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214 Seiten, Note: Very Good
List of Abbreviations & Acronyms
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Operational Definitions of Concepts
Review of Related Literature
2.2 Theoretical Foundations of Employees’ Attitudinal and Behavioral Patterns in an Organization
2.3 Organizational Identification
2.3.1 Basic Conceptualizations
2.3.2 Organizational Identity and Identification
2.3.3 Major Components of Organizational Identification
2.3.4 The Relationship between Organizational Identification and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
2.4 Job Involvement
2.4.1 Basic Conceptualizations
2.4.2 The Relationship between Job Involvement and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
2.5 Perceived Organizational Justice
2.5.1 Basic Conceptualizations
2.5.2. Dimensions of Organizational Justice Perceptions
2.5.3 Distributive Justice
2.5.4 Procedural Justice
2.5.5 Interactional Justice
2.5.6 The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
2.6 Organizational Citizenship Behavior
2.6.1 Basic Conceptualizations
2.6.2 Dimensions of OCB
2.6.7 Civic virtue
2.6.8 Antecedents and Consequences of OCB
2.7 Conceptual Framework of the Study
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Study Area
3.4 Population and Sample
3.4.1 Sampling Procedures
3.5. Measurement and Instrumentation
3.5.1 Description of Variables
3.5.3 Organizational Identification Scale
3.5.4 Job Involvement Scale
3.5.5 Organizational Justice Perception Dimensions Scale
3.5.6 Organizational Citizenship Behavior scale.
3.5.7 Validity and Reliability Check to the Local Context
3.6 Data Collection Procedures
3.7 Scoring of Instruments
3.8 Data Analysis
3.9 Data Quality Assurance
3.10 Ethical Considerations
4.2 Socio- Demographic Characteristics of the study participants
4.2.1 Socio – Demographic Variables and OCB
4.2.2 Gender and OCB
4.2.3 Age and OCB
4.2.4 Work Experience and OCB
4.2.5 Educational Status and OCB
4.3 The Relationships among Organizational Identification, Job Involvement, perceived Organizational Justice and OCB
4.4 The Proportion of Variance Accounted for by Predictor Variables on OCB
5.2 Socio-Demographic variables and OCB
5.3 Organizational Identification and OCB
5.4 Job Involvement and OCB
5.5Perceived Organizational Justice Dimensions and OCB
5.5.1 Distributive Justice and OCB
5.5.2 Procedural Justice and OCB
5.5.3 Interactional Justice and OCB
5.6 Overall Influences of the Predictor Variables on Employees OCB
Conclusion, Implications and Recommendations
6.2.1 Theoretical Implication..
6.2.2 Practical Implication
6.2.3 Organizational Implication
6.2.4 Research & Policy Implication
6.2.5 Limitation of the Study
6.3.1 Recommendations for Future Research
Appendix-2- Rating Scale for Expert Judges
Appendix-3-Results of Descriptive Statistics Based on Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Participants
Appendix-4-Normality Test Results
This paper is completed with the support of different peoples and organizations. Especially my Advisor Tamirie Andualem (PhD) has been keen to keep an eye on me with all his Knowledge and expertise, for that, I would like to express my sincere gratefulness for what he has done for the completion of the research. It is also a great honor indeed to be his advisee
The process of the research has also been shaped with the help of the organization in the study area. For this to happen, Secretariat of the House of Peoples Representatives of FDRE and its staff members have been playing a pivotal role, and I strongly appreciate their support and cordiality
Regarding the data collection process, I have been assisted by two preeminent people, Ato Netsanet Amsalu and Ato Gezehage Ketema, because they have the experience of facilitating such works. For the pilot test purpose, I have also been helped by two staff members from the Secretariat of the House of Federation, namely Laqachew Demel and Amaha Neway. I wish them all the best in their professional endeavors with thanks
Furthermore, I would like to show express my appreciation to W/O Teshay Tekle for her endorsed facilitation of financial resources and to all my office colleagues, especially Ato Asmare Kassahun, Ato Wudetaw Libase, Ato Kasssaye Arega, W/O Alemnesh Nigussie, Ato Yared Eshetu and Ato Yakob Woldesemayiat for their versatile support and participation of examining some technical aspects of the research scales
Finally, as always, my family members backed me to successfully finish this program with their prayer and care. It is a great privilege to have you all the time. In sum, all that was not be possible without God’s will
Table-1- Stratified random sampling model of the current study
Table- 2- Comparison of reliability of scores of instruments in the original research and the
Table-3- The background characteristics of study participants-
Table-4- Results of descriptive statistics of study participants overall OCB and its dimensions-
Table -5-The results of descriptive statistics showing OCB and Socio demographic Variables
Table -6- Mann- Whitney and Wilcoxon test results by gender and OCB
Table-7-Multivariate Test results of Overall OCB & its dimensions across different Age groups of participants
Table-8-Multivariate Test results of Overall OCB & its dimensions across different Work experience of participants
Table-9-Multivariate Test results of Overall OCB & its dimensions across different Educational status of participants-
Table-10-Multivariate Test results of Overall OCB & its dimensions across different Incomes of participants
Table-11- Multiple Regression analysis of Overall OCB and Socio demographic variables-
Table-12- General explanation of each OCB dimensions by Model Summary and ANOVA
Table-13-Results of descriptive statistics of study participants on Organizational Identification, Job Involvement, Organizational Justice dimensions and OCB-
Table-14-The Relationships of Organizational Identification, Job Involvement, Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice and Interactional Justice with OCB-
Table-15- Multiple regression analysis of Overall OCB and Predictor variables
