Für neue Autoren:
kostenlos, einfach und schnell
Für bereits registrierte Autoren
23 Seiten, Note: Merit
Enhancement teaching-learning with Gamification: provisions of an interactive classroom
Gaming and simulation as prospective method enhancing LTA and interactive classroom
Interactive teaching-learning approach towards more application of game based learning
Importance of gamification in student growth and development in higher education and recent trends in its in inception
Challenges associated with Gamifications and its scope in enhancing university assessment
Requisites to make effective use of Gamifications for educational purposes
Scope for collaborative learning activities within Gamifications
Effectiveness of a cohesive approach (mixing traditional and gamification approaches)
Significance of authenticity in games
Scope of Future Study
Gamification is an emergent approach in higher education teaching learning. However, it is still a fairly recent, developing field. Literature reviews on gamification in higher education are scarce. So, This literature review aims to understand the m ediating role of the game-based learning in higher education in relation to enhancing the quality of university assessment. Basically as literature review suggests, earlier works done on this topic show that knowledge shared with the students through Gamified environment result in better learning because it serves as a more emphatic motivation for students and encourage them to participate in class assignments. However, gamification as effective method of teaching learning and evaluation as propounded by the available empirical works is rather weak because very few works have been done in this context. Hence, it does not contribute to the knowledge about the actual outcome of this interactive session on teaching learning and student performance. Thus, the focus of this study make thorough literature review of previous works done in this topic of research and analyse the corresponding claims that Gamification leads to improvement in teaching-learning and assessment methods. Through literature review it has further been found and presented in this study that all the students in the classroom take interest in participating in Gamified learning sessions due to its responsive appeal and feel interested in accomplishing their learning goals. This results in equal participation in teaching learning session in a classroom, which further helps in better evaluation of student performances. Thus, this study aims to analyse these empirical sources to understand to what extent Gamification helps in improving teaching learning and assessment and in what ways. For review purposes, the study has applied critical analysis of relevant literature based on various aspects of gamification. The review shows that gamification is effective in improving the process of assessment of learner performances but some distinctive challenges related to the process of integrating gamification in traditional learning environment have also been identified in the study.
Gamification, simulation, educational games, higher education, university assessment
Interactive classrooms are envisaged to foster greater attention and participation of students within the learning environment. Questions and answers session among lecturers and students are encouraged in such classrooms for making the students responsive and develop hands-on experience on problems that would face in their future (Concordia University 2016). The space for questions and answers or dialogic space in the classroom has been a feature of tutorials and small group seminars in Higher Education, but the game-based artefacts that this interrogation is mediated have not featured much in higher education research. Games –based artefacts are essential components of the aspect of gamification. Thus, Gamification can be described as process of implementing game based elements in a non-gaming ambience mainly for the purpose of enhancing user experience and user engagement (Deterding et al. 2011). The focal point of Gamification is to integrate reward aspects of a game into a teaching learning environment where learners are given rewards for successful accomplishment of learning goals (Malyakkal 2014).
Learning-teaching assessment (LTA) is a significant part of an interactive classroom for assessing learning outcomes of students in a class. A Game Enhanced Learning or Gamified learning module operates as a pragmatic framework that helps lecturers and programme coordinators in thorough assessment of teaching and learning (Reng & Schoenau-Fog 2016). Through this process of learning and teaching assessment, the educators apprehend how different types of games can have different impact on the learning abilities of the students and how different gaming activities can be combined together to enhance their own learning qualities as well(Reng & Schoenau-Fog 2016). Gamification as part of LTE also helps in enhancing user engagement towards particular activities(Laskowski & Badurowicz 2014).
The effort to employ the technique of Gamification in formal education as an essential LTA approach is determined to a large extent by the particular learning context in which a game is deployed. This is precisely done by scrutinising how the educator adopts a game to address particular learning outcomes and goals (Arnab et al. 2012). The need of game based learning or Gamification is integral especially if educational goal is to make learning interesting and emotionally engaging.
According to educators, game -based learning environment provides enhanced scope to gain more concrete understanding of the learner dynamic (Freitas 2013). While implementing Gamification in learning, implementers focus upon encouraging reciprocal and cooperative contact between students and faculty members and implement active learning techniques so that the learning environment manifests in the form of highly efficient performance, more engagement in the teaching learning session and motivation (Urh et al. 2015). Basically, the major attribute of game based learning is that it focused upon is that it should be able to make routine curriculum engaging. Eventually, it makes students become motivated to stay connected to the learning session all throughout and learn more. Therefore, the ultimate impact of it is better learning among students (HCL 2016).
In this context, Mora (2012) takes the approach to understand the significance of Gamification in higher education from a different perspective. The scholar focuses on the role of this state of the art learning mechanism in enhancement of the performance assessment procedure of the learners. The research findings state that innovative learning processes can only yield productive results when assessment of the learners is done accurately and comprehensively. Thus, Gamification is one such innovative method to support higher level cognitive and affective skills of students that is usually not possible in traditional form of learning.
