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Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 2007
82 Seiten, Note: 3.95
- Multiple intelligences
- Emotional intelligence
- Final Reflection
- Intention of the Study
- Justification of the Study
- Problem of Investigation
- Terms of the Study
Revision of Literature
- Theoretical frame
- Translation of the Instrument
- Validity of content
- Determination of trustworthiness
To complete a work of investigation of this nature is an arduous work that entails support. Therefore, I come to recognize the collaboration of several people who contributed their talent for the accomplishment of this thesis.
Firstly, I thank for the cooperation of the thesis committee during the process of supervisionof the same one. The Committee was constituted by its Director, the Dr. Jose Miguel JustelCabrera, who directed to the organization and the development of the study subject. Also, inspecial gratefulness to the Dr Jose Luis Millán Viera and Dr. Juan Ballester Correa, thatunconditionally was available to guide in the refinement and direction to me of the subject thegreater quality of the same one.
On the other hand, esteem careful and special the attention that I received from the Dr. Carlos Andújar Rojas, who made me love with the concept of emotional intelligence. I feel pleased by the support offered by several professionals and friends as they are it: Dra. Astid Soto, Dra.Zulma Medina, Dra. Melany Pérez and Mrs. Maria Pueyo and others, that due to theconfidentiality principle I do not have to mention.
Also I give to thanks to the Dr. Benjamin Palmer for its gentile attention when approving the permission to translate and to administer the questionnaire Emotional Intelligence Self-Assessment Version for this investigation.
I appreciate the attention and cooperation of the participants and organizations who offered their confidence me to collaborate with me in this arduous task.
Finally, I give to thanks to my family for its understanding and to God for listened and answered my pray.
The emotions are a mood that is characterized by an organic commotion, product of an external situation, and that can be translated in gestures, laughter or weeping. Goleman (1995),indicates that the etymology of the word emotion is “motere”, the verb in Latin that means tomove. On the other hand, Palmer (2003), denunciation that these are not simply something thatwe felt; but they are a source of intelligence. For example, the fatigue feeling informs about thelevels into energy or fatigue to us. Also, when we felt cold communicates to us on thetemperature of the atmosphere and when we felt that somebody is pleasant or of confidence theemotion is communicating us about the level of friendship or affinity towards that person.Therefore, we took into account the emotions and must have precaution the information that wetransmitted. Also, we reasoned about the emotional consequences of our actions and about ouremotional state.
All the emotions are, in essence, impulses to act. For Freytes (2004), it is what causesthat we approach or we move away to a certain person or circumstance. We induce this way,because using the emotions it helps to understand our position, the relation with the world and torespond of adaptive form. Palmer (2003) reveals that this notion is the fundamental reason of avision that considers to the emotions like motives forces that adapt in an approach of cognitionactivities and by consequence it is the impetus for the development of construct of emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence, in the last years, has studied with more emphasis due to theresults of the carried out investigations in different scenes. This has revealed that emotionalintelligence can predict a successful leadership (Palmer, B., Gardner, L. and Stough, C., 2003and Goleman, D., 1995). This has been one of the aspects that have turned to construct ofemotional intelligence a popular subject. For example, when the article of titled Goleman "Whatwas published in Harvard Business Review makes to leader" for year 1998, this one became thepublication more reproduced years in the last. Palmer, B., Gardner, L. and Stough, C. (2003),they indicate that the attraction is not surprise of which emotional intelligence predicts aneffective leadership. These authors mention that many people have been with highly intelligentpeople but they are not leaders because they do not have practical and social skills. Incomparison, with the leaders who are more adaptable in the social practitioner and, these arepending of how they exhibit his conduct of emotional intelligence. This means that they worry toknow his emotions and as the same ones hit their behavior, express their emotions of appropriateway, they identify and they respond to the emotions of the other people and they are able tohandle to his own emotions and those of the others in the work area.
Gardner, L. and Stough, C. (2002), they indicate that the leaders with emotional intelligence are happier and it jeopardize with the organization. In addition, one has been that these leaders are successful; they evolve better in the work place and use the positive emotions to improve the operation of the organization. Also, they use the emotions in the process to make decisions and urge a sense of enthusiasm, confidence and cooperation in the employees through the interpersonal relations. For that reason, in agreement with Walker (2005), these dimensions at the time of recruiting are due to consider and selecting to a leader, because the criteria for their selection are of vital importance for theorganization. The managers have a great impact in the results and the climate of any organization.