Table- 16-Stepwise Regression results of the predictor variables with model summary
Table -17- Canonical Correlation results for Predictor variable sets& OCB dimensions-
Figure -1- Conceptual framework of the relationship between Predictor and Outcome variables of the study -
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Organizations are paramount places to observe human behavior. Principally, when it comes to organizational citizenship behavior, the ultimate understanding is residing inside work establishments. The present study was dedicated to discern the interconnections between employees extra role behaviors and factors behind the realization of these actions. Based on that, due emphasis was given to see the prediction capability of socio – demographic characteristics of employees, Organizational identification, Job involvement, Organizational justice dimensions on employees OCB & its dimensions in the Secretariat of the Ethiopian Parliament, as it is one of the major government organizations. The study followed a quantitative approach with correlational design. The data were collected using standardized measurement scales by taking 202 (N=417) employees as participants through probability sampling assumptions. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics corresponding Percentage, Mean, Man-Whitney & Wilcoxon tests, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, MANOVA, Regression Analysis as well as Canonical Correlation Analysis. Giving that, participants did not generally varied by their socio demographic characteristics in displaying OCB, but with the exception of their Age groups and Educational status to show Altruism & Conscientiousness patterns respectively. Work experience was also relatively a good predictor of employees overall OCB level. Organizational identification of employees was significantly correlated with overall OCB and Altruism, Conscientiousness, Courtesy & Civic-virtue dimensions; Job involvement was also significantly correlated with OCB & all the five dimensions; from Organizational justice dimensions, distributive justice was not significantly correlated with overall OCB of employees but with Altruism & Conscientiousness dimensions, Procedural & Interactional justice were significantly associated with overall OCB & Altruism, Conscientiousness, Courtesy and Civic- virtue. Overall, the proportion of variance explained by independent variables were found to be significantly fit to predict OCB in different level. From the case in point, organizations are expected to be considerate of their employees’ psychological cohesion, involvement and fairness insights to enhance extra role behaviors and succeed.
Keywords: Organizational Identification, Job Involvement, Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, Interactional Justice, Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Organizations are very much reliant upon their workers that are encompassed from the behavior of individuals’ stand-in as participants (Steve & Thomas, 2008). Demands in an organization are fascinatingly multifaceted and interactional. Principally, from the human behavior aspects, level of different variables and the effect they brought to the survival and sustainability of that organization is a critical approach in research and development.
As a result of the diversities of organizational man power, the importance of studying the perceptions and behavior of employees in order to intensely understand the whole process of the organization based on human issues is vital. In this regard; the capability of employees to identify their organization and scale it up to create oneness to it, the actual involvement that the employees exercise towards the job they are dealing with, the perceptual process of employees’ contextualization of fairness in relation to the duties and responsibilities of both the organizational workflow and decision making as well as the justification behind it are conceptually important factors to predict the general tendencies of employees’ to willingly participate in their sector and try to contribute to fulfill the realization of potential outcome.(e.g. Moorman, 1991; Rioux, & Penner, 2001; Fassina , Jones & Uggerslev, 2008; Podaskof, Podaskof , MacKenzie, Maynes,& Spoelma, 2004 etc )
In organizational contexts, peoples’ categorization of themselves in accordance with what they are supposed to be treated as the member of some groups and other social identity related explanations are conceptually an integrative part of Organizational identification (OID), Job involvement (JI), perceived Organizational justice (OJ) and Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). For instance, as the context of this paper, a specific form of group identification in a likely relation with the organization they work for is imperative approach (Bartels, 2006). Similarly, diverse studies in ranges of organizational behavior revealed that the connections between Organizational identification and other interrelated self-concept variables with that of public sector employees’ organizational citizenship behavior is dependably significant(e.g Dong & Sue, 2015; Karaolidis, 2016;Flávia, Fábio & Ana, 2017).
In addition, the role of employees’ involvement in their routine job process is another psychological source to presume the positive outcome of the interaction of the workers with their organization. There are cases that could lead to consider involvement as an important factor in an organization; in many situations, individuals that displayed high amount of involvement in their duties perceived their jobs as essential part in everyday life and the discomposure or preference about their own characters has an inclination to be closely linked with how they are capable to attain their careers (Chughtai, 2008).In this regard, there are evidences that demonstrate the predicting influence of Job involvement to OCB in different respects of public services(e.g. Shaggy & Tziner, 2011; Seyyed, Mohammed & Kamil, 2013; Rustam, Farhad &Abdolmajid, 2014; Nwibere, 2014; Saxena & Saxena, 2015).
