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LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF APPENDICES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
1.0 Chapter Introduction
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions/ Hypotheses
1.5 Assumptions of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.8 Delimitations of the Study
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
1.10 Chapter Summary
2.1 Chapter Introduction
2.3 Conceptual Framework
2.3.1 Elements of SLA
2.3.2 Advantages of Sustainable Livelihood Approach
2.3.3 Disadvantages of the sustainable livelihoods Framework
2.4 Empirical Research
2.5 Justification of the Study
2.6 Chapter Summary
DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Chapter introduction
3.2 Description of the study area
3.3 Research Methodology
3.3.1 Research Design
3.3.2 Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques used in the Study
3.4 Instruments used to Collect Data
3.4.2 Focus Group Discussions
3.5 Procedure for Collecting Data
3.6 Data Analysis and Presentation
3.7 Chapter Summary
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Chapter Introduction
4.2 Characteristics of Respondents
4.3 Nature of solid waste management
4.4 Solid waste collection and transportation
4.5 Challenges faced by stakeholders in managing solid waste
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4.1 Recommendations for the residents
5.4.2 Recommendations the council authorities
5.4.3 Recommendations for EMA
5.4.4 Recommendations for the corporate world
Table 4.1: Characteristics of respondents
Table 4.2: Income level and dominant waste type generated
Table 4.3 Major waste types in Glendale.
Table 4.4: Internal receptacles used by respondents
Table 4.5: Frequency of waste separation
Table 4.6: Solid waste collection frequency by suburb
Table 4.7: Frequency of awareness campaigns
Table 4.8: Methods of disposing solid waste
Table 4.9: Chi-square tests
Table 4.10: Table of results of chi- square test (significant cases).
Figure 2.1: Sustainable livelihoods approach conceptual framework
Figure 3.1: Location map of Glendale
Figure 3.2: Population trend for Glendale.
Figure 4.1: Questionnaire response rate.
Figure 4.2: Solid waste generation rate per week
Figure 4.3: Methods of emptying internal receptacle
Figure 4.4: Willingness to separate and recycle waste in future
Figure 4.5: How respondents rate the council‟s waste collection service..
Plate 4.1: Bin full of solid waste at Tsungubvi bus terminus...38 Plate 4.2: Rubbish mall constructed by the council with mainly kaylite containers39 Plate 4.3: The only tractor available collecting waste at Tsungubvi bus terminus..40 Plate 4.4: Council„s official dump site near Sisk suburb.44 Plate 4.5: Illegal dumpsite consisting mainly of agricultural waste being burnt
Appendix I: Questionnaire for the Residents..
Appendix II: Interview Schedule for EMA officials
Appendix III: Letter seeking permission to carry out research..
Appendix IV: Interview Schedule for Environmental health officer.
Appendix V: Interview Schedule for local authority
Appendix VI: Focus group discussion question guide for garbage collectors
Appendix VII: Focus group discussion question guide for CBO members
Appendix VIII: Receptacles used in Glendale..
Appendix IX: Solid waste dump sites.
BUSE Bindura University of Science Education CBO…Community Based Organisation
EMA … Environmental Management Agency
FGD Focus Group Discussion
ILO .. International Labour Organisation ISWM ….. Integrated Solid Waste Management NGO ….. . Non- Governmental Organisation RDC.. Rural District Council SW .. Solid Waste
SWM Solid Waste Management
UNO United Nations Organisation
ZimAsset … Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic
SPSS.. Statistical Package for Social Sciences
This is dedicated to my wife Mavis and our three children; Takunda, Tinaye and Tariro.
The successful completion of this work was a result of maximum support from a number of people. Firstly, I am very grateful to Dr Mberengwa, my supervisor, for his asistance and patience when I was working on this thesis. Secondly, I am indebted to Mr Basira and Mr Negwaya for the advice they gave me. I also want to thank Glendale community for their support for this study to be a success. Above all, my gratitude goes to my wife, Mavis and children for the encouragement.
