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151 Seiten, Note: A (97)
SECTION 1 – THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION
1.1 Product-Service System
1.1.1 - Prerequisites
1.1.2 - Definition.
1.1.3 - History
1.1.4 - Importance
1.1.5 - Examples
1.1.6 - Way to implement
1.2. Design Sub-Cetegory (Empathic Design)
1.2.1 - Prerequisites
1.2.2 – Definition
1.2.3 – History
1.2.4 – Importance
1.2.5 – Examples
1.2.6- Way to implement
1.3 Client profile (Low and middle income context)
1.3.1 - Prerequisites
1.3.2 -Economic aspect
1.3.4 - Leisure time
1.3.5 - Self-recognition
1.3.6 - Purchasing habits
1.3.7 – Importance
1.3.8 - Examples
1.3.9 - Way to implement
SECTION 2 - PRODUCT IMPLEMENTATION
2.1 – Pre-production phase
2.1.1 - Pre- designer’s activities
2.1.2 - Client generation design brief
2.1.3 - User-centered design methods
2.1.4 - Re-interpretation of design brief
2.1.5 - Create design opportunities
2.1.6 - Suspend reality/inspiration
2.1.7 - Concept generation
2.2 – Design development
2.2.1 - Sketch models
2.2.2 - Concept selection
2.2.3 – Logistical
2.2.4 – Presentation
2.2.5 - Design development
2.2.6 - Design refinement
2.2.7 – Prototyping
2.3 – Presentation phase
2.3.1 - Design proposal
2.3.2 - Final presentation
2.3.3 - Product to market
SECTION 3 – METHODOLOGICAL PART
3.1 Empathy in design education
3.2 - Lesson design
3.2.1- Initial data
3.2.2 - Setting objectives of the seminar
3.2.3 - Choice of seminar type and form of its’ delivering
3.2.4 - Enumeration of the questions to discuss during the seminar and resources for its’ preparation
3.2.5 - Design of motivational educational technologies for students during seminar
3.2.6 - Analysis of basic studying conditions
3.2.7 - Design of the main part of the seminar according to its type and form
3.2.8 – Development of illustrative part
Appendix A – Mood boards based on clients’ Instagram profiles
Appendix B – Sketches
Appendix C – Cards for the seminar
Actuality of the research topic . Ukraine raises drastically her positions and active role on the International platform. Today Ukraine is known not just as country with low wages and target to import low-quality Asian products or second-hand European commodities. Ukrainian production, especially apparel manufacturing, finds its’ consumers in developed western World in the segment of highly qualitative designer’s attire. Thus, it is very important for country to follow latest trends in fashion design and increase internal distribution of apparel on the same level to which we had increased products for European market.
Recently, trend of own-awareness, responsibilities for one’s choices and influence of our actions on environment became in the center of discussion among many fields, and fashion is not an exception. Designers and industry professionals have developed range of tactics to meet needs of new consumers’ requirements and propose them the best solution with minimum harm to the environment. In particular, were developed product-service business model, where one stakeholder is responsible for the main outcome (product) as well as supportive components of product’s maintaining up to disposal (services). By such scheme each stakeholder works separately, but in cooperation with each other to create joint value for the customer. Customer, in turn, together with purchased product, get access to full range of services which will connect him to the brand for the longer period and predominantly secure quality of the proposed product. Although such type of responsibility guarantees additional concerns as per customers’ satisfaction. By such system, brand have to provide long-term satisfaction, thus connection to the customer on the deeper level is required. To satisfy those needs, empathic design was proposed. In terms of current research empathic design is design process which provides deeper level of satisfaction to the customer.
Product-service system and its’ methodology was widely discussed as part of intercultural project (Vezzoli, et al., 2014), (Manzini, Vezzoli, & Clark, Product-Service Systems: Using an Existing Concept as a New Approach to Sustanability, 2001), additionally methodology of the system implementation was widely discussed (Tukker & Tischner, 2006), but perhaps the most significant impact was made by work of Goedkoop (Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, & Rommes, 1999). Significance of empathic design as an alternative to the traditional design process was highlighted by (Mateelmaki, 2003), (Black, 1992), (Crossley, 2003), (Wenting, 2008), (Gray, 2014). In particular, range of empathic design methods for data research was developed since XX centaury (Rayport & Leonard-Barton, 1997), (Creswell, 1998), (McNeill, 2003), (Emmison & Smith, 2000), (Laine, 2003), (Velazquez, 2005), (Gaver, Dunne, & Pacenti, 1999), (Hofmeester & de Charon de Saint Germain, 2000), (Mateelmaki, 2003), (Fulton, 2003), (Abrams, 2000), (Sayre, 2001), (Hofmeester & de Charon de Saint Germain, 2000), (Dishman, 2003), (Laurel, 2003), (McDaniel Johnson, 2003), (Burns, 2000), (Moore, Disguised, 1985), (Moore, Immersive experience, 2000), (Hofmeester & de Charon de Saint Germain, 2000), (Chambers, 2002), (Myerson, 1999), (Greenbaum, 1998), (Steward & Shamdasani, 1990), (Krueger, 1998), (Morgan, 1998), (Costa, Schoolmeester, Dekker, & Jongen, 2003), (Garner & McDonagh-Philip, 2001), (McDonagh & Storer, 2005), (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2003), (Delbecq, van De Ven, & Gustafson, 1986), (McDonagh, Bluseberg, & Haslam, Visual evaluation: exploring users' emotional relationships with products, 2002), (Don & Petrick, 2003), (Don & Petrick, 2003), (Dumas, 1998), (Emmison & Smith, 2000) and others. McDonagh in her research has additionally developed detailed methodology in stages as per empathic design process, which was used as main reference for project realization (McDonagh D. , Empathic design: emerging design research methodologies, 2006). Range of global brands also have examples of practical implementation of the empathic design concept (J-Crew Official web-site), (Farfetch), (Del Rey, 2017), as well as local brands (Бабушка связала), (Laska charity store), (Rahash) and others.
However, despite the wide coverage in theoretical as well as well as practical concept, empathic design implementations are still failing to meet needs of low and middle income marketm which cover costumers with their lower purchase capability. In addition, some brands who are trying to work in this segment, sometimes fail to meet needs and requirements of the customer, thus not bring full satisfaction, what can result in the lack of empathy on the further stages of design process, which follow empathic design research methods. Thus, this problem has to be further addressed.
Relation to the scientific programs, plans, topics – Implementation of product-service system is priority sphere as per 2020 United Nations Environmental Programme Goal (United Nations Environment Programme , 2002). In particular, Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has designed project to produce more propositions towards industry re-organizations as well as society enlightenment (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization, 2002). Additionally, Paris Agreement, which was adopted by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) on 4th November, 2016 made significant contribution by approaching each member of United Nations to adopt actions in environmental protection. In addition, Strategy as per development of Ukraine dictates emphasize on the development of local lifestyle quality and development of local product compatibility on internal as well as external levels (Decree of the President of Ukraine [Указ президента України], 2015).
Aim of the research – analyze existing components of product-service system and empathic design and propose modification to the process as per needs of Ukrainian consumers with low and middle income, design educational lesson.
In order to achieve above mentioned aim, following objectives were addressed:
- analyze components and main particularities of product-service system;
- analyze components and main particularities of empathic design;
- create consumer profile as per specifications;
- specify and implement empathic design methods as per features of Ukrainian consumer;
- propose modification to the stage of concept generation in order to increase level of empathy;
- complete practical stage of the design developments as per empathic criteria of Ukrainian consumer;
- design lesson to increase empathy among students of design specialty.
Subject of research is empathic design as the basic element of product-service system
Scope of research is implementation of empathic design in low and middle income context in Ukraine.
Methodology of the research :
In the first section secondary data research was primarily used as: analysis of scientific publications, journals, books, International and national Laws etc. for the analysis and collection of data.
In the second section, in context of product implementation, following methods were used:
- Consultations with experts were conducted in order to understand platform and customer’s awareness, as well as current trends and preferences of Ukrainian consumer;
- Observation and interviews. In order to clarify type of consumer who is more interested in type of product and concept which is designed; brand-stores with empathic concept were visited.
- Secondary data research: in contrast to first section, research on this stage were primarily designed to collect up-to-date dynamic information on global and local platforms, as social, political and cinematography trends, recent innovations in technology and latest fashion shows.
- Creating mood-boards: as an empathic design method, mood-board creation based on collecting pictures from consumers’ Instagram profiles was conducted;
- Observation: everyday reality of potential consumers, their costume preferences and features while visiting social places were observed and analyzed.
Scientific novelty of achieved results : As the result of research, was proposed modernization to the empathic design process based on creation of restrictions on the stage of concept generation, which allows engaging customer closer to the process of design creation.