The option of perceived organizational justice has also a repercussion in the enablement of important accomplishments in an organization. Social psychologically, justice can be looked at as a juncture of people’s objective conditions, the impression of their apparent realities, the way they emotionally react towards and of course the behavior they are shown (Hegtvedt, 2006).In organizational environment, the role of perceived justice is very critical. Organizational justice (OJ) research point out the real-life consequences of employees’ treatment in a fair fashion. This issue could be extended to the employees’ perception of unfairness that could lead to exhibiting a smaller amount of positive results as well more inclination to display undesirable attitudes and behavior (Paddock, Stephen & Layne, 2005). Furthermore, Organizational justice (OJ) has a great benefit to derive with great trust and commitment, further progressive job performance, deliberate citizenship behaviors and etc (Russell, David & Stephen, 2007). In relation to that, numerous studies were done and came up with different results in order to show the relationships of organizational justice components and OCB as most of them inclind with a positive bond between the two variables (e.g., Jafari & Bidarian, 2012; Iqbal & Tasawar, 2012; Mathur & Padmakumari, 2013; Nandan & Mohamed, 2015; Ali, 2016))
At an outcome level, organizations must capitalize much to the citizenship behavior among their employees if their target is to promote efficiency and success; because Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) has an effect on the productivity of workforces and may possibly allow to encourage the likelihood of internal alliance (Saigon, Himmet & Muhammet, 2013). In general, organizational behavior is accompanied with the entire organizational effectiveness, which is the central sign of workplace behavioral significances (Saxena & Saxena, 2015). In this context, the idea of organizational citizenship behavior is eligible with three critical facts; first and foremost, the subject of OCBs’ is not associated with the formal task or job description rather it is very essential to notice that they are accomplished by the choice of the person as an employee, following to that OCBs’ are not enforceable and finally OCBs’ are assumed to be positively donated to the complete success of the organization (Saxena & Saxena, 2015).
In relation to the span of the public sector, workers are fit into numerous occupations in government organizations, however, there is no major clues of exactly how employees’ connection to their occupation have an impact to their attachment to the organization they belong(Hassan, 2012). Based on the less prominence assumed to the public sector in an organization – employees attachments and extra performances that are vital to the survival and realizations of both of them, the need to examine and generate a better understanding of public employees Organizational identification, Job involvement, Perceived organizational justice as predictors of Organizational citizenship behavior is potentially a right deed due to its implication on the constructive outcomes of psychological attachment regarding an essential component to workplace.
With respect to the Ethiopian context, the study of organizational related behavioral and perceptual factors is inadequate. However, there are few findings concerning the role and influences of organizational behavior variables like organizational citizenship behavior, perceived organizational justice, Job involvement, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational culture, organizational climate and etc. Nevertheless, these studies are not significant from the magnitude and scope of research problems in the area.
To recapitulate some of the research findings, for instance, Yohannes (2016), made known that the OCB activities of teachers in Bahir Dar town contrasts in different dimensions like work experience, level of education, teacher characteristics (personal goals, commitment, responsibility and economy), the nature of the teaching profession, empathy for students and communities and love for one’s country found as basic reasons to display OCB behaviors. In a related study, Eyerusalem (2016) ariticulately indicated the role of equity perception (justice) a in the federal public sector ministries concerning performance management system and its link with organizational commitment as well as practices, as the end result showed peoples perception of fairness in performance management system has a positive relationship with organizational commitment and inversely related with the declining level of perceived organizational justice feeling of employees.
In another turn, Temesgen (2014) found that organizational commitment components show different levels of prediction of behavioral outcomes, i.e. OCB and employes's turnover among employees of Ethiopian public universities. Woldemedhin, (2015) has also shown that job rotation practice towards employees in the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia positively moderated and boosts motivation, commitment and job involvement. Getahun and Lehal (2015) observed the importance of OCB to increase social capital among employees of the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation in north western regional offices, especially Amhara regional state and revealed that OCB has a significant relationship with social capital.
Missaye, (2016) discussed the role of perceived organizational justice in Health care workers, in public and private hospitals, as her study found both types of workers from these sectors has low sense of fairness towards some dimensions of organizational justice and high in other dimensions especially for private sector workers(interpersonal and informational justice dimensions). Missaye has also found that Organizational justice perceptions and job attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) has a slight difference in public and private health organizations and even as strong predicting power of Perceived organizational justice on job attitudes and turn over intentions of workers (Missaye, 2016).
Furthermore, the study of organizational behavior related variables are very important strategy in order to show the psychological factors behind the stability and complexities of employees’ behaviors and perceptual tendencies. However, even if there are more studies in a global level, the distribution and proportionality of these research findings did not show the needs of some regions like ours. In this regard, the aim of the current research is to assess the dynamics of organizational behaviors in relation to factors that are believed to predict extra role behaviors in organizational contexts.
Generally, different studies have tried to illustrate the influences of the research variables not in a comprehensive scope as it is put in the current study but with different dimensions. In this regard, the current study tries to combine different predictor variables as to show the actual influence they brought to OCB. Based on that, the purpose of this study is to clearly show the prediction tendencies of Organizational identification (OID), Job involvement (JI), Perceived organizational justice on Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the public sector with special emphasis on employees of the Secretariat of Ethiopia’s Federal House of Peoples Representatives (SHOPR) which is one of the largest public organizations in the country.
Organizations are dependent entities on their employees’ performance and extra role behaviors that are essential to overall accomplishments. By that, the study of organizational behavior plays its unique role to understand the patterns and consequences of different actions that are related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and effectively communicate with employees. The dynamics of OCB are considered to be interconnected with a variety of employee behaviors. For instance, the actions of OCB may not be foreseen from the nature of works or positions of employees. On this occasion, employees who behaved in an OCB are not at all times the highest performers, but the subject of task performance is considerably interacted with OCB (Zhang, 2011).
