lack of absenteeism and tardiness. Recognition, according to Maicibi (2005), proper recognition of an employee’s contribution by management is highly moral boosting. It gives human nature to be happy when appreciated. Achievement, Mullins (2002) asserts that goal achievement gives a great feeling of accomplishment. The goal has to be challenging, requiring initiative and creativity. Opportunities must exist for the meaningful achievement; otherwise, workers become sanitized to the environment and begin to find faults within it. Responsibility, according to Chandan (1987), it is an obligation to carry out the assigned duties satisfactorily. The higher the level of these duties, the more responsible you feel and more motivated you are. It is a good feeling to know that you are considered a person of integrity and intelligence to be given a higher responsibility. Growth and advancement, these factors are all inter-related. The job itself, responsibilities, participation in central decision-making and executive benefits are all signs of growth and advancement and add to dedication and commitment of employees. Herzberg asserts that management must provide and create a physical and conceptual work environment so that people will be motivated to work in order to achieve organizational aims, goals and objectives. Underpinning this Environmental Motivational Theory are concepts like work environment and conditions, teamwork, work facilities and relations which are hence exploited in this study in explaining performance of primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi sub-county, Mukono District.
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory (Maslow, 1954 cited in Ivancevich, Donnelly, and Gibson, 1996) of motivation, which is based on the assumptions that human beings have many needs that are different in nature ranging from biological (physiological) needs at the lower level to self-actualization needs at the upper extreme. These needs occur in an order of hierarchy so that level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs arise or become motivations. The Theory stipulates that human beings are motivated by the desire to satisfy many needs and that only needs not yet satisfied can influence behaviour and once one need is satisfied, another emerges and demand satisfaction. This means that if people’s basic needs, which are biological in nature, are unsatisfied, their total attention will be focused on these needs and hence it will not be possible to communicate with them about other matters.
According to Maslow (1954 cited in Ivancevich, Donnelly and Gibson, 1996), the hierarchical needs approach explains the human behaviour in a more dynamic and realistic manner and is primarily based upon people’s inner states as a basis for motivation. Maslow postulates five basic needs arranged into successive levels. These needs continue to change resulting in change in goals and activities. It should be noted that the unsatisfied level of the needs will get the most attention and all activities will be directed towards satisfying those needs and a need that is satisfied is no longer a need. These five basic needs include; physiological (e.g. food, water, shelter and sex), safety (e.g. self-preservation, job security, life and medical insurance etc), love and social (e.g. love, friendship, and social interaction), esteem (e.g. self-confidence, status, reputation, prestige and independence) and self-actualization (e.g. creativeness, independent) as shown in Figure 2.3:
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Fig. 2.3: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory framework
Source: Chandan, J. S. (1987).
As Figure 2.3 suggests, the basic human needs are placed by Maslow in an ascending manner of importance, they are; firstly, physiological needs. These are the needs arising out of physiological or biological tension and they are there to sustain life itself. These needs include; food, water (drink), shelter, warmth (air), sleep, clothing and sex. According to Chandan (1987), sexual need and desire is not to be confused with love, which is at the third level. When these basic needs begin to be fulfilled, other level of needs become important and start acting as motivators. According to Chandan (1987), management can cater to physiological needs by offering adequate wages and salary, acceptable working hours and working conditions like heat, ventilation, rest rooms, lighting. Secondly, are safety needs also called security needs. Once physiological needs are gratified, the safety needs become important and predominant. This is a need for self-preservation, as against physiological needs, which are for survival. Safety needs are really provisions against deprivation in the future. They also involve a sense of protection against danger and threats. Safety needs dwell upon economic and job security, life and medical insurance and other protective measures to safeguard satisfaction of physiological needs in the future, which may be unpredictable.
According to Maslow, safety needs can be satisfied by management’s initiative to provide life insurance, medical insurance, job security, cost of living increment and pension plans. Thirdly, love and social needs. Since people are social beings, they need to belong, and to be accepted by others. Therefore, after the needs of the body and security are satisfied, then a sense of belonging and acceptance become prominent in motivating behaviour. These needs are for love, friendship and social interaction. To satisfy social needs, management can provide opportunities for employees to interact by providing coffee breaks, lunch facilities and recreational activities like a picnic or other get-together. Create team spirit by keeping work groups informal whenever possible and conducting periodic meetings with all subordinates to discuss matters pertaining to personal achievement.