Walker (2005) indicates that the rules of game in the organizations have changed and thishas strongly hit the roll that the people play in the organizational processes. Goleman (1995)also considers that between more responsibility of leadership it has the individual, thedevelopment of the dimensions of emotional intelligence more important, because it not onlyjudges us by our intelligence, education or experience, but by the way in which we were relatedto ourselves and with the others. Agreed with Gynor (2005), the directors and executives oforganizations, as well as the industrialists, have begun to recognize more and more that socialsciences; like for example those that study the human behavior and emotional intelligence theycan make the difference in his organizations.
Conform to Walker (2005), the studies made with thousands of executives have demonstrate that the partner-emotional abilities have turned out to be twice more important thatthe other competitions to explain an excellence performance. This must to that an effectiveleader must make three key tasks: to design and to handle the change, to add value to theorganization and of causing the development of people and work parties. For this, the technicaland intellectual abilities are not sufficient. The factor that makes the difference is exactly the oneof the partner-emotional abilities. Also, Palmer, Gardner and Stough (2003), propose thatemotional intelligence is due to consider in the recruitment process, because can help inidentifying potentials successful leaders. In addition, the leaders would have to be enabled and tobe developed in the dimensions of emotional intelligence to emphasize the social and practicalskills and, therefore, a successful leadership.
In order to make this investigation we interested to confine it to the managers who work in the industry of the governmental service, by being since she must establish and contribute to the change, to add value to the organization and of causing the development of people and work parties. These managers to carry out indeed these responsibilities must have the dimensions of emotional intelligence. In addition, the industry on watch is a perfect space to carry out eastanalysis since it is characterized being one of immaterial production, intangible, because it talks about the services that lend the state or private companies such as the mail, telephone, insurance, commerce, school, real estate, bank and the liberal exercise of the vocational works andprofessions (Goatherd 1980). Next, one will be exploring several concepts related to emotional intelligence, such as multiple intelligence and intelligences.
When the psychologists began to write and to study the concept of "intelligence" was concentrated in the cognition and intellectual abilities of the human being. Possibly, the obtainedresults are those that we know nowadays like the standardized tests of intellectual coefficient (CI).
The development of the main tests of CI arose from the necessity to give answer to certain social demands. The first test of intelligence was elaborated in 1905 by French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon, who developed a series of tests to identify whatyoung the schools of Paris would need a special education taking as it bases a smaller index on CI.
In 1916, the American psychologist Lewis Terman elaborated the first revision of theBinet-Simon scale for a population as of the three years. This he defined intelligence like "the capacity to think of abstract way". This test would be reviewed later in 1937 and 1960, being still today one of the scales more used to measure intelligence.
Sacerio (2005) indicates that shortly after the necessity arose to classify to the soldiers inWorld War I, which motivated to develop two groups of tests of intelligence better known likethe Alpha and the Beta. In addition, to help to detect the soldiers who could undergo nervouscrisis during the combat, the American psychologist Robert Woodworth elaborated the PersonalSheet Data antecedent of the modern examinations of personality. This he explains that the resultof a single examination of CI cannot portray the global intelligence of a person. However, thistest leads to an approach for a good evaluation of the reasoning capacity.
Nevertheless, other investigators took in consideration the non-cognition aspects, because he was struggling on the nature of intelligence. One of these investigators was David Wechsler (1940), that defined intelligence like "the global capacity of the individual to act with anintention to think rationally and to handle its environment suitably". Freytes (2004) indicatesthat for this time already it was spoken of the intellectual and nonintellectual elements such asaffective, social and personal factors.
In the 1943, Wechsler proposed that the nonintellectual abilities were essential to predictthe capacity of success in the life. In the 1948, it developed the scale of Wechsler-Bellevueintelligence (WAIS) that, besides to provide a general measurement of the mental capacity, itgave to information on the areas of greater force or intellectual weakness. The scale of Wechslerincludes from the pre-scholastic stage to the adult and today it has the same importance that thescale of Binet.
