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TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4. Objectives of the Study
1.5. Research questions
1.6. The significance of the problem
1.7. Scope of the Study
1.8. Limitation of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Relevance of Theories and Principles to the Study
2.3 The Question of Computer Course syllabus at Schools in Tanzania
2.2 Access and Importance of adopting ICT in teaching and learning process
2.3. Poverty and ICT adoption in Teaching and learning process
2.4. ICT for Educational Development
2.5. National Poverty and ICT infrastructure
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Approach
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Research Approach
3.4 Population sampling
3.4 Data Collection Methods
3.4.4 Types of data Collected
3.4.5 Primary data
3.4.6 Secondary Data
3.5 Data analysis Procedure
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH FINDINGS PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1.1 Effectiveness of ict application teaching and learning process in schools ...
188.8.131.52. Number of computers present at the school
184.108.40.206 Sharing of computers to students
220.127.116.11 Number of ICT teachers
4.1.2 Environmental challenges to ICT application in teaching and learning process
18.104.22.168 Availability of suitable Computer lab and Educational software for teaching and learning process
4.1.3. Other things out of environmental challenge that affect ICT application in secondary schools
22.214.171.124. Involvement of students and teachers in ICT applications
126.96.36.199. Priority student gives to ICT applications in learning compare to other programs,
4.1.4 How poverty affects computer technological application/ict in teaching and learning process in secondary schools
4.1.4. ¡Ownership of computers among students’ and teachers
188.8.131.52. Poverty type and its degree of effect to IT practical learning
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1.1 Effectiveness of ICT in secondary schools
5.1.2 Environmental challenges to ICT application in secondary schools
5.1.3. Other things out of environmental challenge that affect ICT application in secondary schools
5.1.4 How poverty affects computer technological application/ict in teaching and learning process in secondary schools
5.2.1 Recommendations related to effectiveness of IT in schools
5.2.2 Recommendation related to environmental challenges
5.2.3 Recommendations related to other factors,
5.2.4 Recommendations related to poverty
Appendix A: Questionnaires for Teachers and Students
Appendix B: Interview Questions for Heads of Schools
Table 184.108.40.206. Number of computers present at the School
Table 220.127.116.11. Responses on the sharing of computers among the students
Table 18.104.22.168 Responses on the Number of IT teachers in your school
Table 22.214.171.124 .Responses on the Availability of reliable electricity
Table 126.96.36.199.Responses on Availability of Suitable Computer lab and Educational software for teaching and learning process
Table 188.8.131.52 .Responses on the involvement of students and teachers in ICT applications in teaching and learning process
184.108.40.206Responces on priority student gives to ICT applications in learning compare to other programs
Table 220.127.116.11 Responses on ownership of computers among students and teachers
Table 18.104.22.168 Responses on the poverty type and its degree of effect to ICT application in teaching and learning process
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First and foremost I thank the almighty God for giving me strength, wisdom, love and protection in throughout my studies.
The accomplishment of this study was also made by the help of some individuals and Institutions.
Secondly, in a special way I would like to give thanks to my lovely Parents, my father Mr. James Manota and beloved mother Mrs. Lucia Manota for taking me to school, their prayers, moral & material assistance, without forgetting my young brother and sister for their love and encouragement during the study.
Thirdly, I owe special gratitude to my major research supervisor Mr. Allan Msola for his tireless guidance, encouragement, valuable ideas and helpful criticisms which enabled me to improve and shape this work up to this point.
I’m also grateful to Heads, teachers and students of different schools for cooperating with me during data collection. Nevertheless, my fellow student at Makumira University College for their supporting helps especially Miss Sophia Mbuya for her moral and material support to the fulfilment of this work.
In addition special thanks go to all staffs at Makumira University College and Faculty of humanities and social science under Mrs. Rose Munisi for the general assistance in research writing
The aim of this study was to investigate environmental challenges to computer technology applications/ICT in teaching learning process in secondary school. This study has been conducted in Moshi municipality with the aim of knowing what are the hindrances of computer studies/ICT in learning and teaching process among the secondary schools so as to give solutions, hence provide Tanzania a new face of specialization in Computer studies in secondary schools and hence increase students curiosity and intellectual inquire of mind. Furthermore, primary data has been collected through questionnaires and interview from seventy two (72) respondents whom were sixty (60) students, (6) teachers and (6) heads of schools. Moreover, the data study findings has been organized into tables then the analysis came out with the correct results and the recommendations from the study.