Fourthly, are esteem needs. According to Maslow, once people being to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This need for esteem is to attain recognition from others, which would induce a feeling of self-worth and self-confidence in the individual. It is an urge for achievement, prestige, status and power. Esteem includes a desire for self-respect and respect from others. To satisfy esteem needs, Chandan (1987) argues that management must design tasks that are more challenging and provide positive feedback on performance of employees. Giving recognition, encouragement for performance and contribution and delegate additional authority to subordinates also results into better performance. Providing adequate training and executive developing to help the employee successfully accomplish goals and increase the competency on the job. Also, provide symbols of status for example job title, privileged parking, private secretary, promotion, company car and stock options.
Fifthly, are the self-actualization needs. This is the need to develop fully and to realize one’s capacities and potentialities to the fullest extent possible. This is the highest level of need in Maslow’s hierarchy and is activated as a motivator when all other needs have been reasonably fulfilled. According to Maslow, at this level, the person seeks challenging work assignments that allow for creativity and opportunities for person growth and advancement. Maslow also asserts that this need is soul-searching and inner-oriented. That a self-actualized person is creative, independent, content, spontaneous and has a good perception of reality and the person is constantly striving to realize full potential. Maslow asserts that to satisfy self-actualization needs, employees should be given an opportunity to shape their own jobs. Give the employees the freedom of expression. This will open the channels of communication further and give the employees an opportunity to get involved. Providing meaningful work that requires the development, use full potential skills creativity among employees improves job performance.
Maslow’s Theory makes management aware that people are motivated by a wide variety of needs. According to Maslow, management must provide an opportunity to satisfy the needs through creating good company policies and administration rules that govern the working environment so that people will be motivated to achieve organizational goals. Underpinning Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy are concepts like administrative policies (i.e. training, promotions and separations), which are hence exploited in the study in explaining performance of primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi sub-county, Mukono District.
Consequent to the review of Vroom’s Expectancy (Vroom, 1964 cited in Mullins, 2002), Herzberg’s Environmental (Two-Factor) (Herzberg, 1923 cited in Chandan, 1987) and Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy (Maslow, 1954 cited in Ivancevich, Donnelly and Gibson, 1996) motivational Theories (Section 2.1), Figure 2.4 provides a framework, relating the variables in the study.
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(Adopted from Mugizi, 2007, pg. 32; Nyinakiiza, 2005, pg. 39)
Fig. 2.4: Conceptual framework or model relating motivation to teacher performance Footnote: Sign against each concept suggests the nature of correlation with dependentvariable.
The framework in Figure 2.4 suggests that the independent variable (motivation) is conceptualized as three motivational practices namely; remuneration, work environment and administrative policies, while the dependent variable teacher performance is conceptualized as teaching, supervision, evaluation and monitoring. Some of the concepts (e.g. remuneration, work environment and administrative policies) are further conceptualized as shown. Figure 2.4 further hypothesizes that all motivational practices have positive relationships with teacher performance.
This Section reviews literature related to the respective three specific objectives in this research. However, this literature is not confined to only government-aided primary school teachers’ performance but also performance in other institutions and organizations as and when necessary.
Remuneration and Job performance
The concept of employee remuneration captured the interest of many employers and researchers in the 20th Century due to the writings of Fredrick Taylor on Scientific management. Most scholars on employee remuneration relate it to job performance. Remuneration is an important aspect in influencing employee job performance in any organization. Gove (1993) gives some two definitions or concepts of remuneration. According to Gove, remuneration refers to the process or act of paying an equivalent for a service, loss or expense to a person for any occurrence. Gove also defines remuneration as money received by any employee for performing the assigned tasks, plus perquisites received in the form of benefits and services. Cushway (1999: 156) defines remuneration as financial rewards, which are directly related to performance, whose payments are in inform of total cash, comprising of salaries and wages. Saleemi (1997) defines remuneration as monetary and non-monetary incentives paid to workers for the work performed, in terms of cash like paper money, coins and other currencies agreed upon by the management and employees. In this study, remuneration is defined as salaries, fringe benefits, allowances and bonus pays accruing to an employee because of his services to an organization. Maicibi (2005) defines salaries as the weekly or monthly remunerations paid to the white- collar workers (clerical, administrative and professional workers). Ssekamwa (2001) defines a salary as a fixed periodical payment for non-manual employees, usually expressed in annual terms, paid per month, with generally no addition for productivity. Hong, Yang, Huang and Chino (1995) define fringe benefits as those benefits which are supplied by an employer, and which are not in the form of wages, salaries and time rated payments (i.e. holidays with pay, low-rent housing and low-cost meals). Chandan (1987) defines fringe benefits as financial and non-financial rewards to the basic pay related to work behaviors, performance learning and experience. In this study, fringe benefits refer to supplements to wages received by workers at a cost to employers for example pension, health and insurance plans and paid vacations.