Throughout all that time, Sacerio (2005) mentions that other term were arising that madereference to some factors in the plane of the emotions that take part in the success of a task. One of these terms was social intelligence. This term was developed by psychologist Edward Thorndike (1920), who defined it as "the ability to understand and to direct to the men and women, and to act wisely in the human relations". For Thorndike, in addition to social intelligence, other two types of intelligences also exist: (1) the abstract one, defined like the ability to handle to ideas and (2) the mechanics, well-known like the ability to understand and to handle objects. These terms, as Caroll says (1997), did not have much welcome until Howard Gardner began to write on multiple intelligences.
The study of the emotional factors was principle for the theory of multiple intelligences. Thesame one explores the impact of the atmosphere and the experiences of the person to developintelligence. Freytes (2004), mentions that the concept of multiple intelligences is a veryoutstanding term nowadays and of much welcome between the students of intelligence and theeducation. This construct was developed by Howard Gardner (1983), that challenged thepresumption of which intelligence only consists of the verbal or analytical abilities.
Gardner (1995) developed the concept of multiple intelligences to expose the idea that there are diverse ways to perceive the world. Different forms to know, to process, to represent and to communicate the information, for example: with music, in synchrony with himself, the others and the nature. It proposed a pluralist vision of the mind and a multiple vision ofintelligence. This it is an alternative approach to the traditional theories on the intelligence,based on the cognitive and the neuroscience (Freytes 2004).
Brites and Almoño (2000), indicate that the merit of Gardner was the investigation, conceptualization and spreading of its theory of intelligence. Gardner questioned beliefs traditional like idea of dimension only of intelligence which it can be quantifiable from outside and the importance of the intellectual coefficient like the most reliable tool to evaluate the mental capacity that allows to classify the people, and to predict successes and failures in the life. Also it questioned the concept intelligence like the uniformity in the way to acquire the knowledge and in the contents, the dimensional vision of how evaluating the mind of the people and the search of certainties, without ambiguities, where he is everything controlled.
Freytes (2004), indicates that Gardner describes the components of intelligence like: a setof skills that allows the individual to solve found genuine problems in its life, to have the abilityto create an effective product in offering a service that is of value in its culture, to count on thepotential to find or to create problems which help the individual to acquire new knowledge andto have an identifiable location in the human brain for the process of that type of thought. Inorder to explain these Gardner components (1995), it proposes nine separated forms of analysis,which calls nine intelligences.
Brites and Almoño (2000), detail nine propose intelligences by Gardner. The first intelligence is the verbal-linguistic. It is known like the ability for the oral and written language,the relation of ideas, and the possibility of expressing with clarity thoughts and feelings throughthe word. Second is the logic-mathematical one, which is defined as the capacity to reason withnumbers and to solve abstract operations. This includes the use of the logical, deductive andsequential thought. On the other hand, the musical comedy, which is third, looks for that theindividual expresses itself by means of music, interprets and composes musical subjects throughinstruments or of the voice. Fourth is the vision-space, focuses in visualizing the images, forms and colors; it transforms them, it relates and it translates them in graphical or conceptual schemes. While, that the fifth, is the corporal-kinetic one and it talks about to the expression with the body with plasticity and harmony, to coordinate general and manual movements. Sixthis the interpersonal one and it is the ability to make contact with the enemy with other people, tobe related and to work cooperatively in equipment. The intra-personnel, which is the seventhintelligence, is the capacity of the person to connect themselves with same himself, to recognizethe inner states and to have a realistic image of himself. On the other hand, eighth is thenaturalist and one talks about to the care and respect of the nature, knowledge to enjoy it,learning of his vital cycles, to use and to serve it. Finally, ninth intelligence is the existential.This describes to sensitivity and capacity to handle deep questions on the human existence suchas: the sense of the life, why we died and as we arrived here. On the other hand, Armstorng(1999), indicates that now a days it has been identified that the human being has moreintelligences than the proposals by Gardner like for example: humor, the creativity, thespiritually and the sexuality among others.
Brites and Almoño (2000), reveal that Gardner exposed that interpersonal intelligenceand the intra-personnel are as important as the cognitive. This new vision of intelligence isconsidered like a revolution within the field of psychology, related education and areas, becauseit has begun to value the imagination, the creativity, the interpersonal handling of the emotionsand relations to approach the cognitive tasks and to evolve successful in the life.