Practical value of achieved results : As the result of research, product by specification of empathic design process which is suitable financially to the consumers of low and middle income context and potentially will satisfy their needs and preferences in qualitative clothes was implemented.
Personal input of the author : All scientific and practical results are achieved independently by author. Theoretical and practical research and experiment which are presented in the work are conducted personally by author. Author independently has analyzed all data, specified aim and objectives of the work and systematically adopted results.
Approbation of the results : Parts of the research project were presented on the conferences of faculty and research students of UIPA in 2017, based on which was published abstracts (Ryabchykova, Actuality of empathic design implementation in Ukraine, 2017). Also research was presented on the II Ukrainian scientific conference ‘Design education of future specialists: theory and practice’ (21-22 March 2017).
Structure and content of the work :
The work consists of introduction, three sections, conclusions, references and appendix. The whole volume of the work is 119 pages, 257 literature resources, 39 Figures and 17 tables. Appendix consists of 3 components, general volume of which is 27 pages.
During recent decades the concept of sustainable development came into broader discussion. The environmental issue, which was understood as consequences of production-consumption activities and their impact on flora and fauna, began to be raised in the second half of the 1960s as the result of mass-growing industrialization (Vezzoli, et al., 2014). From 1970s, researchers have showed their interest in the problem and began to analyze possible consequences of such rapid developments in manufacturing process. During those times precise limits of our planet also were calculated and thus necessity or urgent actions became apparent (Meadows, Meadows, Randers, & Behrens, 1972). Important shift occurred in fashion industries during those years as well. The affluent stimuli to this were Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) which identified limits of textile and apparel import from specific countries, agreement however was annulated in 2005 and replaced by World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement (World Trade Organization, ). Later on, International debate intensified and spread further to the more Global discussions such as study by United Nations (further UN) World Commission on environment and development, drafted in 1987. Report “Our common future”, also known as “Bruntland report” became culmination of all previously done studies and industrial reports, with clear identification of main critical issues. Project was designed to strengthen international cooperation on environmental protection and raise level of understanding among population that our consumer habits should change (World Commission of Environment and Development, 1987). During this time main definition of Sustainability was also outlined, ‘a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (World Commission of Environment and Development, 1987). Following decade met two more course changing studies, and as a result following definition of sustainable development emerged ‘improving the quality of human life within the limits of capacity to protect the ecosystems’ (IUCN, UNEP & WWF, 1991). First steps to practical implementation of the discussed issues came not much later. During the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which were held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, persistent integration of sustainable system was implemented into the documents of international organizations as a security of industries re-orientation (United Nations, 1992). Since 1993, sustainable development has formed a fundamental benchmark in European Commission main priorities (European Community, 1993). From 2000s, global organizations and smaller industries began to reduce their impact on environment and overall damage to the Earth environmental heritage. Well-known innovators in fashion-industry in sustainability sector are Patagonia’s Responsible Economy campaign and Levi’s Care Tags ‘Water Less’, ‘Waste Less’ (Ganzalez, 2015). From those times, United Nations and European Union have organized range of events, conferences and projects to face environmental and sustainable issues (United Nations, 2000), (United Nations, 2002), (European Union, 2006), (European Union, 2009). Particular contribution to the field was made by United Nations decade of education for Sustainable Development project (DESD) adopted by Nations General Assembly (UNGA) and designed to produce more propositions towards industry re-organizations as well as society enlightenment (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization, 2002). Most recent implementations on the Global scale were made after the Paris Agreement, which was adopted by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Till 4th November, 2016, 192 states and the European Union have signed the Agreement, 126 of those parties have ratified the agreement. From those, who were entitled, only Nicaragua, Uzbekistan and Syria didn’t sign the agreement (United Nations, 2016). Till today, it’s the biggest Global Environmental Agreement, however it does not impinge counties in their trade policies, but rather outline suggestive framework towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions and temperature raise. Above all, in conference’s report also presented data of each stakeholder deposit to the pollution grows. As per the statistics given, China and United States contain almost half of World’s damage with 20% and 18% respectively of Worldwide Carbon dioxide emissions. Interestingly to note, that Ukraine also held top positions, it takes 16s position with 1% of Global pollution (United Nations, 2016). Although, as per Ukrainian report to United Nations, since 1991 country has contributed greatly to reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions, with almost half reduction during the 20 years’ period. Report also identifies that reduction resulted mainly from a Gross Domestic Products (GDP) decrease and a decline in the population and social living standards, which are expected to be recovered in next decade (United Nations, 2016). This process is also highly evident from data before Independency, where average growth of CO2 emissions was 1% from 1960s till Independency, and then saw rapid decline to up to -1% each year from 1991 (Oliver, Janssens-Maenhout, Muntean, & Peters, 2016).
Despite of prevailed emphasize of environmental constituent, sustainable development comprises wider scope. It is common to schematize it as three interlinked dimensions.
- The environmental (Planet) dimension: not to exceed the ‘resilience’ of the biosphere-geosphere, that is, its ability to absorb anthropic perturbations without provoking irreversible phenomena of degradation such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication;
- The socio - ethical ( People) dimension: the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and the achievement of social equity and cohesion, where a key issue is equal redistribution of resources following the principle that everyone has the same access to global natural resources;
- The economic (Profit) dimension: economically practicable solutions, in a more or less norm-oriented market (Vezzoli, et al., 2014).
The environmental dimension dominantly refers to carbon dioxide emissions level, although there are other factors which have to be considered (Table 1.1).
Table 1.1 - The main environmental impacts and their environmental effects (Vezzoli, et al., 2014)
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Despite the widely-known presumption that textile and apparel industry are involved in pollution growth just in terms of consequences of waste disposal, sector in fact have much broader impact. If consider all supply chain, such as raw material growth, textile production, dyeing, manufacturing process, distribution, ready product usage, repairing, washing, and disposal, then negative effect can be seen in all above-mentioned categories. Fashion Industry play considerable role in pollution increase. From raw material level, where 90% of cotton is now genetically modified, using vast amount of water as well as chemicals. Chemically produced fabrics, such as nylon and polyester also enormously unsustainable, they create nitrone oxide, which is 310 times more potent than carbon oxide. Production also requires large amount of water for cooling, along with lubricants which can become a source of contamination. Vast amount of energy also required to complete the process. In contrast viscose, fiber produced from wood pulp, looks like far more sustainable material; however large use of wood material leads to deforestation as well. The number of new clothing pieces consumed every year have grown in 400 times if compare to two decades’ age data and numbers continue to grow. Thus, levels of waste disposal increased dramatically to up to 11 million tons yearly in US alone (Luz, 2007). In comparison Ukraine dispose about 10 thousand tons of clothes every year, but recycle just 10-15% of it (Krasnyanskyi, 2007).
The socio-ethical dimension refer to so-called ‘equity principle’ (United Nations, 1992), what means that every person has rights to the same environmental space, to the same availability of global natural resources and level of satisfaction. In general, this factor combines next categories: the principles and rules of democracy, human rights and freedom; the achievement of peace and security; the reduction of poverty and injustice; improved access to information, training and employment; and respect for cultural diversity, regional identity and natural biodiversity (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization, 2002). From numerated, the most dramatic issue is poverty eradication, what is the main concern of United Nations as well as others Human Rights organizations. According to the World Bank and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) at least 80% of World population live on less than 10 US $ per day and about 10% of people live below poverty line (1.90 US $ per day), every second child is poor (The World Bank, 2016). Regarding Ukraine, World Bank statistics estimates country as lower-middle income economy with 6% of population living below the poverty line. Also, as per unofficial statistics, around 90% of Ukrainian apparel sector is operating in shadow and grey schemes, what means that workers are not provided with governmental support, pension allowance and can work over-time. Shadow segment has continued to grow recently, as in order to survive in crisis economy also some big and medium sized producers had to apply “grey” schemes to “optimize” the related cost structure (Tsepko, 2010).
The economic dimension compounds two previous components with principle that sustainable models should also be economically feasible. It includes main strategies: internalization of costs, orientating the main ongoing transitions towards sustainable solutions, and enhancing promising niche market economic models. The main visible effect is consideration of just direct expenses on manufacture, while long-term effect and indirect factors such as dioxide emission or deforestations are not taken into account. This also includes orientation of the main ongoing transitions towards sustainable solutions, such as transitions regarding interconnection, globalization and localization (referred together as glocalisation), information, services, etc. Another possible way to face economic dimension is enhancing promising economic models even if they are currently with niche market value (Vezzoli, et al., 2014).
Usual statistical data more often collects either economic data or level of environmental footprint. But there are collective research which comprises social wellbeing data to the four parameters of sustainable development, such as life expectance, wellbeing, ecological footprint and inequality (Marks, 2016). According to statistics, there no country in the World which is even close enough to maximum happiness with minimum footprint on ecology. From those, who held top positions towards happy future are Costa Rica, Mexico, and Colombia. Surprisingly, economical giants of developed World such as USA, Hong Hong, and Australia are below the middle line due to their high environmental impact. Ukraine held 70th position from 140 countries included, what is exactly medium of the chart.