Improper management of solid waste poses many challenges to the stakeholders such as residents, council authorities, business community and other support groups. The general objective of the study is to assess the sustainability of waste management in Glendale. The researcher used case study research design in conjunction with mixed methods research in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to collect data. The target population for the study consisted of residents of Valley, Westville Park and Sisk, council authorities, Environmental Management Agency (EMA) officer, waste collectors, members of community based organizations (CBOs) and the environmental health officer. The total population was 569 and the sample size was 235. Stratified systematic sampling was employed to select 220 households and the rest except CBO members were picked using purposive sampling. CBO members were selected using convenience sampling. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), observations as well as secondary data. Qualitative data was analysed thematically while quantitative data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version
16.0 as well as Pearson Chi square test. The results of the study indicated that solid waste management in Glendale is inefficient. Four and half tonnes of waste is generated per day in Glendale but only 2.0tonnes is collected and 2.5tonnes is left uncollected. It was noted that the waste is mainly decomposable organic. There is widespread illegal dumping of waste, inconsistent collection of waste, insufficient provision of receptacles and the council‟s official dump site is illegal. The council dumped waste on an illegal dumpsite characterised by open dumping and burning of waste. It was also noted that the waste was not separated according to type at the source. The study recommended an increase in awareness campaigns to ensure a change in the attitudes of the residents especially in connection with managing sanitary waste. In addition, the council should play its part by collecting waste frequently by increasing the size of its fleet for waste collection. The decomposable organic waste should also be used for generation of biogas.
The chapter provides a synopsis of the research on the management of solid waste (SW) in Glendale. Issues that are covered include among others; statement of the problem, objectives, limitations, and delimitations of the concept and area of study.
Zimbabwe, like many developing countries has solid waste management related challenges. Solid waste management has become more problematic in most cities due to rapid increase in urban population (Fei-Baffoe et al,, 2014; Olukanni et al., 2014; Schwarz-Herion et al., 2008). Solid waste management is a significant component of the United Nations agenda on sustainable development (Agenda 21, 1992). Waste management has implications on climate change, the environment, public health and the economy through tourism for instance. Proper solid waste management enhances the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (Gonzenbach & Coad, 2007). In addition, solid waste management is a component of Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset) under food security and nutrition cluster, in the cluster key result area of environmental management (Government of Zimbabwe, 2013). The local authorities and Environmental Management Agency (EMA) have been given the responsibility to manage pollution and waste in the country. Thus the management of solid waste has attracted attention internationally, regionally, nationally and locally.
Solid Waste management plays a pivotal role in enhancing sustainable development as it eliminates deterioration of the environment and improving the quality of life. Furthermore it can employ more people as an industry and promotes tourism. Solid waste management is a worldwide challenge ranging from developing to developed countries. Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2013) reported that solid waste management poses environmental problems in many cities in many developing countries. In Nepal solid waste management is not given higher priority because demand tends to be higher for other public services in most of the towns and cities. Resultantly open dumping is the most common method used by 45 out of the 58 municipalities.
UN Habitat (2010) observed that in the United Kingdom (UK) the solid waste is recycled through the involvement of members of the general public. In the Municipality of Rother for example, the programme was launched leading to an increase in recycling from 16% to 50%. Thus participation of all stakeholders makes it easier to handle solid waste. Pune city of India produces large quantities of solid waste which is poorly disposed and untreated (Mundhe et al., 2014). The city has no scientific landfill site and the capacity of existing dump can hardly support the increasing quantity of the waste generated.
Malaysia is faced with serious challenges related to solid waste management which are mainly a result of population increases, economic growth, inadequate legislation, infrastructure (Badgie et al., 2012). Solid waste management is one of the greatest challenges facing the state and local government environmental protection organisations in Nigeria (Ogwueleka, 2009). Rampant disposal of solid waste in dumpsites located within urban areas has posed problems to nearby residents in most developing cities and Freetown is no exception (Sankoh et al., 2013)
The study carried out in the Chatsworth Township in Durban showed that the waste collection system is inefficient and that is mainly due attitudes and socio-economic characteristics of the residents (Dawnarain, 2004). The situation is the same in Zimbabwe where the cholera of 2008-2009 which killed 3500 in Zimbabwe was a direct consequence of a breakdown of municipality services, including irregular refuse collection among other factors (Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, 2010). In Harare the authority is finding it difficult to manage solid waste due to financial constraints accompanied by malfunctioning equipment (Togarepi &Tsiko, 2012). Resultantly, there is uncontrolled illegal dumping of waste and some go to the extent of burning the waste openly.
Solid waste management is very critical in the view of public health and sustainable development. It curbs the spread of diseases such as cholera and also creates opportunities for employment. Local authorities have challenges in solid waste management due to lack of resources, rapid population growth and rural urban migration.
Poor solid waste management has created challenges worldwide and Zimbabwe particularly Glendale. Glendale generates large amounts of waste which is poorly disposed of. Solid waste collection in Glendale is very erratic and some cases some suburbs can go for more than a month without receiving such a service. The proliferation of illegal solid waste dumpsites in and around Glendale is creating serious challenges in terms of air, water and land pollution .This has increased the risk of spread of diseases such as cholera. Such practices are inconsistent with sustainable development. The existing dump site, which is an open dump site, can no longer cope with the increasing demand of the waste generated as the population increases and commercial activities such as vending are sprouting in many parts of the township. The loose papers and plastics from the open dump site are scattered all over the area by the wind which significantly reduces the aesthetic value of the area.