However, Freytes (2004), postulates that Gardner does not speak in the sensethat people are more intelligent than others. He affirms that the human beings have differentabilities, which are developed in greater or smaller degree, depending on the atmosphere withwhich they interact. It is very important to know clearly that one does not settle down that people are more intelligent than others. Simply there are people who develop specific abilities more than others. This does not mean that others cannot have them or that they cannot develop it. The development of the specific abilities depends on two factors: the specific ability of the human being and the opportunity that this it has to interact with an atmosphere that causes the development of that ability in specific.
Freytes (2004) interprets that the new theory of Gardner (1995) completely presents a vision different from the general definition of intelligence. This investigates in the levels or basic types of intelligences and that takes into account not only the individual abilities, but anatmosphere that the development of a potential allows, the interaction with human or nonhuman elements. It is really a theory that displays a series to us of questions on the way in which we educated, taught and evaluated the people.
Armstorng (1999) showed that in the made studies they revealed that a person with an injury in the zone of “Broca” can have damaged a substantial part of her linguistic intelligence, and experience great difficulties to speak, read and write. Nevertheless, it can continue being able to sing, to calculate, to dance or to reflect on his feelings and to be related to the others. The construct of multiple intelligences emphasizes that the atmosphere must be considered like a vital factor for the overcoming of the individual through the life.
This new approach towards the study of intelligence not only repels in the disciplines of psychology and the education, but also in other aspects as they are the social thing, the politician, economic and the cultural thing, among others (Freytes 2004). At the present time, construct of multiple intelligences is being applied more in the academic institutions that in otheratmospheres. On the other hand, in the labor atmosphere more attention to the study of theemotions is being lent him but in the called approach emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence has become an object of popular study for industrial organizational psychology and, therefore, the organizations. Palmer, Gardner and Stough (2003), mention that this must to the notion of which emotional intelligence can be the fundamental reason of several aspects of the performance in the area of work without taking into account the intellectual coefficient or the personality.
Daniel Goleman (1995), indicates that the intellectual coefficient contributes near the 20percent to the factors that determine the success in the life. The rest 80 percents is attributed toother forces. Andújar (2004) indicates as well that studies done by Hunter and Hunter (1984)consider that the intellectual coefficient explains around a 25 percent of the performance in thework. This means that around a 75 percent of the labor performance it is explained by othervariables. It is possible that some of these variables could be related to construct of emotional intelligence.
On the other hand, Palmer, Gardner and Stough (2003), mention that emotional intelligence can be developed through qualification programs in order to emphasize the emotional abilities in the employees and therefore, to obtain a performance and organizational success. Agreeing with the popularity of emotional intelligence to numerous models andinstruments has been developed that measure this construct.
Palmer (2003) indicates that Salovey and Mayer (1990), proposed that the emotions andthe emotional reasoning can be part and to contribute to a logical and intelligent thought ofgeneral form. These authors examined that the capacity to reason with the emotions and theemotional information can be considered like a mental ability in which the individuals can differentiate among other mental abilities. According to Andújar (2004), Salovey and Mayer (1990) defined emotional intelligence like "the ability to perceive and to express the emotions, to assimilate our thoughts emotionally, to understand and to reason the emotions and to regulate our emotions and those of the others". For Andújar, this definition is a form of social intelligence that involves the ability of monitors our own feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use the information to guide the thoughts and the actions.
Salovey and Mayer (1990), established in the model of emotional intelligence five aspects. These aspects are known like the knowledge the own emotions, handling of the own emotions, the self-motivation of each person, the recognition of the emotions in the other peopleand the handling of the interpersonal relations. For Palmer (2003), this model proposes that theindividuals differ between the abilities and that these differences are important so that they canbe an important variant in the criterion of life like, for example, to be psychologically healthful,to have a satisfied life and that the interpersonal relations are of quality and which, in addition,they possibly can be learned or be thought. Palmer (2003), indicates that with the conceptualization of emotional intelligence by Salovey and Mayer, this concept has received aconsiderable attention in scientific literature. They have been developed an endless number ofmodels to provide some theories in order to conceptualize and to measure emotional intelligence.