Thus, all outlined above factors distinguish necessity of innovations not just in the components substitutions (such as using natural fabrics, recycle products etc.), but in the core level of the manufacturing model, as well as in the way we produce, consume and live (Vezzoli, et al., 2014). As a result, range of innovative business models was proposed. The most promising models, which face all three components of sustainable development, are Distributed Economies (DE) and Product-Service System (PSS) (Vezzoli, et al., 2014).
Distributed Economies (DE) is a vision by which different innovative development strategies can be pursued in different regions (Johansson, Kisch, & Mirata, 2005). In other words, it is regional approach to the business in order to promote innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises. However, in our research we will emphasize attention on another proposed system for sustainable development, which is Product-service system. The difference between product and service is clear in most of the cases. Product is a tangible commodity manufactured to be sold, while service is an activity (work) done for others with an economic value and often done on a commercial basis. Although closer look gives us understanding that both, product and service, are designed to bring value to the customer. Is it also evident, that all products based on delivery of some sort of services as well (selling, delivering, and packaging). Thus alliance of two structures came not as a synthetic combination, but as natural evolution of manufacturing (Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, & Rommes, 1999). This system found more followers and was widely discussed during last decades among researches as well as global organizations. As a result, different approaches of model definition were introduced. Summary of the main definitions is proposed below.
Table 1.2 - Definitions of Product-Service System (Vezzoli, et al., 2014)
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We have chosen definition proposed by the Leaning Network for Sustainability Project (LeNS) (Vezzoli, et al., 2014) as our main working definition, as it is the most recent definition and it outline the most upgraded approach to the question. According to study, the main characteristics of eco-efficient PSS innovations are: designed as a part of a satisfaction-based economic model; interaction-based innovation, for consumer and manufacturer, as well as additional stakeholders; the most promising eco-efficient models. There is also additional differentiation of PSS approaches regarding target approaches:
- Product-oriented PSS: services providing added value to the product life cycle;
- Result-oriented PSS: services providing ‘final results’ for customers;
- Use-oriented PSS: services providing ‘enabling platforms for customers’ (United Nations Environment Programme , 2002) (United Nations Environment Programme , 2009).
As been outlined above, ecology-oriented philosophers and later researches made considerable contribution to the topic. Studies of Stahel and Giarini have outlined necessity of building service society as a means for growing towards sustainability (Stahel & Giarini, 1989). Manzini has proposed the strategic product system, involving product, service and communication, what will give access of the companies to broader market segment and as a consequence bring them bigger awareness of society needs (Manzini, Towards a new product-service mix, 1997), (Manzine, 1998). Jansen and Vergragt have proposed cross-functional system, where all relevant parties are involved or aware of all manufacture stages (Jansen & Vergragt, 1997). Great number of publications in late 1990s also have played important role in development of modern PSS theory, such as foundations on product life extension (Achterhuis, van Hinte, & Bonekamp, 1997), (Design Plus, 1997) Important contribution also was made by practitioners who works in industry (Teleac, 1998), (O2, 1998), (Milieudefensie, 1998). A more strategic and systematic approach to Product-Service Systems first emerged in industrialized contexts (mainly Europe), as a business opportunity to decouple value creation from an increase in resource consumption and more generally detrimental environmental impact. The cornerstone of the topic, perhaps, was significant interest of UNEP and other Ecological organizations in adopting model in terms of developing more sustainable business (United Nations Environment Programme , 2002), (Mont O. , 2002). In terms of origin most of authors have been from Scandinavia, Netherlands or Italy (Baines, et al., 2007). Only recently range of publications emerged in Asia, although numeral relevant studies do not use term ‘product-service system’ (Vezzoli, et al., 2014).
We have outlined main prerequisites of new-system development above, but what are the pros and cons of system in terms of fashion industry, it is still arguable question. As well as other industries, in fashion researchers and practitioners are looking for innovations to support more sustainable manufacture process. As industry just recently emerged as a high polluter, sustainable design principles also were new in terms of clothing (Fletcher & Grose, 2012). For the long period of time it was common believe, that the recycling of textile waste and more eco-efficient production will solve the problem. Although recycling does not tackle the challenge of apparel consumed. For real change, industry have to focus on ‘sustainable lifestyles instead of sustainable products’ (Fletcher & Grose, 2012). Fashion considerably relies on consumers and their demands, thus radical change to the existent model are not so easy to implement (Rissanen, 2011). Thus, first step forward must be to provide wide campaign regarding necessity and importance of innovations and then design system which will become competitive alternative to the existent model not just in terms of sustainable factors, but also regarding consumers’ satisfaction. From the point of over-consumption (the main reason of unsustainable behavior), product-service system can provide a unique combination of products or product concepts and services that emphasize move away from personal ownership and material consumption towards sociable identity of goods (Briceno & Stagl, 2006). Transition towards satisfaction of utilization need via providing services will prolong clothes life as well as cause longer and more satisfying experience for user (Mont O. K., 2002), (Tukker & Tischner, 2006). For instance, product-oriented companies can provide additional value to their product by proposing additional services, such as maintenance, repair, return, redesign etc. In contrast, service-oriented companies can remove personal ownership altogether by proposing such models as renting, swapping, recycling. The potential value of the product-service system for fashion industry lies in liquidation or significant decrease in material consumption (Maxwell & van der Vorst, 2003)(Mont O. K., 2002). Although clear positive effect on both manufacturer, who will keep closer relations with user, and consumers, who will get more satisfying experience, implementation of the system is still highly fragmented. The main reason to this paradox is current economic position of fashion industry and mass-market brands in particular. It’s cheaper to buy new, than maintain the old (Armstrong & Niinimäki, 2014). However, with the raise of consumer awareness, people begin to make more thoughtful decisions regarding purchasing. In such way, more people begin to care about quality of the clothes, which prevail over price (Finney, 2014). In addition to awareness, people should be more emotionally attached to product, such programs as do-it-yourself, or providing additional services to prolong life of the garment can bring positive impact on consumer’s attachment (Hirscher & Niinimaki, 2013). Despite of the extensive discussion over the topic in developed world, same patterns can’t be applied to emerging and low-income economies, as consumers in those parts of the world have significantly different social and economic reasons behind purchasing habits. However, as United Nations Environmental Program suggested, product-service system innovations may act as business opportunities to facilitate the process of social-economic development by jumping over the stage of individual consumption of mass produced goods, straight towards a ‘‘satisfaction- based’ and low-resource intensive advanced service economy (United Nations Environment Programme , 2002). The considerable obstacle for this may be desire of consumers from developing world to fill attachment to developed economies. The one way to satisfy such attachment may be use of consumerism behavior patterns, which refer to habits of developed world. From the other hand, introduction of product-service system gives opportunity to develop local fashion communities, which will increase potential number of work places, economy and awareness of local producers. PSS systems also focused on context, and oriented more on local stakeholders for both product and services, thus such model will engage local manufacturers, what will decrease prices on distribution. Furthermore, since PSSs are more labor and relationship intensive, they can also lead to an increase in local employment and a consequent dissemination of skills. Thus, product-service system may lead to positive impact in both developed as well as emerging economies in terms of sustainable development, customer satisfaction and support of local producers.