With regard to OCB related existing research, there are variety of information which are helping to conceptualize and empirically prove the construct. In this regard, different studies were conducted especially in the western world as a means to accumulate knowledge in the area. However, there are vacuums in the context of our country, especially on OCB and its relationship with other organizational variables. That is why it makes the present study an important investigation. Because there are evidences that demonstrated the actual relationships and the need to study such variables in cross cultural contexts (e.g, Qureshi, Shahjehan & Saifullah, 2011; Akintayo & Oyebamiji, 2011; Haridakis, Robyn & Paul, 2008).
The research gap in this area is apparent when it comes to the Ethiopian context. Few scholarly works have been done in this context. Particularly, there were no significant studies that are predominantly concerned with organizational variables and their interlinkages with one another. As opposed with the western contexts, the emphasis given to the extra role behavioral patterns in the organization is not enough to our environment. However, it’s posssible to fill the gap by conducting different research like the current one. Because it is very crucial to understand the real relevance of organizational behavior variables locally as most of the studies in OCB and related organizational attitudinal factors are culture bound. The majority of these studies have been conducted in the United States and Western Europe up in recent years and because of that, research conclusions are limited and to their definite cultural and socio- economic domains (Ertürk, Yılmaz, & Ceylan, 2004). As far as the role of culture is concerned, formations of what makes people to demonstrate extra role or citizenship behavior be at variance across cultures (Michele, Miriam & Zeynep, 2007).
Moreover, the concern of this particular study is also to observe combination and separate effects of different predictor variables, i.e. Organizational identifications , Job involvement, Distributive justice, Procedural justice, and Interactional justice perceptions on Organizational citizenship behavior and its dimension. Previously, this was not common to study such variable mixtures in our contexts because it would take rigorous conceptual and empirical analysis. The current study has also been uniquely featured employees work related perceptions which are evidenced to bring efficiency and extra role behaviors in different cultural contexts. As most of the research findings specified, in competitive situation organizations efficient employees whose determination should go further than customary job descriptions and official duties; citizenship practice of employees must come at this point to let them display, advanced levels of enactment and expected to do more while they are treated impartially in their place of work (e.g ,Saigon, Himmet & Muhammet, 2013).
Furthermore, the current study variables were subject to different evidences especially in relation to OCB with and in diverse contexts. For instance, within organizations, individuals lean towards modifying the degree of Organizational identification owing to the stay and character of interaction between the employee and the organization, and this could lead to the idea that more contact among employees and considerable period spend at an organization is more liable to identify themselves with it (Ufuk & Nejat, 2015).OCB is expected to be fulfilled with Organizational identification attitudes.
On another side, as earlier studies disclosed Job involvement is changing with individual characteristics such as age, education, sex, tenure, need strength, level of control and values(e.g Rabinowitz & Hall, 1977). From these points of view, individuals OCB are interlinked with job involvement in such a way that the strength and tendency of its position may to some extent fluctuate with different levels. In this regard, several studies revealed that job involvement has a direct effect on Organizational citizenship behavior (Chughtai, 2008).
Organizational justice is also an important predictor of different work related attitudes and behaviors, for the reason that it relates to employees to determine whether reasonable treatment of their jobs affect other work related variables (Liliana, Claudio & Bernardo, 2014). In this case, OCB as an extra behavioral functioning is supposed to be associated with organizational justice, because partly the perception of employee treatment in an impartial or partial way might be connected to the comparison made both within the organization or outside of it (Hassan, 2002)
Likewise , the role of socio demographic variables is also an important factor in this study to see the relationships with OCB.In this regard, there must be an extensive study with different contextual backgrounds because different studies came up with different results. For instance, recent studies have shown that Gender and OCB have relationships with different dimensions, as some of these points out the expected behaviors of men and women are slightly differing in taking part different dimensions of OCB (Francis, 2014). In another study, for example, Malek(2012) examines the relationship between gender, age, educational level, recruitment status, length of service with the organization, tenure, job classification, and intention to be leaving the service among lecturers in community colleges as well as the overall impact of demography in OCB and found different results. Others were also looking at the relationship between educational level and marriage status of employees with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In such studies for instance, some of them were failing to see any significant relationship between those demographic variables and OCB(Francis, 2014).
In addition, this study aims to create links between the characteristics of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), such as personal, interpersonal/group and organizational antecedents which are the limitations of many studies in the area. The major feature of this research is its inclusiveness of different organizational behavior variables to predict one major extra role behavioral pattern. The limitations of other research in the area emanates from lack of directing a full picture out of different antecedents in the study variables. This study is unique in its essence, because the major emphasis of it is directly related to the idea that deals with key variables in the area to holistically determine the research questions in demand.In this regard, As Yutaka (2015) assessment, empirical research trends in extents of OCB is mounted in different countries and it is considered to be a major motion in areas of organizational behavior. In order to largely see the influence of different variables on OCB it needs a cautious choice of both the researcher and readers in the area, as many of the research findings focus on behavioral associations between organizational variables.
The major difference of this study is that, it encompasses important levels of psychological factors in organizational surroundings multidimensionally with overall combination of varibles.For instance, Organizational Identification (OID) is linked to Job Involvement (JI) because the two variables are more of indicators of person – organizational connections. And perceived Organizational Justice (OJ) is the best indicator of the individual's perception of fairness in organizations which is the base for behaving in both pro - organizational or hostile - organizational contexts; all these variables are assumed to predict extra role behaviors (OCB) in an organization.