Moreover, as individual higher level calibers of the students could be assessed by means of this innovative procedure so their learning experiences always become improved. Leaning (2015) conducted an experiment to understand why game based learning is especially significant for higher education students. The scholar finds that when implemented properly Gamification helps in enhancing the level of engagement of the students in the classroom in higher education. When game based interactive learning tools are implemented in a traditional teaching and learning environment, students do not find their courses dull anymore. This responsiveness of teaching-learning environment engages them in the classroom activities which they otherwise find boring (Taylor 2015). Eventually, it results in improving the learning experiences of the students and making them more competent in achieving their learning objectives (Leaning 2015). For instance, application of the game Kahoot in a teaching-learning environment showed greater participation of students in class activities. The competitive nature of the Gamified class assignments that were given to them actually appeared as a strong motivator that positively influenced their learning. Another example show that application of online game in a traditional classroom environment not only increased the intrinsic motivation of students to take part in the teaching learning session but also enhanced their knowledge due to their increasing willingness to learn more(Taylor 2015) . Similar experiment has been conducted by Florses (2015)in order to understand how game based learning is related to the learning potentials of students of higher education. Here it needs to be explained that learning potential refers to the extent of ability of students to learn. It is measured by assessing the learning outcome of students after the completion of a teaching learning session (Gurgel, de Oliveira, Joly, & Reppold, 2017;Leithwood, Patten, & Jantzi, 2010). The experiment conducted on the lines of Mora, Sancho-Bru, Iserte, and Sánchez shows that this innovative learning procedure empowers and engages students that eventually motivate them to learn effectively. Basically, the main objective of Gamification is supporting students to willingly take part in a learning process. Thus, when these students get involved in a game based learning ambience, they make use of game elements such as points, leader boards, and immediate feedbacks. Since each of these game elements is related to certain some personality factors like self-esteem, risk taking approach and motivation, so taking part in it results in enhancement of one trait or the other in each learner. Moreover, their learning abilities are readily accessed after the completion of each gaming activity through their performance evaluations that appear promptly in the Gamified platform immediately after the completion of the assigned paper.
Simulation and gaming indicate towards some instructional designs in which game based and interaction based recreational activities are used for achieving some objectives related to performance and learning. To name some, the essential simulation and gaming elements include board games, computer assisted games, internet simulation, serious simulation, training games, e-games, virtual reality games, and role play (Clapper 2017;Crookall 2011).
Gaming and simulation are considered as a highly significant method in enhancing LTA because the techniques used in this instructional design promote active and social learning, which is immensely preferred by the students in the contemporary times. If considered from the standpoint of learners, this technique also allows the students to explore and experience the work related problems that they will face in their real work life. Specifically speaking, when gaming and simulation are implemented in a learning environment, it makes the learners competent in developing understanding about the critical dynamics of difficult issues. Eventually, they become comfortable to develop insight from the simulated session and tackle these problems well. This technique serves successfully in higher learning that is characterised by complexity(Sterman 2014;Venter & Coetzee 2013) . In this context, it is essential to mention that today students prefer to be a part of responsive learning environment where problems could be understood by means of interactive conversations about that content and through grounded interactions with others, around problems or actions. Hence, when considered from the standpoint of lecturers, this process helps the lecturers in adapting their teaching methods according to the needs of students(Venter & Coetzee 2013).
The review aims to explore the role played by gamification in teaching-learning environment of higher education and thus enhancing the University assessment procedure. A research gap has been identified in this review which presents that there is not much study on the significance of Gamification on teaching learning outcome among students and better university evaluation of student performances. The limited studies that exist until now are too scarce to be considered for making conclusive interpretation on the topic of study. Hence, this review focuses upon making comparative analysis of the available literatures on the topic to provide a more conclusion on the mediating role of Gamified learning in higher studies. The research questions that were developed in correspondence to the research aim are as follows: -
1. What is the role of Gamification on student learning?
2. How are the needs of students understood before implementing Gamified learning?
3. What is the process by means of which Game based learning process is implemented in a traditional classroom?
4. What shortcomings are faced in the process of implementing gamified teaching learning session?
Searching the Internet was considered as the primary method for finding relevant literature sources that can be considered for the study. The five keywords that were identified for making the search more focused are Gamification, simulation, educational games, higher education and university assessment. Choice of articles to be used for review in this paper was primarily based on the basis of the research questions. Attention was paid to ensure that the selected articles are able to provide accurate answers to the research questions and help in accomplishing the research aim. After selecting the specific articles that will be used for the study, they were systematically positioned under particular core themes of this review that were led by the aim and review research question to conduct systematic literature review. In addition, emphasis was given towards considering empirical researches that have been done primarily from 2010 onwards to consider the current research scenario of Gamified learning.
The literature review aims at studying to what extent the implication of Gamified teaching learning helps in better student learning and university evaluation as proposed in the empirical studies.
Pedagogy can be considered as the art and science of teaching. It is related to the study of how well to teach and is determined by factors such as the background, knowledge, experience and expertise of the student as well as the setting in which teaching-learning would take place (Adams 2016;Bernstein 2000). This is one of the factors that lead to successful teaching learning between the lecturers and students. This is because in this format of teaching, students are completely dependent on their lecturers as they are unable to organise their work on their own. Hence, they rely on lecturers as the trusted source for providing required knowledge (Daniels et al. 2010;Enikő 2013;Nie & Lau 2010).Based on these notions, interactive teaching-learning pedagogies have been suggested by eminent educational thinkers, some of which have been presented herein.