There are ranges of companies who prove success of the product-service system on their own example. For instance, Italian outlet EGO proposes campaign of organized ecological wardrobe. Company proposes service of sharing clothes among closed number of women. After registration customer gets access to the online library of other women wardrobes, user can come every week to outlet to choose new 7 items for himself and at the same time withdraw 7 items from his pieces. Customer don’t need to pay each time, instead he/she invests annual fee, what brings additional stimuli to take part regularly in the exchanging process. Additionally, EGO also designs clothes and proposes them for sharing as well. The main environmental benefits of the program are extension of product life, for producer profit is in stable market conditions (because customers pay annually), and consumers benefit is in opportunity to have excess to more pieces of clothes of good quality without owning them, thus with no necessity of regular maintenance. Cleaning wiper service – MEVA proposes reused cotton wipers for industrial companies. Company enables their customers to withdraw used solid wiper and in return provide them with clean, washed wipers. Usually industrial wipers can go through circle up to 50 times, but companies themselves usually don’t provide special services of washing and special cleaning due to inefficiency. Instead, separate stakeholder, who work with several organizations all together can provide profit for all interested parties as well as prolong life circle of wipers. Companies as CTM Altromercato Consortium, work for improving equity and justice in relation to stakeholders. Altromercato is the main Italian body for fair trade organizations and the second largest worldwide. Company provides education and information of fair trade products location. It is registered with the World Fair Trade Organization and today collaborates with 170 organizations in 50 countries, involving local artisans and farmers. The project with its global scope helps to promote small trade organizations not only on local but as well on international level. Altromercato also have their line of fair products, which represent Italian heritage (Vezzoli, et al., 2014). In some emerging economies, such as India, implementation of PSS system was presented on national scale and in many aspects changed the way of history. The great example is M.K. Gandhi peaceful movement of Spinning wheel revolution. Supposition of boycott was expensive machine-made clothing, produced in Britain, but made from Indian cotton which was preliminary gathered and sent to United Kingdom for production. Gandhi saw inequality and unfairness of such work division, which plus to all caused high unemployment rates in India. Thus, he and his followers learned to spin and weave their own cloth. They consequently used to wear hand-made cloth as a robe. Hand-made cloth got name “Khadi” and was inexpensive and suitable for poor Indians. Movement then got large expansion, with a lot of artisans, who learnt to weave and a lot of people who began to wear self-made cloth. Consequently, Indians refused to buy British cloths, for what Gandhi and his followers were put into jail for many times (Prasad, 2010). ‘I claim that in losing the spinning wheel we lost our left lung. We are, therefore, suffering from galloping consumption. The restoration of the wheel arrests the progress of the fell disease’ (Mahatma Gandhi). Revolution was just one of Gandhi’s peaceful movements; however, spinning wheel became representation of freedom for citizens and finds its place even today on Indian flag. Gandhi never claimed that he protests against Britain, but rather he proclaims necessity of self-efficiency and independence. His main target was to show people their power to work, produce and sell for themselves, what make him bright spokesman of product-service system.
There are also ranges of great activists on the local, Ukrainian level. Among them brand Rehash (Rahash) which produces clothes from recycled materials. In addition to selling, manufacturers also collect old clothes, and if you donate your outfits you can afterwards get discount for new products. Another brand with sustainable target is ‘Laska’ (Laska charity store). Company represents themselves as “donation agency”. You can make a contribution with no profit; just bring your old accessories, shoes, or whatever you don’t wear anymore, and company will maintain your goods and sell afterwards. All money from profit which wasn’t spent on maintains will be donated to child-care organizations, hospitals and foster houses. In such a manner you can get rid of your old clothes and donate to those who are in need. Company ‘Babushka svyazala’ (Бабушка связала) (knitted by grandma) contacts old retired people who used to knit. Company then promote home-made knitted scarves, hats, sweaters and other; sell it and bring profit to the senior people, who made all those goods.
In addition to fear of novelty and poor support from consumers, many stakeholders also find obstacles with implementation of product-service system. Model differs from traditional supply chain system and can be represented in many different ways. Below we will identify the most commonly proposed and widely explained models of system implementation. Mark Goedkoop in addition to term itself proposed also model of product-service interactions (Fig. 1.1). In his representation model looks like cross of products (vertical axis) and services (horizontal axis), where from top to bottom he describes life-circle of products, and from left to right design of services. The connection point is use phase (Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, & Rommes, 1999).
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Fig.1.1 – Coordination of product and services within the system
Author then explores topic in more details and graphically describes on which stages of product development services can be inculcated and which effect it will cause on environment (Fig.1.2). Horizontal axis represents stages of product realization, while vertical shows impact of the stage on the environment (in black traditional model, in grey product-service system). As can be seen from data, introduction of additional services can dramatically decrees company’s footprint on ecology (Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, & Rommes, 1999).
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthaltenFig.1.2 – Environmental effect of product circle stages in traditional and PSS models
Authors of LeNS project, in contrast, have looked in a question from a different perspective. They argued that the key point is in the approach to the design of the stakeholders’ configuration, what will consequently create new types of interaction and partnership, and will help to create more target-allocated products and meet social demands. Authors also saw designer as a main figure of changes introduction and argue that designer must develop new skills in order to meet challenges of system implementation:
- be able to design together products and services, related to a given demand (needs and/or desires), i.e. a satisfaction unit;
- be able to find, promote and facilitate innovative configurations between different stakeholders;
- be able to operate/facilitate a participatory design process among entrepreneurs, users, NGOs, institutions, etc., orientating this process towards sustainable solutions;
- be able to orientate the system design process towards eco-efficient solutions;
- be able to orientate the system design process towards socio-efficient solutions.
In addition, authors made significant contribution to the field by proposing range of tools, methods and techniques to apply during different stages of product-service system development (Table 1.3).
Table 1.3 – Tools to apply for product-service system development
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In the work ‘Methodology for Product Service System Innovation’, authors also gave detailed step-by-step guidance to the process of sustainable system creation, with determination of sustainability-oriented process (in bold) and design process within scheme (in bold Italic) (Table 1.4).
Table 1.4 – The stages of PSS creation (van Halen, Vezzoli, & Wimmer, 2005)
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As can been conclude from the information gathered, Product-Service System for sustainability is highly promising and widely analyzed model. It can make essential contribution to the improvement of all stakeholders’ satisfaction and reduce environmental footprint of the industry. However, as also mentioned in the chapter, with regards to emerging economies, such as Ukraine, radical changes are necessary in order to make transition from traditional model. It also outlined, that customer understanding and their personal satisfaction are important factors of new model approval. Thus, changes have to be presented not only on the level of stake-holders configuration or product/system coordination, but also on the core stages of design process. In the next paragraph we will discuss topic in more details with emphasize on fashion industry.
Design itself is quite wide and polysemic definition. It often refers to process of creation using a set of methods, approaches and techniques in order to achieve unique goals. For quite a long period of time design theories was based on the term of “process” and thus big scope of researches on this topic was created. The most famous and widely used models were Rational Model of Simon; Rahl and Beitz (Simon, 1969), (Pahl & Beitz, 1996), and later Action-Centric Model of Ralph (Ralph, 2010). Despite quite long and stable positions, with the announcement of Bauhaus and its’ wide influences, design often began to be associated with applied arts and attracted interest more as a result of certain process (Getlein, 2008). This trend attracted Russian based theories as well, thus in Russian sources term mainly defined as project-oriented creative activity which mainly orientated towards purposes of mass-production (Lavrientientiev, 2007). Definitions refer to western authors and professionals of XX centaury and later, proclaiming birth of design after industrial revolution and wide development of mass-production (Voronov, 2001). Since the growing awareness and popularity among people one more side of design definition appears in frequent citations ‘design as a label of quality, denote style or added desirability’ (Sparke, 1987). Author argues that definition mostly appeared due to loyalty of customers towards products with suffix ‘design’ as security of uniqueness, high expectations and satisfaction. Although later term was misused by many companies who did not prove high customers’ expectations, thus term itself lost its’ value. Due to purposes of current research we will refer to precede definition and explore design as process which combines range of methods, approaches and techniques.
Design as creative process and combination of methods, techniques and approaches often refers to all range of fields and forms, such as product design, industrial design, fashion design etc. Jeung and Kim in their research on collaborative process among design fields argue that contemporary design methodology represents hybrid of methods presented in design categories. Authors further argue that such alliance harkens back to other research questions through the fields (Jeung & Kim, 2008). This, in turn, determines policy that contemporary innovations which were proposed in one of the design fields can be equally applied to another design field due to their similarity in processes.
Although in the current work we will separate fashion design as a main question of our research. Fashion design is by itself alliance of two fields: fashion and design, thus cannot be blindly accepted as subcategory of design areas. Fashion was a key topic in many philosophical and sociological discussion for decades. Mas, Shi, and Chen in their research revealed most common practices in fashion understanding through the entire history and proposed their own definition that fashion is ‘social norm recognized and advocated by a particular social class at one time’ (Ma, Shi, Chen, & Luo, 2012). Historically, fashion was not distinguished as only clothing characteristics. In such a manner Smith suggested that fashion can be related not only to dress and furniture, but also to architecture, poetry, music and may even have an influence on morality (Smith, 1976 ). The overwhelming majority of studies, however, narrowed down the scope to the clothing only. Among them, contribution of Hollander, the art historian, who defines fashion as ‘the entire spectrum of attractive clothes styles at any given time’ (Hollander, 1993). Cultural historian Willson expresses very close to her definition: ‘Fashion is dress in which the key feature is rapid and continual’ (Willson, 2001). More recent studies comprise scope of modern fashion’s appliance. ‘Fashion is intangible substitute which combines manners of dressing, style, trends and taste’ (Kawamura, 2005). Even though being more sociological discipline than business, fashion evolved with introduction of fashion industry in XIX centaury. From this perspective, fashion industry defined as continuously changing business, influenced by trends in clothing, footwear and accessories to face demands of the customer (Ma, Shi, Chen, & Luo, 2012). From those times, as well, begins long path of fashion & design alliance. The definition of fashion design often interchanged with the definition of fashion. Although first one relates more to commercial constituent and believed to emerge when English designer Charles Frederick Worth opened first couture house in 1858 in Paris (DeMarly, 1980).Currently, the fashion design industry has grown into a global, multi-billion dollars industry. Design being a luxury good and with gross world income rising, demand for fashion is still rapidly expanding. As a consequence, a number of new clusters have developed recently, most notably Tokyo. Other fast-growing clusters include Los Angeles, Mumbai, Shanghai, Rio de Janeiro, and many more. Still, in size and prominence they form no match for fashion’s Big Four which are Paris, Milan, London, and New-York (Wenting, 2008).