In general , the need for empirical research on organizational related behaviors is essential, particularly in contextually unique cirumstances. Based on that, the basic issue in this study is to fill the gap between major attitudinal factors of employees' perceptions in organizational settings by seeing their effect on OCB. In this regard, the research title of this study is unique in its combination of variables and to the linkage it attempts to observe.
The major objective of this study is to examine SHOPR employees’ Organizational identification (OID), Job involvement (JI), Perceived organizational justice (OJ) as predictors of Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Moreover, in its specific spectrum, the study looks at the following objectives:
1. To explore the relationship between SHOPR employees socio-demographic characteristics (Gender, Age, Work experience, Educational Qualification, Income) and OCB
2. To examine the relationship among SHOPR employees Organizational identification, Job involvement, Organizational justice and OCB
3. To understand the combined influence of SHOPR employees Organizational identification, Job involvement, Perceived Organizational justice on OCB
1. Is there significant relationship among SHOPR employees’ Socio-demographic characteristics and OCB ?
2. Is there significant relationship among SHOPR employees’ Organizational identification Job involvement, perceived Organizational justice and OCB ?
3. Are the combined proportion of variances explained by SHOPR employees’ Organizational identification, Job involvement, perceived Organizational justice significant to that of Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)?
The current study has a remarkable impact for the understanding of public sectors’ employee organizational dynamics and it contributes to create a better strategy for the promotion and facilitation of positive organizational behaviors in general and extra role behavior of employees in its particular sense.
Conducting this study has also been advantageous to those who wish to elaborate on ideas which are discussed in relation to the study variables. Especially the consequence of the independent variables would be taken into account for instigating employee centered reinforcements to scale up their performances and increase efficiency in work activities. Interested bodies on the subject could be benefited to manage human resources they have, with respect to psychological factors in working places that are directly held accountable to boost and even to minimize Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB).
For the target organization, if the findings of this study are properly realized could bring important opportunity to understand the approaches of employees there and dealing with the future organizational behavior aspects in an advanced management style. Besides, the core behavioral attributes of the study population will be discussed with the communicating process of the paper. In this regard, both employees and the leadership of the organization would get an important lesson to see the implications of the study results and the consequences they brought in real organizational settings.
Finally, the process and findings of this research are helpful to the researcher himself, other interested readers, the organization in concern and to the dissemination of knowledge and practices in the area at large especially in our age, because the impact of employees' attitudes in a day to day basis is a critical concern. It is also creating a unified understanding of organizational behavior aspects and relationships they have with the role and responsibilities of employees and organizations at a mutual level of analysis.
The current study is concerned with the investigation of Organizational identification (OID), Job involvement (JI) and Perceived organizational Justice (OJ) as predictors of Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the Ethiopian public sector, with a special emphasis on the Federal level organization.
In its depth phase, the characteristics of organizational related variables have a huge impact on the behavior of employees, and the study of larger area may be favored in terms of coverage. However, this study’s aim is to show the relevance of organizational behavior dynamics in different organizational setting with varieties of effects. To deal with it, the selected organization which is The Secretariat of House of Peoples Representatives of FDRE (SHOPR) is believed to give enough information regarding the study of research problems.
With this assumption, the implication of public service organization's involvement in their employees overall behavioral and attitudinal dynamics is the manifestation of these organizations effectiveness and efficiency. Based on that, the study looks at a specific scope in the above mentioned organization with a detailed account of seeking to understand employees’ psychological preparedness to engage in OCB. In this context, the study focuses on only the staff of SHOPR with the predicting role of different variables to see the effect they brought in employees OCB.
Generally, this study is only analyzed with the scope in one public sector organization at a federal level. In this regard, the study overlooks different organizational contexts from the comparative perspective and has no intention to overgeneralize for the country’s public sector employee attributes. The major purpose of the study is to contextualize the effects of different independent organizational behavior related variables in an organizational basis. For this to achieve, the scope is considered to be sound to discuss the implications of different behaviors and perceptual patterns in the organizational environment. This is directly resulted in predicting the performances of employees with their power of engaging in extra role behavior in the respective organization. It is important to understand the study variables effect in a large organization like the target one in the current study.
Socio - Demographic Characteristics : For this specific study it represents employees Social and demographic related factors that are serving as independent variables to determine the relationship with the outcome variable of the study (OCB). In this study, these characteristics are Gender, Age, Work experience, Educational qualification, Income.
Organizational Identification (OID): For this particular study, this concept is considered as employees’ individual psychological feeling that is based on the sense of oneness to the organization they are working with. There are cognitive & affective aspects within this construct. The variable is measured by Meal & Asforth, (1991) scale.
Job Involvement (JI): This concept is another dimension for the employees attachments to the organization, which is measured based on the amount of exertions employees invested in their respective job positions for this study. (As this particular study concentrated on, Job involvement could be seen with different perspectives: as an individual characteristics, situationally determined variable and as a product of person – situation interaction (Rabinowitz & Hall, 1977). With regard to measurement , Kanungo,(1982) scale was used in the current study.