Computer studies/ICT is the strange word that is now getting used by most of the people in Tanzania. The term ICT is an abbreviation of the word Information Communication Technology. It implies the skills related to computers and its role in information flow and settings. The ICT Education Policy in Tanzania of 2007 defined the term Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as form of technology that are used for communication and to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. This broad definition of ICT includes technologies such as: - radio, television, video, telephone (both fixed line and mobile), computer network, hard ware and software. Also it includes the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as electronic mail, text message and radio broadcasts. It is a technology that acts as a lubricant to information flow. However, this skill has been spread throughout the world at different periods and with different growth rates.
According to Tanzania National ICT Policy Journal (2003), IT was established in Africa by the end of the 19th century but for Tanzania it came to be known and spread broadly in 1992 and 1995.
According to Desiderius c. (2005), Efforts to modernize information technology in Tanzania started as early as 1965 when the first computer in the country was installed in the ministry of finance. Unfortunately, these efforts were hampered by several problems that included the lack of qualified indigenous personnel and uncoordinated planning.
Later on, Tanzania found the need to have indigenous experts in our country. It established the program at different level of education from Primary to University level. This was the period before the year 2000. Education adopted the Computer studies syllabus (1990-1997). The curriculum was revised in 2002 and 2005. Computer studies today have been among examined subject in the NECTA
Other initiatives aimed at bringing ICTs into schools have been championed by the several NGOs such as Global Outreach, Mona Foundations, (IICD) International Institute for communication and Development, Tanzania Computers Literacy in Secondary schools Trust Fund (TCLSTF) and Barclays Bank which procures and renovates computers for use in schools. All these have equipped over 20 Schools with computers -labs and teachers to maintain the computers.
ICTs devices such as videos, television and multimedia computer software combined text, sound, and colorful moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process. Networked computers with Internet connectivity can increase learner’s motivation as it combines the media richness and interactive of other ICTs with the opportunity to connect with other people hence to participate in real world invent.
One can say that, it is now almost a decade since computer studies have been introduced to Tanzania. But the problem arising is, most of the Secondary schools in Moshi Municipality have been lagging behind due to circumstantial environmental challenges. It is from this point that of view that that the researcher wants investigate, the extent to which Environment Circumstantial challenges the Computer studies/ICT application in teaching and learning process in Moshi municipality. Moreover, the study has also discussed on other causes of this problem than Environment Circumstantial challenges. These included number of ICT teachers’ in a school, students’ consideration to their responsibilities, and many others.
Although the government has put more efforts to import and teach computer technology in schools, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Secondary schools in Moshi Municipality has not been well applied in teaching and learning process. The study intends to find out the problems facing the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Secondary schools in Moshi Municipality.
The purpose of the researcher under this study was to find out the Environmental challenges to application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning process in secondary schools.
The objectives of this study were:
- To find how ICT application is effective in secondary schools at Moshi municipality
- To examine the roles played by environment in the application of ICT for Secondary schools Tanzania students.
- To discover other things out of environmental circumstantial challenge that affect ICT application in secondary schools.
- To explore how poverty affect ICT application in teaching and learning process in secondary schools?
The researcher set four research questions which were:
- To what extent is ICT application effective in secondary schools at Moshi municipality?
- What are roles played by environment in the application of ICT for Secondary Schools Tanzania students?
- What other things might affect ICT application of students in Tanzania?
- How does poverty affect ICT application in teaching and learning process in Secondary schools?
- School administrators and other stake holders will understand the environmental challenges that facing application of ICT in secondary schools and they will plan to solve them.
- The study will contribute greatly to the award of Bachelor Degree of Education (computer science) to the one who prepared it.
- The study is expected to stimulate further researches to find other reasons that might have contributed to the poor environment of application of ICT in secondary schools.
- The study may result into change of environment that will favour the
application of ICT in teaching and learning process in secondary schools.
The research mainly focused on the factors affecting ICT application in teaching and learning process. The research will be conducted at Moshi municipality.
During the process of data collection the researcher encountered some limitations like readiness of the targeted sampling to give accurate and intended information as many officers and heads of schools sometimes are not ready to give information relating to their internal affairs, also the researcher had to extend time for teachers to complete filling the questionnaires because they were busy marking tests and other academic activities in their schools
This section deals with critical review of related Literature and studies. Kothari (2004) maintains that the researcher should take extensive Literature survey connected with the problem. This means that abstracting and indexing journals and published and unpublished bibliographies are important things for researcher to do in order to accomplish this task.