However, to prove importance of fashion design secretion from range of industries which compose design sector, we have to make in-depth analyze and refer to core of the topic, which is – process. As was mentioned earlier design combines range of methods, approaches and techniques. However, combination, relation and integration of those components narrow down term to traditional design, empathic design, universal design, exclusive design, participatory design and so on and so forth. The most widely used and broadly discussed is traditional design, process of which is usually represented in classic way (figure 1.3).
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Figure 1.3 - Design process stages (Aspelund, 2006)
Figure above demonstrates stages of the design process, from inspiration to production. There also range of other researches who present three phased design process – inspiration, ideation and implementation (Brown, 2008), or five-phased process (Fierst, Murray, Randolph, Schurr, Diefenthaler, & Geremia, 2011). In general, all proposed models of traditional design process more or less frame stages of design evaluation and cover all stages identified in the table above. Proposed system corresponds to all design fields with no deviations.
Regardless contiguous approaches and theories, fashion design is much more dynamic substitute than design in general as it refers more to such changeable distinctions as trends, seasons and newly appeared term ‘fast-fashion’. Fashionable dress can be traced back as far as 25,000 years ago with adorned clothing uncovered in graves of northern Russia. Fashion as an industry has younger history. It believed to be established with the emergence of the industrial and commercial revolution near the end of the eighteenth century. Since then famous practicing as Charles Worth, Callot Sisters, Paul Poiret, Gabrielle Chanel, Christian Dior, Vivienne Westwood and many others would build their own conception of fashion business for many decades ahead (Sterlacci & Arbuckle, 2009). Although quick and widespread appearance of fashion brands and establishment of main design principles in dress development, theory and research around subject still were much more theoretical and philosophical discourse. Empirical studies and framing of fashion design process came into discussion just in XX century, thus weren’t documented before (Kawamura, 2005).To the point in time when fashion design process was outlined, industry changed its’ appearance dramatically. Groundbreaking leap in technology and science, tendencies towards globalization and considerable precipitation of information spread announced new era in fashion industry which by now we used to call ‘mass-market’. Term came to use as a reflection of rapid expand of the industry over last 20 years (Djelic & Ainamo, 1999). Era reveals such mass-giants as H&M, M&S, Zara, Mango, New Look, and Top Shop who adapted quickly to new customer demands (Barnes & Lea-Greenwood, 2006). This era also reshaped fashion into multi-billion industry. Today fashion industry is valued at 3 trillion dollars, 3,000 billion, and accounts for 2 percent of the world's Gross Domestic Product (GDP); employs almost 60 million people worldwide (Global fashion Industry statistics - International Apparel, 2016), and brought wealth to many of her followers. Amansio Ortega (CEO of Inditex Alliance); Bernard Arnault (Chairman and CEO of LVMH); Phil Knight (Nike chairman); Stefan Persson (H&M major stakeholder); Alain Wertheimer and Gerard Wertheimer (owners of Chanel); Giorgio Armani (founder of Armani brand) are among the richest billionaires on the Earth according to (The Worldest Billioners, 2016).
The changing dynamics of the fashion industry since then, such as the fading of mass production, increase in number of fashion seasons, and modified structural characteristics in the supply chain have reorganized fashion process as such and reinforced logical algorithmization of fashion design process in order to minimize loss and speed up production (Doyle, Moore, & Morgan, 2006). According to many sources, modern structure of fashion design process presented in following way (McKelvey & Munslow, 2012).
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Fig.1.4 – Fashion design process
Following developments in technologies shaped new innovations in fashion industry such as use of CAD systems, outsourcing, and online selling. However, those implications didn’t change fashion design process as such, but just improved technological implementation of several stages. In fact, trend towards globalization of design process is still widely practicing among professionals and in design education practices as well.
Nothing much would change since then, technologies making process of manufacturing and distribution even faster, clothes is available for more affordable prices and in any convenient way (store distribution, online retailing, social media etc.). Information and trends are moving around the globe at tremendous speed, resulting in consumers’ ability to have more options and thus shop more often (Hoffman, 2007). The constant, varying demands by consumers has impacted the process of forecasting and product planning shifting; towards replicating famous designs and styles from fashion magazines and fashion shows in small quantities more frequently (Christopher, Lowson, & Peck, 2004). To worse or better, our Planet introduced her own corrections in our plan towards mass-globalization. As was mentioned in the previous paragraph, fashion industry brings irreparable damage in terms of sustainability, thus such retail models as product-service system evoked. Mentioned above reasons also slow-down widespread of proposed sustainable systems. For this and others reasons as highly competitive market, over-consumption, conscious consumers’ behavior towards ‘green’ fashion, and quality reduction, researchers and professionals have turned towards analyzing customer behavior and design methods which will be more loyal towards sustainable purchasing habits (Bhadway & Fairhurst, 2010). Results of those researches brought a range of new methods in design practices, which were named user-centered design. Study of (Reich, Konda, Monarch, Levy, & Subrahmanian, 1996), proposes next deviation in design practices towards user. Users can become significantly and actively involved on two levels. Firstly, they can provide a central focus for the designer (User-Centred Design, Human-Centred Design, Universal Design and Inclusive Design). Secondly, they can become active participants within the designing process (Participatory Design). Participation within the designing process can ensure more user-designer contact, resulting in more authentic insights. Author also argues that involving the user within the designing process has not always been accepted practice; rather, there has been an on-going debate since the 1960s on the value of user involvement and participation. However, user involvement within the designing process is now recognized and valued as a dynamic ongoing activity (Reich, Konda, Monarch, Levy, & Subrahmanian, 1996). Table 1.5 highlights some of the terms used under the umbrella of User-Involved Design to indicate user participation within the designing process.
Table 1.5 - Sample of definitions for approaches that involve the user within the designing process (Data is gathered by (McDonagh-Philip & Lebbon, 2000)
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All those types of design approaches are on the age of new design traces and can found their implementation in different fields of design for use to tackle problems of wide-range of consumer groups. Nonetheless for purpose of our research we have identified participatory design as the main outgoing point. And its’ subcategory, empathic design, imply as a methodology to face our purpose. First term empathic design was proposed by Rayport & Leonard-Barton who distinguished it as a set of techniques which can help to resolve dilemmas of customers’ demands fulfillments (Rayport & Leonard-Barton, 1997). Fulton also believes that empathy ‘... is simply about achieving greater awareness, an extended imagination and sensitivity to another person's world in a powerfully memorable way ‘(Fulton, 2003). Laurel professes that empathy is ‘the altered subjectivity that can come from immersion into a particular context’ (Laurel, 2003). Empathy is helpful for designers learning about human communication during the design process. According to Hoffman, empathy is ‘[the] effective response more appropriate to someone else's situation than one's own’ (Hoffman, 2007). Mattelmaki, Vaajakallio, and Koskinen further argue that empathic design is an interpretive creative process, where solutions emerge through interacting with people. In the center is the construction of contextual understanding, which is built on design competencies; design thinking and creative problem solving in collaborative manner (Mattelmaki, Vaajakallio, & Koskinen, What Happened to Empathic Design?, 2014). Dimpla also refers to empathic design as a research model, which is considered within human centered design and employed alongside the design methods structure can ensure innovative design solutions which capture the real needs of users. Author further claims that empathic design is a means to incorporate the personality of the user into the product in order to give him/her response that he/she subconsciously desire (Dimpla, 2015). Empathy in design process means ‘Not listening with sympathy but fully, deeply understanding someone, emotionally as well as intellectually…’ ‘…Listen for feeling a meaning.’ ‘…changing an independent relationship to an interdependent relationship’ (Covey, 2005). Designers must lose their independent egos, and relearn to be interdependent on the user as well as themselves, in order to work together to design a product which offers more value (Dimpla, 2015). Designer interprets knowledge gathered from, or constructed together with users or consumers to build new solutions, innovations or even transformations for current systems. As can be evident from definitions above empathic design refer mainly to process than to result. Thus main changes and interpretations would correspond to improvements on the stage of design process.