In 1970, Paolo Friere proposed that learning should be such that it leads to social transformation of an individual. The theory proposed by Friere features dialogic problem-posing pedagogical style in which learners are forced to come into confrontation with practical problems, and develop their own insight for solving them. Friere calls this process ‘conscientisation’, a conglomeration of learner’s action and reflection, which is together termed by the scholar as praxis(Darder et al. 2003;Giroux 2010). This review shows that Gamification of learning helps in the process of ‘conscientisation’ by making them come in terms with the problems learned in their courses in real time environment and apply their skills for developing solutions. Mezirow(1991) is another educational thinker who draws on the lines of Friere and stresses upon rising of consciousness and personal development of learner as integral part of interactive teaching learning when he introduces his theory of learning in 1995. While speaking about transformational learning, the scholar suggests that recognition and reassessment of the complexity and assumptions and expectations regarding its solution frame thinking, feeling and acting processes of a learner(Tangney 2014). Again, this review shows that game based learning helps students in personally visualising the problems that they are caught in their classroom and helps them in framing their thinking regarding the probable solutions.
In a similar theory proposed by Kember in 1999, the educational thinker argues that student-oriented and learning oriented interactive ambience is essential for effective learning to occur. To be precise, the learning environment should be such that students operate there as active participants and experience their intellectual development taking place during the session(Tangney 2014). This correlated with the review to suggest that game based learning environment makes student actively participate in solving the problems of the assignment given to them, which eventually help in their cognitive and intellectual development.
This related to the research of Taylor in 1988 that makes proposition about transformative learning in talking about interactive teaching-learning pedagogy. According to this theory, the core fundamental of interactive teaching is that lecturers should adopt teaching practices that not only help the students in learning and gathering knowledge, but also strengthens their inherent capacity of learning. Student engagement in learning both in and beyond the classroom is also very contributively essential, as the theory suggests. Hence, it is the duty of the educators to understand and apply scientific, well-considered teaching strategies that support student engagement(Parsons et al. 2011).
As a concluding comment on these theories, it can be said that all of them emphasises upon participative procedure of learning. They advocate about a responsive learning environment in which the learner would be exposed to a calibrated situation where he would experience the problem he might encounter in real life hence developing his own cognitive skills for solving it. Thus, these theories form the foundation of contemporary game based interactive learning which also assimilates the traditional form of learning (De Byl & Hooper 2013; Gulinna 2016)
Structure of cohesive framework featuring fusion of traditional and game based learning
When a course curriculum is related, thematic, interdisciplinary multidisciplinary and holistic in nature, it helps in successful learning of the knowledge imparted by it to the targeted learners. However, for this it is recommended that curriculum integration is based on philosophy and practicality in the simultaneous manner, thereby drawing together knowledge, skills, attitudes and values from within and across subject areas so that more powerful understanding of key information could be developed. Thus, combination of game based learning and traditional learning methods are highly preferred form of curriculum integration in the present scenario where students need to know how to practically apply skills learned in classroom session in solving problems encountered in real time (Ger et al. 2012). This correlates with the scholarly theories by eminent scholars presented in the above section where learning in a calibrated situation to get accustomed with real life problems has been stressed. Before integrating traditional learning with game based learning, the lecturer should make an introduction of this technology to the students and a comfortable ambience should be established where comments and queries of students would be welcomed and properly attended. Providing clear instructions at every level is highly essential. At times, didactic lecturing might even be necessary in order to deliver to the students, concepts such as game design and the theoretical and psychological ties between gaming and learning. When the groups have a firm understanding of the activity, a systematic guideline has to be followed for successful iIntegration of games in traditional learning (Hosseini & Hartt 2016).
The first prerequisite of this guideline is to make thorough analysis of the available resources already developed by instructional pioneers to understand which sort of gaming activity is most important for a class based on its curriculum and course content so that the simulated procedure helps in fine tuning the course content to better meet pedagogical goals. Usually students are ready and willing to be brought into the game design learning process.
Thus, the second guideline would be to ask the students to produce what they have learned instead of simply allowing them to consume what is being taught. Therefore, students should know about the learning objectives and game play mechanisms and should also be allowed to modify games for particular pedagogical purposes.
The third guideline is to be practical and not to be over prescriptive regarding a game. Therefore, instead of trying to modulate every possible learning outcomes as per the pre-set learning objectives, the educator must have some flexibility regarding the acceptance of chance.
The next guideline is to be followed is when using games, as learning tool in a traditional classroom, the educator as well as the students must stay focused on learning and not particularly on technology so that there is no misuse of this interactive teaching-learning technology. As part of the next guideline it should be remembered that students might be persuaded to play games as part of their academic task. However, it is the duty of the educator to provide clear and critical introduction to the assignment and learning objectives to them so that the game play session does not appear as confusion to them. Finally, while teaching in a traditional classroom with game based technology, educators should periodically access how well the students are learning the material, how motivates they are in pursuing game based teaching and how creative they are in extracting educative information from the game play session (Mcdaniel & Telep 2009).