Many studies have been done on solid waste and most of these revolved around analysis of current solid waste management in order to find lasting solutions to the challenges faced in the areas studied (Regassa et al., 2011; Kayode & Omole, 2011; Chikobvu & Makarati, 2011; Cherdsatirkul, 2012; Schwarz-Herion et al., 2008). Many scholars who have studied evaluation of solid waste management concentrated on the challenges and opportunities. Very few studies have been done in semi-urban areas for example in Nigeria (Olukanni et al., 2014).
The general objective of the study is to assess the sustainability of solid waste management in Glendale.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
- Describe the nature of solid waste practices in the high, medium and low density suburbs of Glendale.
- Evaluate the extent to which solid waste management system in Glendale conforms to the expectations of the residents.
- Highlight challenges encountered by residents, council authorities and other stakeholders in managing solid waste in Glendale.
- Suggest ways of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the solid waste management framework currently being employed in Glendale.
This study was guided by the following research questions:
- What are the different methods of solid waste disposal used in Glendale?
- Mazowe Rural District Council‟s solid waste collection frequency in Glendale is less than what is stipulated by its policy.
- What are challenges encountered by residents, council authorities and other stakeholders in managing solid waste in Glendale.
- What are the possible ways of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the solid waste management framework currently being employed in Glendale.
The study assumed that effective solid waste management by a local authority enhances sustainable development. In addition it also assumes that Glendale has a solid waste management framework. The researcher believes that the respondents will cooperate with him. Thus the researcher will be able to get honest and sincere responses from the respondents. Furthermore, it is assumed that the selected sample will be an accurate representation of the population.
The research will be critical to the academia and policy makers. The study will enhance the researcher‟s skills in terms of his research competencies. The experience gained will enable the researcher to carry out other studies of better quality in terms of methodology used and how the results are presented and analysed.
It will also provide a strong basis for further research in related areas of study. Anastas (2012) is of the view that research studies should contribute to fundamental knowledge or provide solutions to real world problems. The information obtained would be used as a springboard for exploring new areas related to it. Thus it is used as an eye opener.
Furthermore, the study will become integral part to the university‟s database relating to solid waste management research and this information can be used by other scholars as reference material for research in similar areas of study. Recommendations emanating from the study may be considered for adoption by the local authority in Glendale as a means of enhancing the solid waste management strategies.
There were fears that some of the respondents especially the council authorities might not tell the truth in order to paint a good picture of their organisation. This shortcoming was marginalised through triangulation of methods.
The time available to the research was not sufficient for a thorough coverage of the whole area under study. The financial resources required for the coverage of Glendale in order to collect the data were too much for the research. The problem was minimised by the use of sampling.
There was also fear of the volatile political environment. Residents did not cooperate or freely express their views due to fear of political persecution. Resultantly, the findings did not give a true picture of what is on the ground. However, the researcher assured all respondents anonymity and confidentiality of all their contributions to the study. In the same way, council workers did not answer truthfully due to fear of ongoing retrenchment in the country. However, the researcher assured all respondents anonymity and confidentiality of all their contributions to the study. Furthermore, the researcher did not get an up-to-date register of households. This meant that some households were left out from the study thereby giving an inaccurate image of the area under study.
There are three types of delimitations which are conceptual, geographical and population delimitation. Conceptually, this study will focus on solid waste. Thus non- solid waste is outside the scope of the study for example industrial gases, industrial effluent as well as flowing sewage. In this study solid waste does not include human waste. Geographically, the research will be confined to Glendale. Concession and Mazowe are outside the researcher‟s area of study. The study will look at Valley, Westville Park and Sisk suburbs. The population of the study will be confined to the residents of Sisk, Westville Park and Valley in Glendale, Mazowe Rural District Council management and workers, environmental health officers and Environmental Management Agency (EMA) official as well as members of the Community based organizations (CBOs).
Waste is any substance or object which are disposed of or intended to be disposed of or need to be disposed of (Sasikumar & Krishna, 2009).
Solid waste refers to all wastes produced through residential, commercial, industrial and institutional activities in solid form such as paper, plastic and glass materials (Basha, 2007).