The concept of empathic design is not new, throughout the history of design was evident that manufacturers have to meet needs of customer in order to succeed, thus consider ergonomics and environmental aspects (Rayport & Leonard-Barton, 1997). However, intense expanse of the term refers to the evolution of technologies, and UX (User Experience) design. User experience emerged on the platform of online-marketing as a reflection of low customer satisfaction. When you don’t directly coordinate with customer is much harder to predict his behavior. Also globalization and Internet expansion amplified target market considerably (Gray, 2014). Thus necessity of universal methods and techniques to face customer needs emerged. Eventually design of physical products also began to discover and implement cross-functional methods and techniques. At the end of 1990s researchers and industries began to explore feelings, moods of consumers and how they linked to design solutions. All those discussions brought new approaches and methods in the area. Although, concept was built upon ergonomics and user-centered design, those approaches were too inflexible to rely on ((Mattelmaki, Vaajakallio, & Koskinen, What Happened to Empathic Design?, 2014). And eventually design shifted from user-centered design towards co-design, where people express their experiences in the design process (Rizzo, 2010). Another approach propose step forward from co-design to imagination, where designers not just face people’s experiences but also create World to conduct better user experiences (Vaajakallio, 2010). We have used data from McDonagh work to illustrate main differentiation between design approaches (Fig.1.5).
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Fig.1.5 – Stages of integrating user experience within the design process (McDonagh & Storer, 2005)
Figure 1.6 illustrates evaluation from design-centered design to empathic design in terms of relation between designer and user. As evident from the figure, design-centered design has no connection between two active subjects, while user-centered design operates on the cross-point, and empathic design is presented as a combination of designer’s and user’s activities. Researcher further argue that evaluation relate not just to design-user cooperation, but also to whole manufacturing process. Data, presented by McDongh is demonstrated on fig.1.6 (McDonagh D. , Empathic design: emerging design research methodologies, 2006). In this structure author emphasizes another approach to design deviation, where he separates craft production, mass production, user-centered design, customization, mass-customization and empathic design (terms presented in sequence of their chronological appearance on the market). From this figure can be evident, that authors define three main stakeholders in the design process: user, designer and manufacturer. Author also presents product as the main outcome of production. Thus, in craft production initial information comes from user, who then transfers it to designer, who operates with one manufacturer, and afterwards translates data into products. In contrast, mass production see user as a final stage, which comes after manufacturing within large center, but one designer, and product realization. Introduction of user-centered design proposes more variations within user-views and intend that designer works separately from manufacturer. Customization imply similar to mass production process, with the difference that product customized to the needs of particular user after been produced. Mass-customization accents other steps, which differ marginally from user-centered design. It implies union of designer and manufacturer and production of more products variations, which will meet different customer groups. Finally, in empathic design manufacture figure, user presented as designer (partly or mostly), design process proceeds to manufacture and realization of smart product as per user’s needs and designer’s additions.
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Fig 1.6 - Evaluation of product manufacture
Works of (Rayport & Leonard-Barton, 1997) in marketing, (Jordan, 2000) work in Philips and (Black, 1992) work in IDEO conceptualized new frame of empathy for design purposes. Emotional design is becoming more prevalent over the last decade as designers are now required to become in sync with users on a deeper level from the start of the design lifecycle. We are in an innovation driven age, and companies have started to look to their customers for the answers to the next desirable products (Crossley, 2003). Although, references to implication of empathic practices in fashion design can be seen just in recent researches, prerequisites of its’ appeared far ago. As a bright example, well known idiom ‘Before you judge a man, walk a mile in his shoes’, what means be more empathic as well as it directly refers to experience which we have with fashion item – shoes. While long credited as a Native American aphorism, replacing the word ‘shoes’ with moccasins, the saying almost certainly is derived from a poem published in 1895 (Lathrap, 1895). The original title of the poem was ‘Judge Softly’, later titled ‘Walk a Mile in His Moccasins’. In spite of the fact, that idiom is not directly connected to the topic of our discussion, but it brightly frames associations of fashion with empathy. Despite of the evident relation, fashion rare was directly human-centered. Those factors as trends, social status and personal identification through fashion made it more sociable phenomena. Instead of primary purpose of clothes – to protect our body from adverse environmental conditions, it lately became common practice to pass social message through clothes (Meagher, 2011). However, with the matter of time social relations became broader and more complicated with determined necessity of framing approaches and methods into particular scheme. Recently many studies also reveal correlation between sustainable behavior and empathic design, as choice towards sustainable purchases it’s rather matter of personal identification than belonging to particular group or following trend.
With the increase in users' expectations, needs and aspirations, empathy becomes a necessity rather than a luxury (McDonagh-Philip & Lebbon, 2000). To prove that empathic design will work for our purposes, turn costumers towards purchasing more sustainable products, and face implementation of product-service system on the platform of fashion business, we have to refer to recent studies on consumer behavior on global as well as local scale. Consumer behavior is defined as ‘the activities and experiences of people engaged in buying and disposing of goods and services’ (Martin & Schouten, 2012). The question around topic what drives sustainable behavior towards consumption is highly discussed. Although problem still wasn’t tackled completely. Some researchers identify inconsistency in consumer behavior and attitudes, a lack of awareness and action surrounding citizen duty, and greater need for macro-institutional sustainability research and policy initiatives as reasons of unsustainable behavior (Prothero, et al., 2011). Sherry L. Finney propose that a basic understanding of people and why they behave the way they do is the most natural starting point. Meeting people’s needs help us identify main pushing points towards identifying and correcting biggest concerns. Instead of focusing on reducing environmental damage, we have to turn towards aspects of living and people’s needs. (Finney, 2014). Although conflict appears even in consumer’s self-desire as well. As an example, we want to eat unhealthy food even though we also want a healthy body and lifestyle. Our main task is to find alternative way and explain that lack of one short-term satisfaction may lead to much greater long-term effect (Mulhern, Allen, & Maden, 1992). ‘Sustainability requires us to consider wants and needs of future generations as well as our own, which calls for an entirely different perspective on the marketing timeframe’ (Peattie, Trappings versus substance in the greening of marketing planning, 1999). Marketers need to understand that information search and purchase decision process will not be strictly limited to product features only. Sustainable consumer will be increasingly discerning and critical of broad company dimensions, and not just the product. Marketers focused on sustainable consumption need to consider satisfaction of all stakeholder groups, thus practicing good corporate social responsibility (Finney, 2014). In more recent work, Barr, Gilg, and Shaw have discussed a growing movement towards changing to ‘individual’ rather than ‘public’ behavior. We should look for solutions towards satisfying consumer needs in happiness (Barr, Gilg, & Shaw, 2011). Happiness is viewed as ‘getting what one wants’ (Varey, 2010). The possible way to do it is provide a comprehensive, coordinated communication process (Finney, 2014). Peattie states, ‘Green consumers by their very nature are more interested in environmental claims and could be prepared to delve more deeply into an organization’s ethical stance via various channels of information’. Peattie also identify awareness as the main clause towards sustainable consumption. He also divides it into following factors: product awareness, supplier awareness, and socio-environmental. Author also identifies necessity of changing consumer mindset and view of marketing (Peattie, Green consumption: Behavior and norms, 2010). As can be concluded from the above analysis, most of the researchers point out that the main way to implement sustainable habits is to emphasize attention on consumer’s long-term satisfaction and his understanding of happiness.
Although consumer behavior is not constant clause, resent research suggests that demographics, social priorities and set of cultural constructions influence a lot purchasing habits (Bosnjak, Bratko, Galesic, & Tuten., 2007), (Endler & Rosenstein, 1997), (Moon, 2002). Specially agreeableness and openness-to experience was identified as important factor towards changing purchasing habits (Hirsh, 2010). In general, was identified that study of small group of people living in the same traditional environment necessary in order to influence long-standing habits (Luchs & Mooradian, 2011). Thus, more narrow analysis of customer behavior of particular social group is necessary to make accurate conclusions.