The general objective of higher education is to prepare students to improve their knowledge and increase their capabilities for the job market. Therefore, making the students capable of meeting the qualification demands of the job market is the core responsibility of institutions providing higher education. In such a scenario, gamification of teaching and learning session has been found to be extremely beneficial (Schill 2014). In this regard, Iosup and Dick Epema (2014) conduct research on the implication of gamification in technical higher education. The scholars find out that students’ response is highest in case of technically. This innovative process foster better teacher-student interaction in the classroom and influence students to pay more attention towards the learning session. This enhances their level of class participation and their confidence in taking up challenging tasks, which in turn leads to increment in the percentage of passing out students and progressing. Research conducted by Lopes and Mesquita (2015) in this similar topic show that the immediate impact of Gamification is that it enhances the rate of engagement of students towards a learning session. Besides this, the gaming and simulating based learning make students more competent in thinking critically and solving problems on their own. However, the scholar also points out that all the students in a classroom might not like game based learning because of pedagogical paradigm shift. Since this group of students might take greater interest in traditional form of learning, so gamification might fail to make them engaged towards the learning session. Therefore, in order to yield the benefits of this interactive teaching-learning session, focus must be given upon the choice of games that are active, meaningful, with social meaning, integrative, and diversified so that rich and motivational experience can be provided to the students. This will encourage them to take part in the session and work towards enhancing their own learning capabilities and academic growth.
The research of Hosseini and Hartt (2016) add further to the researches of both Iosup and Dick Epema and Mesquita by stating that gamification is successful when stress is given upon the selection of the right gaming mechanism that motivates learners to take part in solving problems or carrying out complex tasks.
Gamification has been of immense benefit for the learners ever since its incorporation in traditional learning. The recent trends in the process of gaming and simulating the learning environment have become even finer tuned. One of the recent trends in gamification is introduction of the process of rewarding so that a learning session can be made more motivating for the learner who achieves a learning objective successfully. Similarly, attention is being given towards the process of getting instant task specific feedback to the learners so that they can improve their learning skills and their application right during the process of their teaching-learning session. Another trending change is gamification of learning activities is multiple long and short term learning goals. It is believed that while the long-term goals are suitable for motivating for the learners to pass a particular assessment, the short-term goals help in gradually and successfully scaffolding them towards the ultimate learning objectives. Yet another new trend in gamification is that instead of standardising games for all the learners, specific games are chosen for learners in the beginners category, regular category and master category as per their learning skills and gaming expertise so that nobody loses interest in this interactive session owing of its difficulty at any stage(CORE Education 2014;Velez Osorio 2016).
Assessment is crucial in analysing the level of improvement and knowledge of students. Here, the role of Gamification is significant. This is because when implemented properly, game based mechanisms improves the scope of assessment. Gamified learning environment provide highly authentic and controlled place with new assessment patterns to the educators so that they can effectively assess the learning outcomes of the students. Thus, the feedbacks generated from this innovative platform can help educators in understanding the learning shortcomings faced by individual students based on scientifically valid assessment so that they can be improved in future (Lumsden et al. 2016;Wood et al. 2013).
However, the process of Gamification is that it is still in its growing stage, especially within the domain of higher (university) education. Therefore, it is afflicted by some disadvantages. One of them is that students familiarised with the traditional form of teaching and learning finds it difficult to cope up with this pedagogical shift. As a result, they deviate from the learning objectives. This often results in hampering improvement in overall learning capabilities of students in a particular classroom (Mesquita 2015). The next challenge in gamification of learning is that sets blow on the overall efficiency of the curriculum integration that includes traditional learning method as well as game and simulation based learning. Basically, students who take part in gamified learning courses receive feedback of their learning outcomes almost instantly. This is not so in case of traditional learning where it takes time for proving feedback on student performances. This delay obstructs the level of motivation of students and ceases their interest towards traditional learning. Implementation of gamified learning framework is a cost intensive process, which features various sorts of expenses in the form of technical cost, training cost and software cost. As sometimes these costs are passed on to students, some students find it difficult to afford. Eventually, the innovative process fails to create mass appeal(Ford 2017).
The use of game based elements is often done in a non-gaming environment for pursing some learning objective. Thus, through the process of gamification and use of game factors in educational environment the educators intend to encourage the learners to behave in certain manner(Gulinna 2016). However, effective use of gamification for educational purposes depends upon certain essential requisites, otherwise the intended learning objectives could not be achieved. For example, the research of De Byl and Hooper (2013)suggest that the vital requisite that determines successfulness of gamification is student engagement. In simplistic terms it can be said that a game based teaching learning ambience that is able to motivate students to remain engaged with it will automatically make Gamification successful because students will find it more interesting and motivating. Hence, they will grasp the knowledge imparted to them in much better manner and show willingness to implement it accurately for solving problems. For instance, when learning goals to be achieved comply with the learner’s own values, it leads to enhanced learner engagement, Secondly, the nature of instruction given by the educator must be clearly mentioned to encourage student engagement in a gamified setup. Third attribute is nature of feedbacks given to learners. If these feedbacks are prompt, learners express willingness to be a part of the learning process. The next attribute is the nature of game selected for a course. If it is stimulating in nature, it increases the curiosity of students towards it and make then engaged. Here, stimulating means responsive learning environment where students are able to see the problems in a virtual and interactive interface. The research of Lister (2015) takes a different stand from that of De Byl and Hooper and suggests that the game selected for a gaming and simulation session are the fundamental requisite that determines whether a gamified teaching-learning session will be successful in meeting the learning objectives or not. While not much stress has been given on the selection of game and its level of complexity in their study, De Byl and Hooper(year) suggests that an educational game is wisely chosen as it serves dually as a learning and entertainimg tool for the student. When games selected for interactive teaching-learning session are motivating,addictive, less complicated and come with short term goals, they eventually increase learner engagement. Hence, learning outcome from such games in a gamified environment is always better.This research shows that selection of game is primary and student engagement is secondary requisitie because a motivating and interestingeducational game is bound to engage learner. The research findings of Gulinna (2016) agree with that of Lister that game is the single most essential requisite that leads to effective use of gamification for educational purposes. However, the scholar provides even more fine tuned requiosites by indicating towards certain game factors. The scholar says that a game which comprises of these game factors will rightly suit the needs of a gamified educational setup and help the leanrers in reaching the learning objectives. The game factors that Gulinna propose of include are– ‘Storytelling’ that serves as the guidelines of the instructional activity in the classroom, ‘Level’s that refer to the different intensities of challenges that learners face, ‘Points’ that track the learning progression of individual learners, ‘Leaderboard’ that indicates towards reward mechanism used for motivating learners and ‘Badges’ that serve as visual symbol of rewards received by learners. Further game factors are ‘Feedbacks’ that are well-designed gamification interface meant for providing inputs to learners about their performances and ‘Progress’ that track how many tasks are left and how many accomplishments learners have achieved.