Recycling converts waste into usable products at the same time conserving natural resources, reducing deforestation, stopping water pollution and saving energy (Singh & Ramanathan, 2010). Baeumler, Ijjasz-Vasquez and Mehndiratta (2012) add the fact that recycling reduces the level of greenhouse gases from the extraction of raw materials and production of goods. Recycling is beneficial in that it reduces litter and provides supplementary income for waste pickers (Behzad et al., 2011; ILO, 2007).
Waste segregation is the separation of waste into various specified categories according to type such as plastic, paper and glass (Baecumler et al., 2012; Sharma, 2002). Anand (2010) recommended strict legislation with penalty for non-compliance to ensure segregation of waste at source. Baecumler et al., (2012) noted that even though segregation of garbage brings higher collection costs and requires compliance from waste generators, it significantly increases the potential to recycle waste, increases the quality of compost and recyclables and optimises incineration.Waste segregation involves the separation of waste by type, for example biodegradables, plastics, paper and cans (TARSC, 2010).
Waste reduction is the minimisation and prevention of waste through reusing products to reduce waste generation from material extraction and consumption increasing awareness and introducing user charges based on the amount of waste generated. (Baecumler et al., 2012) This can be achieved through donating old clothes to the disadvantaged and reusing plastic bags when one goes for shopping. Reusing a product is more efficient than recycling since fewer resources are used and less pollution is produced (Pizam, 2010). Waste reduction therefore limits the amount of garbage to be handled by the council authorities.
Waste reuse is a way of diversion of garbage from where it is used for the original purpose to a different purpose (Gillepsie, 2015). This can be achieved by using empty peanut butter bottles as sugar containers.
A household is defined as a person or group of people staying together in the same dwelling unit whether or not they are related by blood or marriage (ZimStat, 2012). The households are some of the generators of solid waste.
Solid waste management (SWM)
Solid waste management (SWM) refers to the process in supervised handling of waste material involving generation, transportation, processing, treatment and disposal of waste (Booth et al., 2001). The study assessed the generation, transportation and disposal of waste.
Omran et al. (2009) defined SWM as the control of waste generation, storage, collection ,transfer and transport processing and disposal of solid wastes in line with the best practice of public health, economics and financial engineering, administrative, and legal and environmental framework.
According to UNO (1987) World Commission on Environment and Development, the Brundtland Commission, defined sustainable development as development which addresses the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need. Peacock (2008) concurred with this view saying sustainable development occurs when economic growth and consumption are planned in a manner that minimizes negative ecological impact. There are three principles of sustainable development according to Sisaye (2015).
Futuristic: Sustainability has a principle of conservation and is hinged key futuristic ideals. The resources are used with the future generations in mind. Every stakeholder from societies and governments to individual persons should work with futuristic goals with policies being proactive rather than reactive (Tzafestas, 2010). The ways used to manage solid waste should conserve resources for future use.
Ecological: Sustainability should recognise and be adapted to the local environmental conditions and culture for it to give the best to the people it is meant for.Harris (2000) supported this view saying that an environmentally sustainable system should maintain a stable resource base, avoiding over-exploitation of renewable resource system and depleting non-renewable resources at the same time maintaining biodiversity, atmospheric stability, and other ecosystem functions. The methods used for solid waste management should be environmental friendly.
Equity: Equity is fairness to amongst the stakeholders. Sustainable development should be based on equity and social justice promoting inter-organisational, biodiversity and geographical equity. Tzafestas (2010) notes that equity between developing and developed country is a requirement for sustainability. The ways solid waste is dealt should treat fairly all the stakeholders locally, nationally, regionally and internationally.
This chapter outlined the background to the study, the statement of the problem, research questions and assumptions, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study as well as definition of terms. The next chapter will review the literature related to the study, establishing gaps and how to bridge those gaps.
The present chapter focuses on the reviews on the area of study with special emphasis on conceptual and theoretical frameworks underpinning issues relating to solid waste management and sustainable development as well as relevant empirical research studies that have been carried out and conclude by identifying the gap that this study wants fill.
Although solid waste has been produced since the early days of civilisation, it did not pose any threat to human life since the population was still very small and there was very large land available for its disposal (Plesea &Visan, 2010). Solid waste became an issue about 10 000 BC due to the shift from nomadism to creation of permanent settlements as well as increase in human population (Roberts, 2011). However no lasting solution has been found to bring this challenge to an end. In spite of the fact that waste generation is rising, waste collection is deteriorating (Makwara & Magudu, 2013; Selin, 2013). Worldwide solid waste management now aims at waste reduction and recycling before disposal (Musademba et al., 2011).