Perceived Organizational Justice (OJ): For this particular study, employees’ perception of fairness towards their organization’s activities both in the process, decision making, informational and instructional patterns with other colleagues.(The process of organizational justice as the current study concentrated on having the following dimensions, namely: Distributive justice as measured by Prince & Muller (1986) scale; Procedural justice as measured by Sweeny& McFarlin (1997) scale; and Interactional justice as measured by Niehoff &Moorman(1993) scale.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB ) : It is employees’ behavioral patterns that are voluntarily done as an extra role activities in an organization and are not included in the formal job description of workers. The availability of this behavior is predicted from different independent factors and has a possibility to promote and minimize based on the potential factors influenced it. (OCB has the following 5 dimensions designed for measurement in the present study, namely: Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic-virtue).Concerning the measurement tool, Podsakoff et.al (1990) scale was used.
Because of the complexities of the study constructs, the first part of this chapter gives an account to the detail clarification and understanding of predictor variables of the study in accordance with theoretical perspectives. In this regard, the basic concepts of Organizational Identification (OID), Job Involvement (JI), Perceived Organizational Justice (OJ), as an independent construct and in relation to OCB. This is done to provide an overall representation of the study variables, with the nature, characteristics and organizational relevance as an attitudinal and behavioral existing factor. The development of organizational analytics in discussion on this study has considered both the holistic aspects of important variables and their respective dimensions and components.
In the second part, the presence of OCB that is reflected in everyday life are elaborated on with its essence and formal application. Major conceptual backgrounds and its linkage with the utilization of the construct in an organizational context will be highlighted in accordance together with theoretical and empirical discourses. The major aspects of OCB are parts of this segment to be discussed with relevant relationship with the study.
At last, conceptual framework of the current study will be drawn based on different theoretical and conceptual analysis regarding the interlinking between the independent and dependent variables. In this instance, the hypothetical assumptions of the writer of the paper, the abstraction of the nature and significance of research problems to objectively predict the interaction of particular constructs in the study will be depicted.
In sum, this chapter gives a comprehensive outlook to the study variables as a potential disposition of understanding the fundamental tendencies of the current research insights. Evidences from varieties of sources are integrated to satisfy the literature demand of the study in creating both the conceptual and empirical explanations. With this task, the literature review part of the study has targeted to assess the critical characteristics of the study variables with having the context of the study in mind.
Organizations are one of the recognized places to nurture human potentials and work productivity. In this regard, the availability of organizational members, especially a different group of peoples or teams is turning out to be manifestations of human interactions. Because, the idea of human beings at work together can be comprehended in alignment with basic human nature, attitudes and psychological needs (Micheal, 2001). In this context, different theories are assessing the nature of human beings in relation to organizational settings.
For instance, identity theory assumes human beings as having a free will to define the situation as an actor; that can identify important things and act upon the best attention of those identifications and their aspiration to be fit with the construction of identity as well as the action they are taking are being checked to be congruent with others in the condition which they are anticipated to bring about their goals(Stets, 2006). For a person to give an emphasis on the context in relation to organizations or other places, the equilibrium between his/her attitudes and probable behaviors in the situation has an important role; because it is not always likely to show the fullest parts of attitudinal predispositions in action. This is happened to win out the norm of appropriate behavior expectations with that of peoples attitudinal patterns(Gilovich, Keltner, Chen & Nisbet, 2016).
Social identity theory provides additional explanation to the person –organization relationships and the essence of human identity. For this theory, individuals mange to keep their social identities by assuming the group they belong to other groups, particularly the comparison of their own group positively than that of the other group(Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Relying on the social context, different traits like sense of duty, modesty or patience importantly defines personal identity and social identities(Verkuyten & Wolf, 2002).Depending on such theoretical explanations employees perceptions of their internal work environment or intra organizational cues play a pivotal role to influence their identification with the organization they are engaged in (Lam, Liu & Loi, 2016).
Self- categorization is another important cognitive perspective which is an extension of social identity of peoples and the reason of why the formation of these identities be presented and explained in terms of the cognitive process. This theory asserts that, in different decision making process groups tend to identify with their group membership and tries to build contextually appropriate and identity- determined or consistent group standard; the proposition of this theory, therefore varies from social identity theory in a way that the former seeks to higher order group process of group behavior in its up-and-coming level in order to predict the swing in self- perception from self- categorization elements of individual identity to categorizing self in relation to social identity(Hogg, 1999; Wicklund, 1999). However, the influence of organizational life cannot be attributed to behavior to the organization unless one can be defined that the organization is psychologically ‘real’ to the subject with different regards(Ickes, 1999).
Social exchange theory has a different social-psychological way of explaining employees’ attachment to their organization in general and the need for attitudinal and behavioral patterns in particular. The basic tent of this theory is the assumption that, the fundamental interaction of humans is depending upon the exchange of social and material resources(Murdvee, 2014). Based on that, variety of interactions could be anticipated accurately as the theory emphasized (Griffin, 2011). Research and theory in this context have shown that, the link between social exchange theory and OCBs are eminent. Especially from the views as individuals presumed to originate a cognitive evaluation of the current situation and matched it using the standard fairness which help them whether to engage in OCB or not (Pierce & Maurer, 2009).
Finally, the explanation of fairness in the organizational contexts better understands by the equity theory and its preceded explanations as the way to facilitate the components of organizational justice behavior.In the equity theorizing, people are motivated to achieve fairness or equity with the exchange process in terms of outcomes they be given comparative to the contributions that they deliver (Donovan, 2001). In sum, a theoretical origin used for a relationship concerning fairness and citizenship was drawn from equity theory as well as other principles of social exchange(Moorman, 1991).