Collaborative learning can be defined as the group based teaching and learning process by means of which students participate as a group in order to solve problems(Judd et al. 2010;; Kollar & Fischer 2010). Gamification has been found to act as an essential strategy for fostering learning processes in a collaborative learning environment(Li et al. 2013). Thus, scholars have provided varying ideas about the scope of collaborative learning activities within the arena of gamification. Mention can be made of the research of Li et al. (2013) which suggest that group of learners can be engaged to a teaching-learning session motivated to enact in the desired manner when classroom teaching scenario is gamified. In elaborating their findings, the scholars conduct case study research on the use of games and simulation in online learning course. The findings suggest that gamification makes use of a system of rewarding and accomplishing the performances of learners by means of rewarding them badges besides specifying to them the learning objectives. These incentives serve as driving learning factor for all the members in a group of learners Moreover, the technology based learning platform also allow interaction between peer students as well as the instructors about various course related matters, which justify that it encourages collaboratibve learning. Speaking more elaborately about the collaborative learning approach of Gamification the scholars further suggest that the framework not only encourage exiting learners to become a part of a gaming environment, but also attract the attention of new learners and make them become a part of the process. The research of Challco et al. (2015) also talk about the the scope of collaborative learning in gamified enironment. A calibrated learning environment that has been equipped with gamified infrastructure has been studied for this. However, the scholars take a different perspective from that of Li et al.(2013) by making an analysis of factors in gamification that are condusive of collaboratibve learning.
The research findings suggest that as gamified learning encourages meaningful interaction among the learners of a particular course so it leads enhanced levels of collaborative learning. However, the scholars also remark that certain elements need to be considered while constructing gamified learning environment in order to make it encourage collaborative learning. These factors are knowledge about gaming elements such as leader boards and point systems, game design or how to combine game elements and their impact on motivation and learning. Challco et al. (2015) take into consideration learning environments where gamification has been merged into some learning scenarios. Through research, the institutions also find that gamification operates as a persuasive technology that influences collaborative learning. The research findings explore the specific dimension of gamification that would result in collaborative learning by suggesting the creation of an ontological model of gamified learning for formal systematisation and representation of knowledge. The scholars stress that this model should enable creation of intelligent technical systems that can personalise and apply gamification techniques in a group learning environment to promote collaborative learning simultaneous with catering to individual requirements of learners.
The process of blending together traditional learning approach with gamified and simulated learning framework often appears challenging due to the critical need of developing gameplay strategies and creative design techniques in such a way that it delivers subject matter not typically associated with games in a playful way(Dennis L Kappen & Nacke 2013). Thus, owing of the challenges associated with the process the effectiveness of cohesive framework approach in gamification of interactive teaching and learning has been studied by eminent scholars. The research of Kappen and Nacke (2013) in this context is based on training of engineers related to current models of game design, self-determination theory and the principles of systems design. In explaining the effective manner in which gamification can be integrated with non-gaming traditional learning scenario, the study talks about a kaleidoscopic model of effective gamification that would collaborate traditional learning approach and games and simulation. In this model ( figure 1) special emphasis is given on the process of game designing elements such as interface, mechanism, models and principle. In this, the gamified interface should clearly identify the learning goals and objectives as specified in traditional learning curriculum. Moreover, attention should also be given to ensure that pursing the traditional learning goals are fun experience for the learners.
Figure 1: Kaleidoscopic model of effective Gamification
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: (D. L. Kappen & Nacke 2013)
The research of Seaborn and Fels (2014) also express views on the integration of gamification in traditional non-gaming scenario. However, the scholars take the perspective different to that of Kappen and Nacke by discussing how the process of integrating gamification with traditional learning can enhance learner experience. The research findings affirm that educative gamification and use of game elements in traditional teaching and learning scenario leads to scholastic development of learners because this collaborative system appears convenient to use and access performance outcome.
Gaming and simulation based activities are considered as essential part of experiential learning in the contemporary times. In this regard, University of New South Wales reports that when learners take part in diverse and complex gaming activities, their performances give better scope of assessment of the learning outcomes for the educations. The institutions also get better opportunities to assess the preparedness of students regarding the manner in which they would be able to solve a problem in a real life situation. They also become aware of the shortcomings of individual students and the specific knowledge they need to make their learning even more enriched. All these are possible because the feedbacks generated by such gaming activities are always authentic (UNSW Australia 2017).