Daniel Goleman (1995) was one of the scientists whom to him the attention called construct of emotional intelligence. In its book “Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter morethan IQ” elaborated the concept of the emotional intelligence of Salovey and Mayer (1990), interms of the human beings giving to emphasis in the relation between emotional intelligence andthe criterion of life. For it, Goleman (1995) defines emotional intelligence like "the capacity torecognize our own feelings and the other people's ones, to motivate and to suitably handle the emotions to us in we ourselves and the interpersonal relations that we establish". On the otherhand, Freytes (2004) interpreted this definition like a set of skills, attitudes, abilities andcompetitions that determine the conduct of an individual, their mental reactions and states,among others.
According to Andújar (2002), Goleman was trained under the trusteeship of DavidMcClelland that had developed some studies of intelligence and questioned the paper of theintelligence tests to predict the success in the life. Goleman mentioned that the investigations made by McClelland between years 1950 and 1960, lead to the formulation of their theory of the motivation on "the three necessities: to be able, profit and affiliation ".
Sacerio (2005), mentions that McClelland (1973) questioned the "... false one but extended belief that the success depends exclusively on the intellectual capacity...". Between thecriteria that raised it was that "... the traditional academic aptitudes like the qualifications and thetitles, do not allow to suitably predicting the degree of labor performance or the success us in thelife... ". In its place, McClelland proposed that the characteristics that differentiate to the mostexcellent workers from those others whom simply they make well the things was necessary tolook for them in competitions such as the empathy, the self-discipline and the discipline. Thesecharacteristics had been studied by David Wechsler (1958), but it called nonintellectual aspects.Freytes (2004), exposed that these nonintellectual aspects were the affective ones, personal andsocial. Goleman (1998), indicated that McClelland made important findings in its published investigations at beginnings of the seventies, that radically changed the approaches that existedon the tests of intelligence like predicting of the labor, professional success, or in a directive race.
Goleman (1998) reached the conclusion that the intelligence tests were not good predicting for the labor performance. For that reason, Andújar (2004), exposed that in the work,"Working with Emotional Intelligence", Goleman (1998) developed initially a conceptual frameof five competitions of emotional intelligence that can diagnostics and be improved by means ofqualification experiences. The same ones are grouped in 25 sub-competitions that are gatheredin two competitions greater than personal and social competitions are denominated.
The personal competitions are those that must have the individuals to handle themselvesto themselves. These competitions include: the self-knowledge, self-handle and the self-motivation. The self-knowledge recognizes the feelings of the individual and knows how theseaffect their performance. In this competition it is included: (1) the emotional conscience, whichtalks about to the recognition of the own emotions and its effects, (2) the self-evaluation, wherethe individual knows its own strengths and limitations and (3) the self-confidence, that isdescribed like a great sense of own value and its capacities. Self-handle represents the way tohandle the internal states, impulses and resources of the person. This competition includes: (1)the automatic control, which reviews the emotions and the impulses and maintain them inperspective, (2) the trustworthiness maintains the honesty standards and integrity, (3) theawareness assumes the responsibility by the personal performance, (4) the adaptation talksabout to the flexibility in the handling of the changes and (5) the innovation that deals withwhich the person this comfortable one with new ideas, approaches and information. Themotivation is the emotional tendency that guides or facilitates the profit of the goals. The sameone circumscribes (1) the profit desire, that tries to improve or to obtain the excellence standards, (2) the commitment in which the goals of a group or the organization are aligned, (3) the initiative, which is the disposition to act before the opportunities which they arise and (4) the optimism that is the persistence when persecuting the goals independently of the obstacles that arise.