Research in organizational behavior has attempted to deliver imperative theoretical combinations of key writings in the organizational sciences, and appropriate investigation and challenging analyses of persistent organizational concerns and problems (Stow & Kramer, 2003). In relation to that, Organizational identification has considered for longer period as an important and critical construct on different literatures of organizational behavior (Ashforth & Mael, 1989).
Albeit organizational identification is originated from social identity and symbolic interaction theories, contemporary notions underline a social identity whereby organizational members classify themselves and others centered on roles and involvement in an organization or work division; symbolic interactionism, as a feature of interpersonal relationships, is not often theorized or empirically assessed in studies of organizational identification (Jones & Volpe, 2010). As Organizational identification is a wide concept that scholarly trends and research interests are various. For instance, pioneers of this conception like, Ashforth, Harrison & Corely(2008) has demonstrated the major questions related to the understanding of Organizational identification;including the nature of identification,with a range beginning narrow to wide-ranging formulations and differentiated positioned identification from deep identification and organizational identification from Organizational commitment, try to link the discussion between individual and organizational outcomes as well as numerous organizational behavior themes.In this regard, as a meta-analysis by Riketta (2005)found, first, it is emperically supported that organizational identification has associated with work related attitudes, behaviors and context variables, second, it was clearly identified that the connection between Organizational identification and Organizational commitment is emperically separate and finally,different scales of organizational identification could bring about much diverged results.
Moreover, Ashforth, Harrison & Corely (2008) have also refers a process model that consists of set of sense breaking and sense giving which interacts identity and sense making as well as creating identity accounts, they also emphasized on team, worker group and sub unit: relational; occupational; and career identifications as well as how multiple identifications may encounter, come together and combine in organizational settings.These speculations are adding to the notion of organizational behavior dynamics at large in terms of the psychological factors that bind employees to their organization. Because, understanding the psychological relationship between the individual and the organization consequently of great theoretical and practical significance used for research in organizational behavior (Knippenber, 2006)
Organizational identification has a tremendous impact to the description and prediction of behavioral and attitudinal factors in organizational context. It also has a valuable proposition to explain individual attitudes and behaviors as well as individual and organizational identities. In this regard, a meta analytic review by Lee, Park, & Koo, (2015), shown that Organizational identification is considerably related with basic attitudes like job involvement and related constructs as well as behaviors like extra- role performance (OCB) etc. In organization; organizational identifications direct effect on general behavior far more than general attitudes and they also clearly showed an organizational identifications tendency to be moderated by national cultures and high level social context to which the organization is found in as a means to the variations of individual response in terms of its stronger effect to collectivist culture like ours than in an individualistic one. Specifically in relation to national cultures, Lam, Liu, & Loi, (2016), found that the effect of collectivism as a moderator to extra- role behavior and organizational support through organizational identification.
Organizational identification’s conceptualization has been subject to diverse outlooks with which the frame of understanding its nature may vary. However, there are pertinent points to holistically assume the construct. For instance, organizational identification occures when people integrate beliefs of organizational identity in to their own individual identity.In this case people became challenged to identify with different figures comprising organizational leaders,symbols, mission statements, products etc to cerate a strong beleif; in other direction, organizational identification encompasses social aspects of individuals idenity or self concept and identification consists of the nature of perception of value congurence to individual and an organization but not all the times and the value in the organization not necessarily cause a drastic changes in individual values (Pratt, 1998).
Organizational identity and identification are core constructs in organizational phenomena and organizational arrangements which they convey distinctiveness and oneness (Albert, Ashforth & Dutton, 2000). These constructs partake a tremendous influence on numerous organizational behaviors and consequently on the working of an organization and the realization of its objectives. (Jong & Gutteling , 2006). Organizational identity frequently is represented as that which is essential, distinguishing, and persistent about the character of an organization (Gioia , Shultz & Corely, 2000).
Organizational identity generally refers to what participants perceive, feel and think about their organizations (Hatch & Schultz, 1997). In organizational identity, there are foundational thinking that brought the concept to be conveyed by perspective of individuals which is treated as an organizational identity as an analogue of individual identity; these functions, drawing attention to those individual and collective social actors and distinguishing structural features of individual and organizational identity referent that are parallel to each other (Whetten, 2006). On the other hand, there is no one agreeable distinctions between organizational identity and identification in research, however, these two constructs takes in common that are understanding how individuals perceive and classify themselves as members of a group and the organization or a larger incorporating community (Ravasi & Rekom, 2003). Organizational identity has played an important role in organizational dynamics; it impacts leaders and members together within an organization and organizational members are also influenced by an organization’s identity (Lin, 2004). In relation to this condition, organizational identification has claimed to have an exceptional importance in explaining personal attitudes and behaviors in organizations, as it encompasses the critical characteristics of components as individual and organizational identities (Lee, Park, & Koo, 2015). Overall, both identities (individual and collective) and identification in its process bound people together in organizations in the case of personal and shared accounts that people author in their determinations to create sense of their world and deliver meaning in their lives (Humphreys & Brown, 2002).
In organizational perspective, there is an ongoing argument in the literature to what way organizational identification (OID) has to be theorized and operationalized (Edwards & Peccei, 2007). However, there are important components in the construct of organizational identification. Especially as its purpose entails individual and organizational effects as well as quite a lot of links to common organizational behavior topics (Ashforth , Harrison, & Corely, 2008).