However, different scholars have placed different views on the significance of authenticity of games in an educational setup, some of which have been presented here. For instance, in 2008 Keyser and Howell conducted a case study research to understand state of authentic assessment in selected higher educational institutes of United States . The scholars made focused study on the use of games in assessment and their authenticity and found out that in virtual gaming environment the students are given real-world assignments as part of their learning session. The educators on their part find better scopes for assessing their learning outcomes because they use technical aides such as games, simulations, and other gaming techniques and are able to track the genuine reactions of learners in this calibrated situation instantaneously and much accurately. Through research conducted in 2012, Mcclarty et al. also affirmed with the findings of Keyser and Howell in suggesting that authentic assessment of learning outcomes is best served by means of game and simulation based learning and performance assessing tools. In order to come to this conclusion, the researchers conducted case studies on the use of digital games in various learning and assessing scenario in selected universities. The findings made the scholars reaslise that much more authentic asssessment of learner performance is possible in this format because the platform is built on sound learning principles that comply with the needs of the learners which contrasts with traditional learning format. Secondly, as the interface of such a teaching-learning platform arouses interest in students, they become more willingly engaged in the learning process. This eventually gives the educators better scopes in accessing their learning outcomes. The third reason is that highly advanced infrastructure of such learning platforms give a better environment for valid and appropriate assessment. Ariffin et al. conducted research on the similar context in 2014. For the purpose of exploring the significance of games in learning outcome and performance assessment, the researchers case study specific research on undergraduate students in a technical instutution in Malaysia. The research findings suggested that learner’s motivation positively correlates with learner’s performammce in this format of teaching and learning. Eventually, they show better learning outcomes which in turn provide more clearer and better scopes for the evaluator to asssess their performamce truthfully. Similar research was conducted by Rochmawati andWahyuni in 2017in order to find out how authentic assessment is possible through games. The case study conducted by the researchers in selected higher education institute in Indonesia took into account the effect of using physics chess game as a method of assessing learning outcomes of a target population of learners. In the study, the scholars stressed that authentic assessment implies assessment of attitude, knowledge or cognition and skills of the learners after the end of a teaching-learning session, which is often quite challenging in a traditional platform. In such a scenario, physical chess game which uses a chess board comprising of questions of physics proved immensely effective in tracking and recording exact values obtained by individual students in respect to their affective abilities or attitude, cognitive abilities or acquired knowledge and skills. Hence, from all these studies is has been affirmed that games prove much significant in conducting authentic assessment of learning outcomes.
This paper aimed at exploring role of game enhanced learning framework in enhancing assessment of teaching-learning technique. It has been understood that in the contemporary times it is essential that the skills acquired by students must comply with the industry requirements. For this, assessment of teaching-learning outcomes is essential. It has also been apprehended through this study that the role of gamified environment is imperative in this modern learning scenario because it helps in designing an interactive classroom based on didactic teaching model where traditional learning methods would amalgamate with games and simulation based learning and motivate students to willingly take part in the learning session. Finally, the study has also shown that LTA, which is a part of this modern classroom based on Gamification, is an essential characteristic of this format by means of which the needs and shortcomings of individual learners can be addressed and catered to for helping a learning session productive for every student who takes part in such a classroom.
The core objective of this research had been to understand the mediating role of gamification in enhancing teaching-learning techniques in higher education. The research findings suggest that gamified learning environment is directly related to enhancement of teaching learning in these academic institutions. It is assumed that this research finding will prove significant in future studies in finding out and proposing appropriate learning infrastructure where gaming and simulation can be successfully implemented to educators. It is also assumed that the findings of this study would also be effective in future researches in making recommendations that would help them in developing strong understanding of the purpose of collaborative approach in making the process of gamified learning successful from every dimension. This study is also expected to aid further studies in proposing how teacher efficacy can be enhanced through an interactive teaching-learning environment features games and simulation.
- Adams, M., 2016. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice, Taylor and Francis. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=24lwCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=pedagogy+in+teaching+-2010&ots=hTHRsb1LnQ&sig=xPpjb4mStTD1YEdHuAFNUcFw6RI#v=onepage&q=pedagogy in teaching -2010&f=false [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- Ariffin, M.M., Oxley, A. & Sulaiman, S., 2014. Evaluating Game-based Learning Effectiveness in Higher Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, pp.20–27. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1877042814014311 [Accessed May 29, 2017].
- Arnab, S. et al., 2012. Framing the adoption of serious games in formal education. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 10(2), pp.159–171. Available at: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ985419.
- Bernstein, B.B., 2000. Pedagogy, symbolic control, and identity : theory, research, critique, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_V0L-6eTYUAC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=pedagogy+-2010&ots=7gnrZ470WV&sig=c3jr5u6RnFJXVzh4hS3NiU6g9u8#v=onepage&q=pedagogy -2010&f=false [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- De Byl, P. & Hooper, J., 2013. Key Attributes of Engagement in a Gamified Learning Environment, Australia. Available at: http://www.ascilite.org/conferences/sydney13/program/papers/de Byl.pdf [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Challco, G.C. et al., 2015. Personalization of Gamification in Collaborative Learning Contexts using Ontologies. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 13(6), pp.1995–2002. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7164227/ [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Clapper, T.C., 2017. Simulation and Gaming can be Used to Determine Validity While Engaging in Collaborative Environments. Simulation & Gaming, 48(2), pp.175–177. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1046878117699433 [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- Concordia University, 2016. Interactive Teaching Styles Used in the Classroom, Available at: http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/tech-ed/5-interactive-teaching-styles-2/.