There are many approaches which can be used to analyse solid waste management such as the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) (Conway, 1985; Chambers & Conway, 1991) Research and Development (Siriratpiriyaas cited in Pariatamby & Tanaka, 2007) and Inputs, Responsibilities and Time framework (Sasikumar & Krishna, 2009) but this study will focus on sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA). SLA is people centred. It focuses on what matters most to the poor people, for example higher incomes and cleaner environment (Serrat, 2008; Carney et al., 1999). The SLA evolved in the 1980s and early 1990s and is believed to be still evolving. It was developed from the works of Chambers and Conway on rural livelihoods and the work by Oxfam and World Bank on the characterisation of the deprived (Carney et al., 1999). According to Serrat (2008) a livelihood consists of capabilities, assets, and activities needed for a living. It is considered as being sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and enhance capabilities both now and in the future without degrading the environment (Carney, 1998; Serrat, 2008). The SLA is a way of considering the objectives, scope, and priorities for the improvement of the standard of living of the poor (Serrat, 2008). This study is concerned with the effectiveness of solid waste management in reducing urban poverty. Njoroge et al., (2013) observed that solid waste management is a source of income for the urban poor. This includes both formal employment in the form of refuse collection as well as informal jobs through scavenging for waste material to produce goods for sale.
Serrat (2008) and Carney et al. (1999) identified six guiding principles for SLA. The approach is people centred. Sustainable poverty elimination will be achieved if people‟s livelihoods are understood and the poor themselves actively participate in the solid waste management activities. The framework places the poor people at the centre training them to help themselves. SLA is responsive and participatory. The poor should actively participate in identifying and addressing the livelihood priorities. Outsiders need to pay special attention and respond to the concerns of the poor. In addition, the framework is dynamic. External support should observe the dynamic nature of livelihoods and flexibly respond the poor‟s situation. SLA is multi-level. SLA should ensure micro-macro linkages both at the policy development level and at the service delivery level. In addition the higher level structures should support poor to build upon their own strengths. It encourages broad partnerships among stakeholders. Thus the government, the private sector, the poor, the NGOs and other donors should work together for the common good. Above all SLA is sustainable. There should be a balance in the four key dimensions of sustainability which are economic, institutional, social and environmental sustainability. This is a requirement for poverty reduction to be lasting.
The conceptual framework (Figure 2.1) consists of five main elements;
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 2.1: Sustainable livelihoods approach conceptual framework
Source: DFID Model Modified from Carney et al., 1999
Njoroge et al. (2013) identified five key elements of SLA which are shock context, livelihood assets, policies and institutions, livelihood strategies and sustainable livelihood outcomes.
Shock context refers to the sources of insecurity to which the poor and their five capital assets are vulnerable to. Thus the vulnerability context affects access to the livelihood assets (Brechbuhl, 2011). Livelihood assets are human, social, physical, financial and natural assets. The framework helps to organise the factors that enhance the livelihood opportunities (Serrat, 2008). Policies and institutions govern individuals and institutions thereby influencing their access to and the use of capital assets. Livelihood strategies are the various measures put in place in order to achieve the desired goal. The strategies in solid waste management include reducing, reuse, recycling, recovering, repairing, compositing, scavenging, informal collection of waste and incineration. Sustainable livelihood outcomes are the desired goals which include higher income, clean environment, improved housing and improved food security.
The strengths of the approach are as follows: The framework is a useful basis for analysing complex situations involving changing combination of modes of livelihoods in a dynamic and historical context. (Ashley, 2000; Serrat, 2008). SLA ensures focus will not only be restricted to economic and direct impacts through its holistic approach. This is because it provides an explicit emphasis on what matters most to the people (Ashley, 2000). It explores relationships between activities that constitutes livelihoods and drains attention to social relations (Ashley, 2000; Serrat, 2000). It is important for it distinguishes between supportive strategies and alternative strategies (Serrat, 2008). SLA advocates for an intuitive appeal which is cross-sectional and people-focused work through its emphasis on the importance of macro and micro linkages.( Ashley, 2000; Serrat, 2008).The framework also acknowledges the need to go beyond narrow sartorial perspectives emphasizing linkages between sectors (Serrat, 2008).
Serrat (2008) identified the following weaknesses of the SLA. It gives very little attention to the elements of vulnerability such as macroeconomic trends and conflict. The framework ignores inequalities of power. SLA is based on an unrealistic assumption that capital assets can be increased in a generalised and incremental fashion. The framework does not pay adequate attention to the fact that improving the livelihoods of one group can in the long-term undermine those of another (Serrat, 2008). Ashley (2000) argued that it is very difficult to quantify change and the contributions to the livelihoods.