Bent, Forbes, Ingram and Seaman (2002) defines bonus pays as an allowance in addition to what is usual, current or stipulated: a sum given or paid beyond, what is legally required to be paid the recipient, something given in addition to what is ordinarily received by or strictly due to the recipient. Bruce and Repitone (1999) define bonus pays as additional payments beyond the basic pays like pay raise, overtime pay and payment by results. In this study, bonus pays are defined as incentive payments to the workers aimed at enhancing their effectiveness, efficiency and loyalty to their organizations. According to Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of motivation (Vroom, 1964 cited in Mullins, 2002), an employee’s motivation to work is strongly determined by an individual’s perception that a certain type of behaviour will lead to a certain type of outcome (i.e. remuneration) and the employee’s personal preference for that type of outcome. Vroom asserts that if performance and output are high and remuneration is very low, this results into reduced performance. Hence, there is a positive relationship between remuneration and job performance in any given organization.
Several studies have attempted to relate remuneration to job performance. For example, Ahimbisibwe (2005 March 30) found that salaries were among the factors that positively affected lecturers’ job performance in Makerere University in Uganda. According to Taylor (1947), money is a primary incentive to workers job performance. Therefore, remuneration in form of salary and allowances influences the level of motivation to work. Galloway (1985) empirically showed that remunerations were among the factors positively influencing the level of performance of primary school teachers’ in New Zealand. Kakande (2005 March 31st) came to the finding that remuneration in form of salaries had positive effects on job performance of cooks, cleaners and custodians in Makerere University. Okwir (2006) found that fringe benefits and bonus pay had a positive influence on the performance of secondary school teachers’ in Lango sub-region. Similarly, Nyinakiiza (2005) in her study found money as one of the most meaningful reward that can motivate workers in Nkumba University to improve their job performance. Wayen (1998) asserts that money, as a form of pay is the most obvious remuneration in influencing job performance.
Kasajja (1991) established that remuneration had a great positive effect on the performance of teachers’ in two districts of Uganda (i.e. Hoima and Masindi). Armstrong (1996) emphasizes the value of financial rewards by saying that money provides the means to achieve a number of different ends. Armstrong also asserts that money, as a form of pay is the most obvious remuneration to influence job performance. Mujuni (2006), in a case study of Rakai District also concluded that salary was the strongest motivator of the workers in their job performance. Kyamiza (2005 February 15th) found salaries and wages positively affecting the performance of teachers in Uganda. Armstrong (1999) came to the finding that remuneration was among the factors that positively influenced job performance by workers’ in London Hotel, Great Britain. Similarly, Kisembo (1995) empirically reported that remuneration in form of salaries were vita in influencing teachers’ performance in Kabalole District of Uganda. Mujuni (2006) found that lack of remunerations (e.g. salaries) negatively influencing job performance in Rakai District Local Government.
While the above studies showed positive correlations between remunerations and job performance, many researchers have indicated negative effects of remuneration on employee performance when used as a motivator. For example Toto (2003) did not find significant correlation between remuneration and performance of teachers’ in selected secondary schools in Uganda. The fact that not all studies were pointing in one direction of positive correlation between remuneration and job performance left a research gap for this study. Another gap was that none of studies was specifically on performance of government-aided primary school teachers in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District in a developing country, Uganda. To contribute to the closure of such gaps, this study considered remuneration as a factor having a positive influence on the performance of government-aided primary school teachers’ in Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District, since no earlier study had done so.