- CORE Education, 2014. Gamification. CORE Education Ltd. Available at: http://core-ed.org/legacy/thought-leadership/ten-trends/ten-trends-2014/gamification [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Crookall, D., 2011. Serious Games, Debriefing, and Simulation/Gaming as a Discipline. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046878110390784. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1046878110390784 [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- Daniels, K. et al., 2010. Prospective Randomized Trial of Simulation Versus Didactic Teaching for Obstetrical Emergencies. Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, 5(1), pp.40–45. Available at: http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=01266021-201002000-00009 [Accessed May 31, 2017].
- Darder, A., Baltodano, M. & Torres, R.D., 2003. The critical pedagogy reader, RoutledgeFalmer. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=a2bvKJ6S-L8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=critical+pedagogy+of+freire&ots=MxTzgT4tJL&sig=IVZdVKVnUjPepSG8Uo1WBg6ZYxw#v=onepage&q=critical pedagogy of freire&f=false [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Deterding, S. et al., 2011. Gamification. using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. In Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems - CHI EA ’11. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, p. 2425. Available at: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1979742.1979575 [Accessed July 14, 2017].
- Enikő, S.M., 2013. DIDACTIC TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESSFUL LEARNING, Available at: http://padi.psiedu.ubbcluj.ro/pedacta/article_3_2_5.pdf.
- Flores, J.F.F., 2015. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning. Digital Education Review, 27, pp.32–54.
- Ford, T., 2017. 4 PROS AND CONS TO GAMIFIED LEARNING. Tophatmonocle Corp. Available at: https://tophat.com/blog/gamified-learning/ [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Freitas, S. de, 2013. New pedagogical approaches in game enhanced learning : curriculum integration, Information Science Reference. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=SyGqHbFCLD8C&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq=Game+Enhanced+Learning+(Gamification)+in+higher+education&source=bl&ots=ZboM10YaV4&sig=NdUW_VsFE9WfMuS3hALlOwBTvS4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjo2pDCxIjUAhXBtY8KHVUwDpEQ6AEIRTAF#v=onepage&q=Game Enhanced Learning (Gamification) in higher education&f=false [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- Ger, P.M. et al., 2012. ELearning and Software for Education., Vasile Goldiş University Press. Available at: https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=203557 [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Giroux, H.A., 2010. Rethinking Education as the Practice of Freedom: Paulo Freire and the promise of critical pedagogy. Policy Futures in Education, 8(6), p.715. Available at: http://pfe.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.2304/pfie.2010.8.6.715 [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Gulinna, A., 2016. Selecting Appropriate Game Factors in Educational Gamification: An Instrument for Investigating Undergraduate Students’ Pleasurability in Learning, Available at: http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1830472269?accountid=13876%0Ahttp://bb2sz3ek3z.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/ProQuest+Dissertations+%26+Theses+Global&rf [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Gurgel, L.G. et al., 2017. Learning Potential in Narrative Writing: Measuring the Psychometric Properties of an Assessment Tool. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, p.719. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28539900 [Accessed July 14, 2017].
- HCL, 2016. Gamification In Education: Learning Redefined By Enhancing Engagement Level,
- Hosseini, H. & Hartt, M., 2016. Teaching Innovation Projects Game-based Learning in the University Classroom Game-based Learning in the University Classroom. Teaching Innovation Projects, 6(1). Available at: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/tips [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Iosup, A. & Dick Epema, T., 2014. An Experience Report on Using Gamification in Technical Higher Education. In Proceedings of the 45th ACM technical symposium on Computer science education. ACM, pp. 27–32. Available at: http://www.ds.ewi.tudelft.nl/~iosup/gamification-higher-education14sigcse_sub.pdf [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Judd, T., Kennedy, G. & Cropper, S., 2010. Using wikis for collaborative learning: Assessing collaboration through contribution. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(3). Available at: http://ajet.org.au/index.php/AJET/article/view/1079 [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Kappen, D.L. & Nacke, L.E., 2013. The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications. ACM. Available at: https://dl.airtable.com/m78UWfoBToCUciN2SByM_The-Kaleidoscope-of-Effective-Gamification-Deconstructing-Gamification-in-Business-Applications.pdf [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Kappen, D.L. & Nacke, L.E., 2013. The Kaleidoscope of Effective Gamification: Deconstructing Gamification in Business Applications. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications. ACM, pp. 119–122. Available at: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2583029.
- Keyser, S. & Howell, S.L., 2008. The State of Authentic Assessment, Brigham. Available at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503679.pdf [Accessed May 29, 2017].
- Kollar, I. & Fischer, F., 2010. Peer assessment as collaborative learning: A cognitive perspective. Learning and Instruction, 20(4), pp.344–348. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959475209000772 [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Laskowski, M. & Badurowicz, M., 2014. Gamification in higher education: a case study. Make Learn International Conference, 27(25), pp.971–975. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maciej_Laskowski/publication/270882244_Gamification_in_higher_education_A_case_study/links/54b6aaee0cf24eb34f6d57a4.pdf.