In order to reduce the effect of these challenges the researcher drew participants from all walks of life to ensure that the views of both groups are catered for. In addition, the poor actively participated in the solid waste management programmes such as clean-up campaigns as well as recycling and reuse of waste.
Most researches concur that solid waste management is one of the most important issues in the urban environment and need to be given priority (Basha, 2007; Mudzengerere & Chigwenya, 2012; Musademba et al., 2011; Desta et al., 2014). Annepu (2012) studied solid waste management in India with the aim of evaluating its impact on public health and the environment. The main objective was to look for ways of reducing the large quantity of solid waste by recovering materials and energy from wastes, in a sustainable manner. The study showed that open burning of solid wastes emits large amounts of pollutants and is ranked to be the largest polluter in Mumbai among the activities which do not add value to the urban centre.
There is a positive correlation between proper solid waste management and sustainable development (Dawnarian, 2004). Thus proper solid waste management enhances solid waste management. High rate of population growth led to significant increase in the amount of solid waste. This has led to depletion of ground water, collapsing fisheries, global warming and deforestation (Jain, 2007).Solid waste management provides a wide range of employment opportunities in sweeping, waste collection as well as in recycling (Gonzebach & Coad, 2007).Even though cities in Africa use 20-50 percent of their budget allocation in solid waste management only 20-80 percent of the waste is collected (Ojo, 2014).
Developing countries face serious challenges relating to solid waste management. Ogawa (2005) noted that the main constraints to sound solid waste management are technical, financial, institutional, and economic and social. According to Ogawa (2005) in most developing countries both the national and local levels are characterised by lack of human resources with technical know-how for solid waste management works. Basha (2007) reported that in Addis Ababa the solid waste management system is unsustainable, shapeless, uncoordinated, inefficient, and unrepresentative to such extent that waste generation excessively exceeds the rate at which the refuse is collected. Developing countries also lack overall plans for solid waste management at the local and national levels resulting in selection of technology without due consideration of its appropriateness to the overall system. The selection of inappropriate technology is also a result of lack of research and development activities in solid waste management (Ogawa, 2005).
In their study in Chinhoyi, Mudzengerere and Chigwenya (2012) reported that cities in developing countries lack funding for purchasing standard equipment for solid waste collection. According to Ogawa (2005) solid waste management in developing countries is given very low priority in terms of funding and in addition, many local governments lack good financial management and planning. Developing countries are characterised by the involvement of several agencies at least partially in solid waste management each with no clear roles. This would lead to unnecessary duplications of efforts and wasting of resources (Ogawa, 2005). He also adds that the situation is worsened by the lack of effective legislation for solid waste management. Furthermore, there is lack of coordination between the national agencies enforcing the several laws and in the same cases the laws tend to have gaps in the regulatory provisions for the development of effective solid waste management.
Ogawa (2005) observes that developing countries have insufficient funds for sustainable management of solid waste management. The situation is further worsened by the lack of industry manufacturing solid waste equipment or vehicles and spare parts and a limited foreign exchange for importing the equipment or spare parts (Ogawa, 2005). Chikobvu and Makarati (2011) observed that Harare municipality faces the challenge of lack of refuse collection trucks and shortage of fuel leading to excessive accumulation of litter in the city. Musademba et al. (2011), in their study in Chinhoyi observed that the economic meltdown that hit Zimbabwe between 2000 and 2010 created many challenges that militated against proper urban solid waste management. The problems included inability of local authorities to supply safe water to the residents, inability to dispose of sewage and the breakdown of infrastructure and service delivery in MSW management activities ranging from waste generation, storing collection to safe disposal.
Ogawa (2005) observed that the social status of solid waste management workers is generally low in both developed and developing countries through the situation is worse in the developing countries. The impact represents the shock context of the SLA as these are the deprivations experienced by the society due to improper solid waste management.
Many studies have been carried on solid waste management with most of them concentrating the challenges faced by different governments and local authorities. The various literature reviewed showed that solid waste management poses more problems in the developing countries than in the developed countries. Improper solid waste management increases disease transmission as the waste such as discarded cans and tyres serve as a breeding grounds for disease vector such as mosquitoes, cockroaches, rodents and houseflies (Mudzengerere & Chigwenya, 2012; EGSSAA, 2009). Sango (2010) reports that the prevalence of diseases such as cholera malaria and diarrhoea from 2008 to 2009 in Chinhoyi is mainly as a result of the collapse of environmental health management delivery infrastructure and services among which solid waste management is central.