On the other hand, the social competitions determine how the people handle the humanrelations. These understand the social empathy and skills. The empathy talks about to that theperson is conscious of the feelings, necessities and preoccupations of other people and to assumean active interest of its preoccupations. This social competition includes: (1) the understanding ofthe other people, which talks about when perceiving the feelings and perspective of others and toassume an active interest of its preoccupations, the development of other people, (2) the directionto the service, that tries to anticipate, to recognize and to fulfill the necessities of the clients, (3)the handling of the diversity, who know like cultivating opportunities and relations with differenttypes from people and (4) the political conscience, which describes the power to analyze theemotions of groups and the relations of being able. On the other hand, the social skills are thepower that has a person to induce desirable answers in the other people. These skills containwhat is (1) the influence, which puts in persuasion practice tactical effective, (2) thecommunication like an average one to listen openly and to send convincing messages, (3) thehandling of conflicts, in where the person negotiates and solves discords, (4) the leadershipinspires and guides the individuals and groups, (5) the catalytic one of the change initiates andhandles the change, constructing and handling relations, collaborating and cooperating with theother people towards shared goals and to have the capacity to create synergic in the group and topersecute collective goals.
This model was improved in the book "The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace" by Goleman and Cherniss (2001). The same one maintains four of the five competitions and modifies some sub-competitions. This model appears next:
Framework of Emotional Competencies
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Andújar (2004), mentions that this new model based on competence has served to understand better the concept of emotional intelligence in the labor context, because Goleman (1998) establishes that it is important to develop to the emotional competitions of the employeesand managers. These competences are defined as the capacities of learning based on emotionalintelligence and that are in the successful performance in the work. Therefore, emotional intelligence determines our potential to learn fundamental practical skills in the personal and social competitions.
On the other hand, to Reuven Baron (1997) also it interested the concept to him ofemotional intelligence. Gardner and Stough (2002) indicated that the non-cognition modeldeveloped by Baron (1997), defines intelligence like the order of the non-cognition abilities,competitions and skills that influence in an ability to survive the demands and pressures of theenvironment. Baron describes this model according to fifteen conceptual components thatdescribe five specific dimensions of emotional and social intelligence. These are the intra-personnel, interpersonal, adaptability, handling of stress and different humors in general. Baronproposes that the components of this model are developed with time, changes in the course of thelife and can optimal through the programs of training and development. In addition, this modelis related to the potential of the person to evolve better than with the tasks of the position. As aresult of the development of different models from emotional intelligence like the model basedon competitions of Goleman and the non-cognition model of Baron, different designedinstruments have been developed to estimate emotional intelligence (Palmer 2003).
Andújar (2004), establishes that to validate a theory or a conceptual modellike it is it emotional intelligence is fundamental to develop psychometrics tools that they allowto fortify the methodological base of the theories or models. Some of the instruments that weredeveloped to measure emotional intelligence are: "Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale"(Mayer and Salovey, 1997), "Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test" (MSCEIT)(Mayer, Caruso and Salovey, 2000), "Emotional Competency Inventory" (Boyatzis, Golemanand Rhee, 2000el), the "Emotional Quotient Inventory" (Baron, R. 2000) and the "EQ Map"(Orioli, Trocky and Jones, 2000) (Gowing 2001). In Puerto Rico, the only designed instruments to measure emotional intelligence were developed by Valley (2000) and Andújar (2004). These instruments have been used to carry out investigations in order to study to depth the concept of emotional intelligence, thus to know and to develop the dimensions of the emotional intelligence of one more a clearer and effective way.
Gardner (2003) exposed that the empirical evidence has failed in developing the theory of emotional intelligence in the organizations. Few studies exist that examine the importance of emotional intelligence in the work places and which they use a specific instrument that measures emotional intelligence in the labor atmosphere. Nevertheless, to avoid this, organizations around the world exist who are dedicated to make investigations in the labor market, using a specific instrument in order to collaborate with the individuals and organizations to reach their potential through the development of emotional intelligence.
The company Genos is one of them, who focus in developing instruments that measureemotional intelligence in the labor market. This organization was founded by Con Stough, PhDand Benjamin R. Palmer, PhD with the collaboration of the University of Swinburne inAustralia. These work in equipment to offer services of quality in the area of professionalconsultancy and strategies of businesses to the clients. In Genos, emotional intelligence talksabout the capacity to handle of effective form the own emotions and the others. When it isapplied to the work, emotional intelligence like the way is defined to think intelligently withemotions, to perceive, to express, to understand and to handle emotions in a professional andeffective way. In order to validate this philosophy, their founders Benjamin Palmer and ConS tough (1990) developed the Emotional Intelligence Self- Assessment Version.