Consumer behavior in Ukraine features paradoxical effect. From one side, most of the population is well-educated and professionally successful, what identify their needs in high social representation. From the other side, income of average family is considerably lower than in equal by social status family in Western Europe (Nabrusko, 2010). Although studies reveal that Ukrainians in general have positive attitude towards consumption, they don’t have economical possibility to satisfy their needs (Zoska & Zastavska, 2012). Yulia Cherevko proposes three models of Ukrainian consumer behavior. First one based on generations, thus determine behavior according to the age group (Cherevko, 2010). Based on this, she assumes that the most active consumers in Ukraine are Z generation (born in late 1990th and later), as this generation is born in the era of rapid technology development and globalization, their behavior is influenced much by western patterns of mass-consumers. Generation of late 1980th – early 1990th (Y generation) presumably will be less adored to impulsive purchasing. This generation was witness of the most changeable period in Ukrainian history, from Independence announcement to following revolutions and financial crisis. Thus, people born in this period are more likely to purchase luxury unaffordable goods, which goes out of their limits (cause such type of goods were unavailable in their most probably poor childhood), but equally they are not used to consumerism patterns, and don’t have habits of making unnecessary purchases (because they used to change in political and economic situations, thus used to plan their purchases in advance). Generation who were born in early 80th and before (X generation) are more likely to save their conservative purchasing habits (buy once and wear it till the complete physical damage and pass goods to next generations, as it was common during Soviet Union times). Second model, proposed by author, identify demonstrative consumer habits. This model unites people who want to increase their social status by buying goods which they normally cannot afford. Those types of people are not inclined by ‘one moment’ purchase, as they have to save money for several months or longer in order to buy desirable goods, thus plan in advance. Third model describes rather opposite consumer attitudes which is called ‘habitus behavior’. People, who belong to this group don’t change their costumer habits even if their social and economic status has changed. As an example, those people are often urban citizens, who came from rural areas. They have opportunity to belong to category of ‘active consumers’ and make influential purchases, but their habits make them rather wash and repair clothes. To conclude, analyzed literature reveals quite positive background for implementation of new human-centered sustainable models. From proposed consumer groups, most of them either don’t have opportunity or habits to make impulsive purchases. Just one group is in risk zone – generation born in XXI century, although this group are still teenagers with unformed behavior patterns and economically dependent on their parents. However, in our further research we also will focus on age identification, as we found generation of late 1980th – early 1990th as the most suitable for new model implementation. This generation is still young enough to be active users of new technologies and they used to changes, thus there are more likely to be flexible towards new model implementation. Also, their current customer patterns seem like most sustainable-orientated. Additionally, those hypotheses will be further empirically checked. In general, it is evident from analysis that new design strategies have to be outlined in order to satisfy uprising customer demands.
Despite quite recent introduction, empathic design already found its’ implementation among some of the fashion brands. As an example, Puma stores (well-known USA sport-wear manufacturer) integrated a co-design tool to their website, allowing consumers to take part in the design process before purchase the product. Users can specify set of colors and materials on some part of the trainer. Once the specifications have been established, the components then sent to manufacturing facility, the shoes are constructed and arrive to the store in the matter of weeks. Similar arrangements also proposed on websites or in-store terminals of Levi Jeans, Timberland shoes and continue their expansion (McDonagh-Philip & Lebbon, 2000), (Crossley, 2003). Palo Alto, California-based design firm, have come further conscious participations, and explored emotional context of their customers, by observing their living environments. Specialists recognized the emotional appeal of pull-on diapers to parents and toddliers, what had highly symbolic and functional meaning. Afterwards huggies Pull-Ups were rolled out nationally by the company and brought profit in 400$ million annually. Same company also introduced challenge for their media-interface designers to get more engaged with different types of consumers. They proposed to young twenty-something workers to wear outfitted with fogged glasses, gloves and weight on their arms and legs so they can feel what it would be look like for very elderly people to experience designed system (Rayport & Leonard-Barton, 1997). A lot of brands show marketing solutions in order to provide more empathy to the customers. The sophisticated clothing brand J.Crew is an expressive example of this clause. Brand designed for independent, self-established people who, in particular, like self-designed and original goods. Thus, on their web-site brand provides different tricks and tips to customize their purchases (J-Crew Official web-site).
As was mentioned multiple times above, empathic design doesn’t present particular design field, but frame methods, techniques and approaches towards more human-centered design. A range of researches focus their attention on those issues. Below we outline the most significant and important contributions to the field. Leonard and Rayport argue that standard techniques of inquiry rarely lead to truly novel product concepts. Thus, they have proposed following techniques to implement empathic design: gathering, analyzing, and applying information gleaned from observation in the field. Watching consumers was always obvious but still very important and valuable process. Researchers brought valuable contribution into theoretical frame of empathic design methodology. They have proposed process of empathic design handling in five steps.
Step 1. Observation. Additional information, gathered from seeing your customers in their natural environment can reveal many additional factors, which wasn’t considered before. Techniques of observing can yield at least five type of additional information, which is not available through traditional marketing or product research: triggers to use, interaction with the users’ environment, user customization, intangible attributes of the product, unarticulated user needs.
Step 2. Capturing data. Previous step can often reveal more questions than answers. During short-term period of information gathering people who observe can face certain obstacles, but can’t accurately understand how long-term inhibitors used to tackle those problems, thus, they have to ask additional questions to themselves as ‘Why they behave like this? What rules their actions? How they overcome those problems?’ Process will help to gather additional information and produce more accurate results.
Step 3. Reflection and analysis. To analyze gathered data it is useful to incorporate additional workers, who didn’t take part in previous steps. Fresh view can reveal more ideas and questions which wasn’t evident for observation participants.
Step 4. Brainstorming for solutions. In comparison to traditional process of brainstorming, here necessary to stay within boundaries of identified problems.
Step 5. Developing prototypes of possible solutions. The process is not differ from traditional design, although proposed solutions can have more radical innovations, and it may be more difficult to understand how product should look (Rayport & Leonard-Barton, 1997).
Mattelmäki, Vaajakallio and Koskinen conducted wide research on the methodological base of empathic design and proposed following core concepts around which methods have to be outlined. First, ideas have to rise through interactions with people, as important is not what people see, but which meaning they give to it. Second, design research must be done in real life, in the same environment where it will be implemented. Third, ‘research methods should come from design and be visual and tactile, inspiration-enhancing, deliberately cheap and low tech, playful, tested in reality, and targeted at the fuzzy front end of the design process.’ Fourth, designers should explore all those meanings by themselves and produce visual content such as mock-ups and storyboards (Mattelmaki, Vaajakallio, & Koskinen, What Happened to Empathic Design?, 2014). In another research authors also identified four directions of empathic design: through the observation; generalizing approaches that aim to facilitate user’s imagination and provide tools for respondents; combination of facilitation and participation in collection creation; expansion of scope to various stakeholders. Thus, researches identified that people with no design training must contribute to the design activities (Mattelmaki & Visser, Lost in Co-X: Interpretations of Co-Design and Co-Creation, 2011). Wright and McCarthy proposed next types of methods toward a dialogue-based approach and narrative approach. In one, users are observed and interviewed to access their expertise. A second direction is about generative approaches that aim to facilitate or trigger user’s imagination and expressions with tools provided by design researchers, while the analysis is left to the experts. In the third direction, designer facilitates but also participates in collective creation; and in the final direction, design researchers support and facilitate collaborative process among various stakeholders—not just with the assumed users (Wright & McCarthy, 2001). In other study empathic design was divided into four components:
- sensitivity toward humans: gathering inspiration and information about and making sense of people and their experiences and contexts;
- sensitivity toward design: seeking potential design directions and solutions and posing “what if” questions;
- sensitivity toward techniques: application of generative, prototyping, and visualizing tools to communicate and explore the issues;
- sensitivity toward collaboration: turning process and tools according to co-designers, decision-makers, and organizations alike (Mattelmaki, Vaajakallio, & Koskinen, What Happened to Empathic Design?, 2014).
Sanders proposes three main layers of empathic design conduction: say, do and make. First two relate to interviews and observations. Last relates to visualizing or expressing people’s expectations and dreams. According to Sanders these categories should be explored simultaneously to achieve empathic understanding of the users (Sanders & Dandavate, 1999). McDonagh has extended this theory and proposed full circle of product development (Fig. 2.5), which begins with empathic constituent from Sanders. Figure reveals main stages of design development from gathering background data to design outcomes and role of each stakeholder in the process. As also evident from the figure, design process can be conducted visa-versa as well, what defines consideration of feedback in next design solutions. Thus, proposed model form solid circulation of design process.
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Fig.1.7 - Empathic design model (McDonagh D. , Empathic design: emerging design research methodologies, 2006)
Other studies identify that designers have to widen scope from task focused usability to consideration of contexts, actions, feelings, attitudes and expectations (Pine & Gilmore, 1998), (Thackara, 2000). Mattelmäki, Battarbee suggested the probes kit which includes diary booklet and a sheet of stickers, a disposable camera with a list of photography assignments, and ten illustrated cards with open questions. The purpose of the diary was to collect a set of daily routines and thoughts relating to health, well-being and exercise. To assist in the process of describing their feelings, a sheet of stickers was provided with cartoon faces and other little illustrations to do with everyday life, exercise, and the season of early summer. Illustrated cards had a question on the reverse side with space for writing. Open questions were about issues of interest for heart rate monitor development. Participants were asked to take photographs according to given assignments. As with the cards, some of the assignments hade purely documentary purpose, requesting pictures of the home and their information appliances, exercise environment. Other assignments required more interpretation and provided a possibility of emotional expression. Process was followed by range of interviews, material analyze and results in communication (Mattelmaki & Battarbee, Design Probes, 2004). Sanders and Dandavate also identify importance of visual components and purposes of visual collages as components to gather data from users (Sanders & Dandavate, 1999). McDonagh and Storer further add mood boards, cognitive maps and visual product evaluation to the list (McDonagh & Storer, 2005). Some designers step even further and developed ‘Customer Vision’ system (Velazquez, 2005), which is designed to record daily activities conducted by user while he is wearing them, and send this information to researcher afterwards. Technique gives possibility to gain deep insight into daily life of customer. Engage user into creative activity is also one of the fruitful methods to gather information. For instance, product personality development is proposed by McDonagh, Bluseberg, & Haslam (McDonagh, Bluseberg, & Haslam, Visual evaluation: exploring users' emotional relationships with products, 2002). Participants are asked to imagine product as a person with a particular personality, and provide information regarding its character and lifestyle (e. g. gender, age and occupation). Author also proposed collective data which combines the most frequently used activities in empathic design.