Work environment and Job performance
The value of work environment is important for organizational survival. An insecure work environment is a household for an emotionally unstable behavior among the affects job performance. According to Maicibi (2003), the nature of work environment in any organization lays a basis for good performance. Therefore, organizations wishing to exist for a long time in any competitive work environment, organizational administrators and managers have to create conducive work environment for employees to work effectively and efficiently. Gove (1993) defines work as activities in which one exerts strength or faculties to do or perform. Gove also defines the environment as the surrounding conditions in complex of climate, edaphic and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately aggregates of social and cultural conditions that influence the life of an individual or community. According to Saleemi (1997) refers work environment to the sum of environmental factors that tend to restrict individual performance at any given period of times organizations, companies and education institutions wishing to achieve high performance from their staff, they should provide a conducive working environment. In this study, work environment is conceptualized as teamwork, availability of work facilities and work relations. Gebremedhi (1999) defines teamwork as situation by which groups of individuals work together to achieve common set goals.
Willey (1997) defines work facilities as those requirements needed for the employee to perform given task. Saleemi (1997) defines work relations as coordination’s and understandings between employees at a work place. The relationship between work environment and job performance in any organization can be clearly shown by Herzberg’s Environment Theory. According to Herzberg, work environments are the hygiene factors which and when properly manipulated by the management and leadership, has the potency of creating job satisfaction and effective performance. Herzberg (1923 cited in Chandan, 1987: 251) asserts that management must provide and create a physical and conceptual work environment so that people will be motivated to achieve organizational goals. Therefore, if this logic seems justified, then it seems natural to believe that people who are generally satisfied with their work and perform it well as compared to those people who are dissatisfied with work environment. Hence, there is a positive relationship between work environment and job performance.
Previous studies on work environment and job performance are now given. Maicibi (2003) asserts that creation of conducive work environments enlists higher commitment subsequently more efforts that strive for good work performance. Alaki (2007) assessed the effects of work environment on the performance of public health institutions in Uganda and came to the finding that work environment had a positive effect on the performance of public health institutions using Mulago Hospital as her study area. Mullins (2002) asserts that work environments in institutions are very important to the way employees feel about where they work. Those employees feel proud of their institution when conditions are conducive and friendly to the workforce.
According to Herzberg as cited in Chandan (1987), good working environments create job satisfaction and motivation of employees and where such conductions are inadequate, yield into dissatisfaction of employees, others leave the organization, develop negative attitudes towards the organization thus affecting their performance at the work place. Mashereka (2007) studied motivation and teacher performance in Kabale and found out that working as a team promotes the staff effectiveness, performance and organization efficiency in urban secondary schools of Kabale District. Babi (2006) looked at the factors affecting the performance of insurance industry in Uganda and came to the finding that when employees’ work under poor environments, they tend to behave like caged animals looking for the slightest opportunity to escape and when such a time comes, they leave the institutions without looking behind. Babi therefore established that there is a positive relationship work environment and job performance in the insurance industry in Uganda. Nalugya (1999) found that work environment positively correlates with job performance among Makerere medical extension workers’. Robbins (1996) empirically found that a conducive work environment has a positive influence on employee performance in a Switzerland-based company, Nestle; the worlds largest branded Food Company.
Similarly, Sewava (2002) found that proper work environment is a strong factor that positively influenced employee performance in the Stony Field Farm Company and Birkenstock Footwear Sandals. Gebremedhi (1999) found out that teamwork was very influential in positively affecting staff performance in the Mary T. Inc. Similarly, Rivarola (1999) found that teamwork resulted in high positive staff performance among workers’ in the London Chemical Factor. Chandan (1987) asserts that provision of necessary conditions in time encourages the staff to work harder, keep them united as a team towards the achievement of the set goals. Similarly, Ssekamwa (2001) asserts that feeling good at the work place, being in control over ones immediate environment are perfect recipes for job satisfaction and optimum work performance of employees in any organization. Maicibi (2003) found out that availability of work facilities resulted into better results in the Nigerian Oil Mines. While all the above studies showed positive correlations between work environment and job performance, none was on teachers’ performance on the context of Kyampisi Sub-county, Mukono District. To contribute to the closure of these gaps, the study hypothesized work environment as positively influencing government-aided primary school teachers’ performance in Kyampisi Sub-county Mukono District, having found no earlier study on the issue.
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