The leakage from landfills can contain toxic materials and pathogenic organisms which are a threat to public health. Annepu (2012) and ILO (2007) added that uncontrolled burying of waste also may produce poisonous gases that might cause diseases like cancer or produce flammable gases which might lead to fire outbreaks.
The accumulation of solid waste discourages tourism and other human activities due to ugly appearance of waste dumps along streets and unpleasant odours (EGSSAA, 2007; Mudzengerere and Chigwenya, 2012). Sharp objects like needles broken glass and razor blades present in waste piles might harm children and scavengers as well as animals (ILO, 2007).
Solid waste management involves the generation of waste, storage, collection, transfer and transportation, processing and disposal of wastes in accordance with the best ethics of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental values (Annepu, 2012; Plesea & Visan, 2010). Dhokhikah and Trihadiningrum (2012) and Behzad et al. (2012) studied the existing solid waste management practices and problems in Asian developing countries. The results of their study showed solid waste generation in Asian third world countries was high because of the large population and the main component of the waste is decomposable organic (Dhokhikah &Trihadiningrum, 2012).
In their study Behzad et al. (2011) argued that the challenges faced in Malaysia are a result of a rise in population and tourism, economic growth and inadequate enforcement of waste legislation, poor infrastructure and negative public attitude. They concurred with Dhokhikah and Trihadiningrum (2012) that there is a significant rise in solid waste generation in terms of amount and composition. The study in the Asian developing countries showed that the solid waste management system is characterised by absence of collection coverage and open landfill dumping leading to ground water and surface pollution (Dhokhikah & Trihadiningrum 2012).
According to PlaNYC (2013) New York City (NYC) generates about 14 million tonnes of solid waste each year, which translates to 4.6 kg per person per day. The findings of the study showed that wastes come from households, construction and demolition, fill and commercial business each year and of this entire waste, 50% is recycled. The amount of solid waste generated depends upon a number of factors which include the standard of living and the time of the year (Metropolis, 2005).
In her study, Dawnarain (2004) investigated the existing waste management in Chatsworth township of Durban in South Africa and found out that the waste collection system is inefficient mainly due to attitudes and socio-economic characteristics of the residents. The research designs used for data collection were the same as those used by Desta et al. (2014) in their study in which they analysed and evaluated the current waste management practices in Addis Ababa. The research designs used are both qualitative and quantitative. Dawnarain (2004) employed the survey method through the use of questionnaires to the residents and semi-structured interviews with key informants. In addition for data entry and analysis, she used the SPSS. The study showed the less educated residents do not worry themselves much about waste removal and as a result they dump it carelessly and illegally. She recommended that there should be implementation of appropriate policy supported by enforceable legislation to ensure sustainable development. The studies carried out indicated that more developed countries produce larger quantities of solid waste than developing countries but the garbage does not pose any challenge in the former. Waste generation rate in Addis Ababa is 0.5 per person per day (Desta et al., 2014) whereas in New York City it is 4.6kg per `person per day (PlanNYC, 2013). From this it can be deduced that the waste generation rate of New York City is about 9 times that of Addis Ababa. Desta et al.(2014) found out that the poor solid waste management in Addis Ababa was due to limited, defective operating equipment,
illegal dumping on undesignated sites, open disposals, poor condition of final dumpsite, lack of effective public participation and inadequate governance in waste management system.
A separate study carried out in the same city of Addis Ababa showed that a project is underway involving the community, the local authority and the international community to address the challenges that have bedevilled the city well known for the formation of Organisation of African Union in 1963 (Van Dijk, 2014). The residents collect the waste and are paid upon delivery and those who buy the waste use it for making different products from the recyclable wastes.
Desta et al. (2014) recommended early involvement of all stakeholders at the planning stage and education to enhance awareness. In their study, Otchere et al. (2015) identified and evaluated solid waste management practices in Kumasi metropolis in Nigeria. They used a sample size of 200 out of a total population of 350. In their study they tested how the seven solid waste management generation, transfer and transport, on-site handling, collecting, sorting, disposal and energy generation practices were done in Kumasi. The results of the study showed that only two practices of waste generation and transfer practices were carried out moderately but the rest were inappropriately done. On the basis of their findings, they recommended adoption of appropriate waste management practices such as conversion of waste into energy and collecting the waste property.
Huvengwa (2012) in his study used a rarely used mixed methods research, to analyse the challenges encountered in the management of solid waste in Masvingo town in Zimbabwe. He used systematic and simple random sampling techniques in conjunction with data collection tools such as interview schedules, observation guides and questionnaires. The population for his study included residents, EMA authorities, commercial and industrial sector and some of the waste pickers. The results of his study showed that in addition to the common irregular collection and illegal dumpsites in most studies, Masvingo town is also characterised by lack of waste segregation. Basing on the findings, he recommended that the town authorities should form an integrated waste management system in which all stakeholders contribute for the common good of the town.