Table 1.6 - Most frequently used research techniques to develop empathy (Weightman & McDonagh, 2003)
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Authors further evolve their own feedback and define pros and cons of some of the proposed techniques. Summarized results proposed in the table 1.7
Table 1.7 - Research techniques to develop empathy (Weightman & McDonagh, 2003)
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McDonagh-Philip & Lebbon additionally emphasize importance of taking designer out of his comfort zone and put him into user’s environment, in short term in can bring him possibility to indicate important issue to be solved and in long-term iе will help him to develop more participatory research behavior (McDonagh-Philip & Lebbon, 2000).
Based on analyzed approaches and proposed methods, we have chosen model, proposed by McDonagh for further analysis and use (McDonagh D. , Empathic design: emerging design research methodologies, 2006). McDonagh developed complicated structure (Table - 1.8), which combines actions of all stakeholders as well as external stimuli which have to be considered during design process. All actions in the process described in timeline – vertical axis (from top to bottom). Each column represents particular group by topic. Color represents influence and importance during the process, thus columns in dark grey represent the most influential figures, whereas columns in white influence marginally. As can be seen, actions of designer and actions of user actively support process during all design stages. However, user’s direct influence is based mostly on emotional context than on active involvement. From table also evident that pre-production phase twice as big as design development and presentation phase. In general, proposed scheme can be used as the basics for practical implementation of project which going to be developed on later stages.
To sum up, paragraph was devoted to introduction of empathic design in the fashion industry, importance and necessity of its implementation and methodology to the topic which was introduced by researchers so far. For further interest, we have analyzed methodological part in more details. Among existing studies, we have emphasized model proposed by McDonagh, which in details describes process of empathic design implementation (McDonagh D. , Empathic design: emerging design research methodologies, 2006). Although, as can be evident from proposed model as well as from all analyzed literature, most of attention concentrated on pre-production phase (gathering information etc.), while design development phase, in particular, sketching phase stays not corroborated. It also evident from proposed model (sketching phase emphasized in bold). In our research we will further argue that sketching phase is one of the most important parts of the process and fractional algorithmization of the process will play important role in further development of empathic products and services.
Table 1.8 – Empathic design process
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While discussing main target group for project realization, it is necessary to get expanded overview of income and purchasing habits. As were identified in first paragraph, project will be mainly focused on Y generation, or generation of Millennials. To understand their purchasing habits, we will analyze economic and social behavior of group during their lifetime. Starting point of discussion is Soviet Union times (last period from late 80s till the breakdown). During this period, most of the citizens, especially in urban zones, had professional skills and higher education, what was the reason for them to distinguish themselves as middle class and elite of social class. Additionally, people had stable jobs and stable income, thus they could satisfy their monthly needs (Colins, 1991). However, most of the population didn’t have habits to safe money or take care of their own well-being, as socialistic type of economy predetermined responsibility of government for medical care, education, accommodation, entertainment and life after retirement. Thus, expenses of individuals mostly consisted of food, clothes and products/services of personal needs (Geoffrey, 1992). In addition it identifies unaccustomedness to savings, which were limited to savings on car or equal material property (Matthews, 1986). From the other hand, customers of late Soviet Union times also had low purchasing necessities. They didn’t have access to imported products or well-being of other countries, so were satisfied with level of life that their country could propose them (Shiller, Boycko, & Korobov, 1991).
First decade after Independency proclamation were years of deep economic crisis from one side, and wide sources expansion from the other side. In such terms, people simultaneously got access to information and products/ services, which they never had before. They got opportunity to buy their own property, invest in business, get private education, medical services and purchase imported goods (Sharma, 1992). However, low income of society defined impossibility of consumers to accept all those propositions which appeared on the market. With the beginning of new millennium, Ukraine step by step began to take direction towards developed economies and their practice of expanded middle class (Libanova, 2002). Despite the fact that, level of income of most of the citizens was low or lower than medium, personal identification and self-value made people look for ways to increase their level of income beyond governmental policies (Cherevko, 2010). From those times onward, grey-scheme enterprises, unofficial employment and corruption contribute a lot to country’s economy (Tsepko, 2010). However, this movement didn’t stimulate growth of middle class, but just expanded gap between rich and poor (Libanova, 2002).
Following decades have brought ups and downs to economy of Ukraine, as well as social well-being of its citizens. Revolution of 2004 followed by calm and developing years up to revolution of 2014, when whole county was thrown into deep economic crisis (Averre & Wolczuk, 2016). From social sphere, those years were presented with comparable stable level of education and employment in society, whereas family income saw jumps from medium to low positions if compare with international standards (Kremenec, 2015). Today, International statistics identify Ukraine like country of lower-middle income with 8,200$ GDP per capita, what put her on 149 place among World’s countries by the same identification (Central Intellegence Agency, 2016). Those trends also caused growth of self-responsibility for income and level of well-being. Thus 70% of population claim that they believe it’s their own responsibility to achieve level of life, which they chose for themselves, from which about 60% define themselves as middle class (Libanova, 2002).
As a result of metamorphoses, which during their lifetime was following working generation of people, who are now in their 20s -30s, their style-life completely differ from standard models of consumers within same income group in other countries. Moreover, it is common for them to not repeat consumer patterns of their own parents or elder generation, as they build completely different priorities in life (Say, 2015). To conclude, defined group of consumers have ambitious plans for their future and a lot of possibilities to get them. It is common among them to purchase clothes beyond their income level to distinguish themselves with upper class. They are more likely to save money and plan big purchases in advance, rather than follow one-moment decisions even in daily shopping (Cherevko, 2010). Although in comparison to International practice most of the people in the group are likely to have low or middle income.
From the other aspect, with rapid technological development during the young age of generation, they are distinguished as active users of Internet technologies. 70% of Millennials confirm their dependence on Smartphone, which they use about 150 times per day in order to get some information. From their prior activities are listening music and making quick random pictures in order to subsequently post in social networks (Say, 2015).
As a common practice, segment of population who has their own property, car, stable profession, high level of education and possibility to satisfy their own needs as well as safe money for future, can distinguish themselves as middle class with middle income (Libanova, 2002). However, eventually, determinants evolved and level of income began to be comparable identification among other counties or within one country. To take in a global-scale, according to The World Bank, countries are currently divided into four income groups: low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high, based on GNP per capita (The World Bank, 2016). According to this statistics, Ukraine belongs to lower-middle income country. Looking on the smaller scale, deviation inside the country are even more important determinants for purchasing capability and consumer preferences. Regarding Ukraine, in 2017 the living wage for country was distinguished in 3200 UAH (120 $) (Low about national budget of Ukraine for year 2017 [Закон України Про Державний бюджет України на 2017 рік], 2016). Newly implemented data correspond to International standards, which identify 1.90 $ per day as poverty line (The World Bank, 2016) If compare to Ukraine wages, about 6 % of population still lives under poverty line (National Agency of Statistics in Ukraine [Національна служба статистики України], 2016). Also, according to National statistics of Ukraine, average income in 2016 was 6475 UAH (240 $) (National Agency of Statistics in Ukraine [Державна служба статистики України], 2017), what put country on 143 place as per average monthly income by country (The World Bank, 2016). As per purposes of our research, we have determined our target market as low and middle income context, what means that we will face necessities of consumers who have monthly income of average Ukrainian salary and below, but not considering population who live below poverty line. Thus, in context of our work we will face population who earns 3200UAH (120$) to 6475 UAH (240$) per month, considering that he/she have to sustain just his/her life. According to stratification as per field of occupation, around 50% of working population are part of this category. As per demographic limitation, there are 1,992,858 women in age group between 20 to 30 from urban zones in Ukraine as per 2016 data, what is about 11% of working-age population in the country (26,317,358) (National Agency of Statistics in Ukraine [Державна служба статистики України], 2016). If presume, that women are equally presented in all sectors of economy and receive equal wages, then project aim to face needs of about 1,000,000 of people, what is equal to about 2.4 % of the population. Although data can slightly vary based Global Gender Gap Report which identifies that Ukrainian female population earns about 70% of corresponded male salary (World Economic Forum, 2015). Number of target population will be also reduced further as per occupation.
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