Poverty has played a leading role to the slow pace of computer skills adoption. Tanzanians do fail to cope with new computerized world because economically is still poor. It was assumed in this study that, the integration of computers into methods of education delivery could eventually lead not only to better quality education but also to fasten spread of the use of ICT in e-commerce so as to expand the markets in order to increase revenues, reduce costs and strengthen customer relationships.
Tanzania’s National ICT Policy stated that there was only an official syllabus for computer studies in secondary schools for forms I-IV since 1997.It is until the year 2005 when computer studies syllabus for primary schools was passed to be implemented from 2006. However, even in secondary schools, only a few students had taken these courses. The lack of programs for training teachers in computers and other multimedia utilization had been identified as major reasons for slow take off of computer studies in primary schools. In this respect private schools are far better off than public schools.
2.2 Access and Importance of adopting ICT in teaching and learning process According to Shavinina, L.Y (2001) Information and Communication technologies have been commonly used in the developed world for instructional functions. Today computers perform a lot of functions in teaching and learning process. Manny nations are adding computers literacy, reading and writing literacy as skills that students will need for succeeding in a technologically developed world.
Aggawal, J (1995) argues that ICT in education is a service concept like technology in service of agriculture or science in the service of humankind. It refers to the use of equipment and machines for education purposes. It involves the use of a wide range of audio visual equipment like film, projectors, radio, television, tape recorder teaching machines and computers (p.4).
Aduwa-Ogiegbaen S.E, & Iyamu, E.o.s (2005), asserted that there is no doubt that ICT provide productive teaching and learning in order to increase student’s curiosity and intellectual inquire of mind. Through the simultaneous use of audio, text, images, graphics, motions, ICT gives ample and exceptional opportunity to the students to develop capacities for high quality learning and increase their ability to innovate (p.45).
Hare, H. (2007) claimed that, the use of ICT tools allows teachers not only to demonstrate teaching strategies but also to deliver training, which provides teachers with the skills and confidence as facilitators.
According to Turban, Leidner, D &Wetherbe J (2007). The benefit of ICT is the catalyst for change, helping learners alters their learning from passive to active learning. It gives students a chance to experience and process information through multiple channels (p.332)
More positively, Norris, c, et al (2009). Traces the use of ICT in American school as far as in the late 1950s and 1960s to date. They concluded by saying much has been changed from the beginning. Computers have been a tool that helps students and teachers to perform tasks faster and more efficiently. At first computers were offsite and operated by specially trained individuals. But today computers comprise of small desktop, laptop, or handled models that can be used in the classroom (p.99)
In addition Parson, J,J„ & Oja, D (2009) contents that the application of ICT device such as audio visual aid, help the teacher to clarify establish со-relate and coordinate accurate concept and enable him to make learning more effective and interesting. They go further by saying that, the aim the aim of teaching with technological media is to make learning easier and interesting. Audio visual aids provide significant gain in in informational leamt, retention and recall (pi44)
Moreover, Grabe, M. et al (2007), argue that, ICT can play a variety role in schools they can be used to teach, facilitate the study of traditional content, provide opportunity for student to learn how use technology or give students general purpose tools for performing academic task more effectively.
A similar concept was also outlined by Tinio, A (2005) that, Teachers and learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries (and available in limited quantities) for their educational needs with the internet and the world wide web, a wealthy of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media can be accessed from anywhere at anytime of the day and by an unlimited number of people (p. 14)
(ว’brien, J, & Marakas, (2008) states that, the use of ICT in teaching and learning process may be used in different ways by providing information and instructing stimulating process by providing opportunities to try different things by difficult calculations and motivating students to archive aims in optional manner (p21).
Furthermore, O’leary, L. (2005). Illustrated that, if ICT appropriately used in the classroom it can alternate old models of teaching and learning Teachers can use multimedia technology to give more colorful, stimulating lectures (p.23)
There have been various scholars who have attempted to work on the aspect of Poverty and its role to the low pace of computer skills adoption. Tanzanians do fail to cope with new computerized world because economically is still poor. The knowledge is not adopted since when they are at low level studies such as primary and secondary school studies.
Ngilwa (2002) said that “poverty causes some of higher learning institutions fail to teach computer skills and technology because they fail to purchase something (PCs) that is not their field of specialization”. This is a real situation taking place in our country. If a certain student is studying mechanical engineering, he/she rarely deals with computer activities since computers are unavailable at that particular institution.
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