- Leaning, M., 2015. A study of the use of games and gamification to enhance student engagement, experience and achievement on a theory-based course of an undergraduate media degree. Journal of Media Practice, 16(2), pp.155–170. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14682753.2015.1041807 [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- Leithwood, K., Patten, S. & Jantzi, D., 2010. Testing a Conception of How School Leadership Influences Student Learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(5), pp.671–706. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0013161X10377347 [Accessed July 14, 2017].
- Li, C. et al., 2013. Engaging Computer Science Students through Gamification in an Online Social Network Based Collaborative Learning Environment. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 3(1).
- Lister, M., 2015. Gamification: The effect on student motivation and performance at the post-secondary level. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology, 3(2). Available at: https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/itet/article/view/18661 [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Lopes, R.P. & Mesquita, C., 2015. EVALUATION OF A GAMIFICATION METHODOLOGY IN HIGER EDUCATION. In 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Available at: https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/12910/1/2015_edulearn_gamification_2.pdf [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Lumsden, J. et al., 2016. Gamification of Cognitive Assessment and Cognitive Training: A Systematic Review of Applications and Efficacy. JMIR serious games, 4(2), p.e11. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27421244 [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Malyakkal, P.E., 2014. Gamification in the Classroom. International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer Science & Technology, (25), pp.2347–5552. Available at: http://www.ijircst.org/DOC/111db465a4-f26d-4437-8c50-0731a7fa27c2.pdf [Accessed July 14, 2017].
- Mcclarty, K.L. et al., 2012. A Literature Review of Gaming in Education Research Report, Available at: http://images.pearsonassessments.com/Images/tmrs/Lit_Review_of_Gaming_in_Education.pdf [Accessed May 29, 2017].
- Mcdaniel, R. & Telep, P., 2009. Best Practices for Integrating Game-Based Learning into Online Teaching. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2). Available at: http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/mcdaniel_0609.pdf [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Nie, Y. & Lau, S., 2010. Differential relations of constructivist and didactic instruction to students’ cognition, motivation, and achievement. Learning and Instruction, 20(5), pp.411–423. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095947520900053X [Accessed May 31, 2017].
- Parsons, J., Parsons, J. & Taylor, L., 2011. Improving Student Engagement. Current Issues in Education, 14(1). Available at: https://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/745 [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Reng, L. & Schoenau-Fog, H., 2016. The Game Enhanced Learning Model: Mapping Game-based Learning for Educators. In European Conference on Games Based Learning. Academic Conferences International Limited. Available at: http://search.proquest.com/openview/17b244af6409b7469ab16907030a4c8e/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=396495.
- Rochmawati, Y. & Wahyuni, S., 2017. Authentic Assessment in Physics Learning Using Physics Chess Game for Senior High School. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 3(1). Available at: http://www.ijlt.org/uploadfile/2017/0306/20170306041012106.pdf [Accessed May 29, 2017].
- Schill, C.A., 2014. Evaluating the Use of Gamification in Higher Education to Improve Students Engagement. Institute of Systems Architecture. Available at: http://www.rn.inf.tu-dresden.de/hara/arbeiten/DA_2014_Beier_-_Evaluating_the_Use_of_Gamification_in_Higher_Education_to_Improve_Students_Engagement.pdf [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Seaborn, K. & Fels, D.I., 2014. Gamification in theory and action: A survey. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 74, pp.14–31. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e358/d20a7fe90bff7ceb4579b5a67df05632ae08.pdf [Accessed May 26, 2017].
- Sterman, J., 2014. Interactive web-based simulations for strategy and sustainability: The MIT Sloan LearningEdge management flight simulators, Part I. System Dynamics Review, 30(1–2), pp.89–121. Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/sdr.1513 [Accessed May 24, 2017].
- Tangney, S., 2014. Student-centred learning: a humanist perspective. Teaching in Higher Education, 19(3), pp.266–275. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13562517.2013.860099 [Accessed May 25, 2017].
- Taylor, R., 2015. Gamification for Enhancing Student Motivation: Research Reflections, UAE. Available at: http://www.iutconference.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Taylor_Paper_IUT2015.pdf [Accessed July 14, 2017].
- UNSW Australia, 2017. Assessing with Role Play and Simulation, Available at: https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/printpdf/608.
- Urh, M., Vukovic, G. & Jereb, E., 2015. The model for introduction of gamification into e-learning in higher education. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. pp. 388–397. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042815041555.
- Velez Osorio, I.M., 2016. THE GAMIFICATION TREND: A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING. In 10th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain. Available at: https://library.iated.org/view/VELEZOSORIO2016GAM.
- Venter, C.J. & Coetzee, J., 2013. Interactive learning through gaming simulation in an integrated land use-transportation planning course. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 140(1). Available at: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)EI.1943-5541.0000171.
- Wood, L.C. et al., 2013. The role of gamification and game-based learning in authentic assessment within virtual environments, Available at: http://www.herdsa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/conference/2013/HERDSA_2013_WOOD.pdf [Accessed May 25, 2017].
Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veröffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bücher spezialisiert. Der GRIN Verlag steht damit als erstes Unternehmen für User Generated Quality Content. Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte wie Hausarbeiten, Referate, Bachelorarbeiten, Masterarbeiten, Diplomarbeiten, Dissertationen und wissenschaftliche Aufsätze einem breiten Publikum zu präsentieren.
Kostenfreie Veröffentlichung: Hausarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Diplomarbeit, Dissertation, Masterarbeit, Interpretation oder Referat jetzt veröffentlichen!