In their study, Mudzengerere and Chigwenya (2012) found out that 92% of the residents in Bulawayo are provided with bins though only 48% are using the environmentally acceptable plastic bins. In addition, the official dump site is an open dump but dumping is strictly forbidden. This creates employment opportunity for the jobless to scavenge and recycle the waste.
Chikobvu and Makarati (2011), in their study of the solid waste management in Highfield suburb of Harare in Zimbabwe, they used systematic and convenient sampling. The results showed that the solid waste management infrastructure is inadequate, too old and too expensive to service. They recommended that there should be education on viability of recycling, compositing and sustainable dumping of waste. Musademba et al. (2011) found out that in Chinhoyi town in Zimbabwe poor solid waste management led to inability of municipalities to provide safe water, irregular collection of wastes and lack of safe disposal of the refuse causing diseases such as cholera.
In a study by Amoah and Kosoe (2014) in the city of Wa in Ghana the data was collected using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The findings revealed that there is unsound SW management in Wa; 810 tonnes of solid waste is generated daily but only 216 tonnes are collected. Their results indicated that authorities in Wa employ landfilling for final disposal of the waste at a dump site located 5km from the city centre. However, the waste is just deposited at the site without any treatment of wastes thereby increasing the risk of spreading diseases in the city.
The study carried out by Jerie and Tevera (2014) involved use of questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) to collect data on solid waste management practices in the informal sector of Gweru. The findings of their study revealed that large amounts of solid waste are generated mainly made up of biodegradable material and vegetable waste as well as incinerable waste such as paper, textiles and rubber all of which are disposed of using unsound methods. In addition their results showed that Gweru City Council faces an acute shortage of transport for collecting waste since whole city has two old and frequently breaking down trucks and one tractor which are insufficient in relation to the waste generated. Furthermore, their study revealed that waste collection in Gweru is not only erratic but also erratic as waste collectors leave behind some wastes. Jerie and Tevera (2014), in their study found out that 32% of the respondents are willing to recycle the waste.
In addition, the garbage is openly dumped on unprotected sites.
The use of mixed methods approach is rare and its use through triangulation of methodologies could give a lot of data relevant to the study.
Most studies concentrated on large urban centres outside and inside Zimbabwe where the restoration of sound solid waste management is now utopian since the challenge has become complex. Studying small and upcoming centres gives an idea of how the problem begins and grows. To date, no study on solid waste management has been carried out in Glendale. However some studies have been carried out in Glendale but these only covered service delivery in general (Mupure, 2014). Therefore this study attempts to fill this gap.
The chapter focussed on the literature reviewed on issues pertinent to solid waste management. It dealt with the theoretical framework which guides the study, empirical works that relate to the study and it also establishes the gap that this study attempts to fill. The next chapter will look at the research methodologies used in the study, including sampling methods and research instruments.
The present chapter covers the study area, the research design used in the study, research instruments, population, sampling, procedures for data collection as well as procedures for data presentation and data analysis.
Glendale is a township under Mazowe RDC found in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. The township‟s geographical coordinates are 17.4 ° South and 31.1° east, Glendale is situated approximately 66.5km north-east of Harare. Figure 3.1 shows the study area.
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Figure 3.1: Location map of Glendale
Source: BUSE GIS laboratory
Its altitude is about 1143m. The average temperature and rainfall are 19.4°c and 870.3mm per year respectively. Furthermore, the average relative humidity for Glendale is 72.6% and the average length of day is 12.5hours.
The study area has a population of 22 323 and 13 680 households (ZimStat, 2012). Females constitute 51.1% and males make up 48.9%. The population for the township is rapidly increasing. Before 2010 Glendale was made up of one ward, ward 17 and the population was low and stable. The situation changed in 2012 when wards 16 and 33 were grafted into the township leading to a rapid population increase. The residents‟ means of livelihood include farming, vending and formal employment in mines industries, schools, health institutions and other government departments. The population trend is shown in Figure 3.1.
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Figure 3.2: Population trend for Glendale
Source: ZimStat (2012)
Glendale is classified under growth points and other urban areas (Zimstat, 2012). It is mainly composed of residential areas and a few industrial areas. The high density residential areas are Tsungubvi, Rujeko and Sisk. Westville Park and Highway suburbs are the medium density areas whereas Valley is the low density suburb. The industries include Glendale Spinners and Parrogate Gin Zimbabwe private limited.
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