The Emotional Intelligence Self- Assessment Version was developed in order to provide a valid and reliable instrument that he was available in the labor market. This it is a scale that indicates the person to him the way about which typically thinks feels and acts with the emotions in the labor atmosphere.
The scale is based empirically on a model of emotional intelligence of seven skills. Theseare: (1) emotional self- awareness (skill of perceiving and understanding one’s own emotions), (2) emotional expression (the skill of expressing one’s own emotions effectively), (3) emotionalawareness of others (the skill perceiving and understanding other’s emotions), (4) emotionalreasoning (the skill of utilizing emotional information in decision-making), (5) emotional self-management ( the skill of effectively managing one’s own emotions), (6) emotional managementof others ( the skill of influencing the moods and emotions of others) and (7) emotional self-control (the skill of effectively controlling strong emotional experience and associatedbehaviors). These skills indicate of global form to the individual their emotional intelligence inthe labor atmosphere.
The company Genos has realized that emotional intelligence can contribute in the organizations of positive form in the communication skills, tolerance of stress, interpersonalhandling of conflicts, relations, work in equipment and skills of negotiation, among others. To the same time, Andújar (2004) it indicates that Stein and Book (2000), raised that construct of emotional intelligence has called the attention of the people in the labor atmosphere, because much of the success that can have a person seems to be determined by personal characteristics that they help to carry out introspective analysis him, to make decisions and to handle situations that socially help to obtain the success them.
Gardner and Stough (2002), establish that the studies made in the workplace, specifically focused in the leadership, have been to identify the effects of the emotions of the leaders in theirwork, with the subordinates and the roll that play the emotions in the leadership. These indicate that the carried out study by George (2000), suggests it emotional intelligence plays an importantrole in the efficiency of the leadership. This it proposes that the ability to understand and tohandle to the mood and the emotions in one same one and the other people theoreticallycontributes to the effectiveness of the leaders. On the other hand, in the article of Caruso (2003),it discusses of theoretical form the relation between emotional intelligence and the effectivenessin the leadership. This hypothesizes how emotional intelligence facilitates the operation so that aleader is effective.
Freytes (2004), explained that according to, Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey and Palfai(1995), and Andújar (2002), emotional intelligence is more important that cognitive intelligencesince to prevail in the life, is not only necessary to have knowledge in the different branchesfrom the knowledge, but that the necessity is absolute also to have the capacity to be relatedpositively to the others, enjoying a remarkable self-esteem, having spirit to surpass thedifficulties, valuing to the people, not to lower itself by the failures, developing will and thecharacter to reject all type of temptations. The emotions are essential the human being, becausethrough them we give sense to the people and the own one to be. The intelligence not only istesting in the numbers, but in the complex variety of situations and challenges that the life presents.
For that reason, Goleman (1998) urged that the interpretation of the intelligence concepthas been an analysis consumed by many investigators. The reason is simple: to know moreintelligence will allow to use and to develop it in a more effective way. Understanding the basiclevels of intelligence will allow us to manage to establish new procedures to be able to identifythe individual potential of each person in specific; to develop atmospheres that cause the development of different types from intelligence and to understand to the human being like last aim.
Through the introduction, we have known how the concept of intelligence has evolved through history. With the different conducted studies they have been possible to obtain results that offer answers to each raised paradigm.
The first studies were concentrated in the cognitive abilities of the individuals and seatedbase so that intelligence was denominated to him like the intellectual coefficient (CI). Havingdefined intelligence, reliable and valid instruments were developed so that the populations wereclassified by means of the CI. For example, one thought that with only the CI a prediction couldbe done adapted of the future success of the person. In the same way, there were investigatorswho doubted that this theory was absolute and began to explore other possibilities, like the social abilities.
The social abilities, which include the social thing, affective and personal, also play animportant roll in the success of a person. The study of these abilities was principle for the theoryof multiple intelligences developed by Howard Gardner. The same one explores the impact ofthe atmosphere and the experiences of the person to develop intelligence. In order to explain thetheory, Gardner identifies nine intelligences that include from the logic-mathematical one to thenature. Nowadays, Armstorng (1999), indicates that it has been identified that the human beinghas more intelligences like humor, the creativity, the spirituality and the sexuality among others.
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