A) Cognitive and Affective Components
Because individuals often identify with groups in order to either reduce apparent uncertainty or to feel better about who they be present as personalities. In this regard, Organizational identification has two components; cognitive and affective. Cognitive and affective identiﬁcation are two distinguishing forms of social identiﬁcation in organizational settings (Jhonson, Morgeson & Hekman, 2012). Cognitive identification can be defined as the thoughts or beliefs regarding the extent to which individuals define themselves on the basis of a social referent; whereas affective identification as the feelings individuals experience about themselves in relation to the social referent and the value they place in that social identity(Johnson & Morgeson, 2005). Research has provided an evidence of cognitive identification that it consistently predicted by cognitive ability, organizational prestige and neuroticism, in relation to that affective identification is predicted from prestige and extraversion as well as these two components are delivered predictive validity of organizational commitment, organizational involvement, and organizational citizenship behavior(Johnson & Morgeson, 2005). In related studies, it shows that perception of organizational support values in individual basis is determined by self concept components of cognitive identification as organizational attributes and an affective tie that bind individual employees and the work organization (Xenikou, 2014)
As various studies revealed, people who very much identify with their organization are more likely to perform OCB ( e.g ,Kane & Perrewé, 2012;Choi , Moon & Kim , 2014). Accepting the correlation between such variables will benefit both public and private segments of organizations about the role of organizational identification and organizations must to recognize that OCB are helping behaviors backing significantly to organizational effectiveness (Srivastava & Madan, 2016). Organizational identification has different aspects that serve as differentiators interlinked with work related attitudes and behaviors(Dick, Wagner, Stellmacher & Christ, 2004). In organizational level of extra-role behavior the performance of organizational citizenship behavior has been directed to individual level of analysis in most of the early research traditions, but recent research traditions have focused on the group level or unit-level OCBs and the intervening instruments as well as boundary situations of the interactions among OCBs and unit- level outcomes( Podaskof, Podaskof, MacKenzie, Maynes & Spoelma, 2014). In this case, the role of organizational identification plays an important role both at individual and group level, as it positively encourages employees' organizational citizenship behavior and it also contributes to an intermediate function between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior (Ganglion, 2011). In Particular, related research shown that organizational citizenship behavior has a tendency to be affected by organizational identity and self concepts that it is possible to strengthen and improve such variable contribution in order to increase OCB( Allameh, Alinajimi & Kazemi, 2012). Moreover, Organizational identification is considered to be amongst the major and key element to employees ties in organizations and make them committed to the organization, that makes the variable as many studies verifies its positive contribution to organizational citizenship behavior (Demir, 2015).
The concept of job involvement deals with the amount of employees’ effort to identify themselves with their present job, which attracts research interests in empirically oriented psychologists (Gilkar & Darzi, 2013). It has involved as a crucial aspect to an organization's success and it leads to improved satisfaction as well as better productivity for the organization (Abdallah, Obeidat, Aqqad, Al Janini & Dahiyat, 2017). Equally job involvement demands an employee's willingness to work; those who are willing to working hard can be considered as highly involved individuals and less willingness creates low involvement of the job as the concept includes employees cognitive preoccupation on the job, engaging in action and the concern they develop to one’s job(Sharma, 2016). This shows that, individuals' effort to be involved in their job has an impact to incur satisfaction of several salient psychological necessities to which the effect will be reflected at organizational basis(Wrk, Bosohoff & Cilliers, 2003).
Job involvement as a psychological construct has long been conceptualized in different ways. For instance, as Kanugo(1982) critically assessed early conceptualizations of job involvement that carries exessive meanings and these can be identified by; first,the construct overlaps with intrinsic motivation ,second most past researchers take a mixed up position on the anticedent situations of job involvement using the matter of identifying the state of job involvemet and its consequent effects , third job inolvement conceptualized by early researchers with a failed understanding of distingushing the two situations in which an individual can demonstrate personal involvement,namely specific for particular job context and generalized work context.In any case, literatures have not been adequetly adressed the role of job involvement in precise (Ho, Oldenburg, Day & Sun, 2012). In accordance with the basic tenets of job involvement, however there is research support, including the role of individuals to decide response at work which emphasized the importance of work as it is considered by individual believers and the value of work to form part of individual identity or self cocept;in this regard gob involvement as a factor to influence employees live, eat and breath the job (Govender & Parumasur, 2010). In related to the fact that job involvement is an important concept, it is favorably encouraged other related aspects of the job like OCB and likely become committed to their organization( Nwibere, 2014). However, there are theoretical distinctions between job involvement and work involvement; that work involvement stands for a normative belief of work in an employee’s life and is a function of historical, cultural conditioning and socialization, where as job involvement serve as personal character that is based on one’s satisfaction (Kanugo, 1982). In different contexts, the conceptualization of job involvement is varied accordingly towards individual and circumstances as well as the disagreement to its meaning would be resolved through conceptualization of the concept (Antil, 1984). However, meta analysis and review by Brown (1996) clearly supports that, job inovolvemtnt is influenced by personality and situational variables, it has a strong correlation with job and work attitudes, there was little difference in the measurements of involvement relations as well as there he found a modest and systematic differences among the studies of public and private organizations towards job involvement. In sum, previous research in the areas of job involvement capitalizes on its importance to affect individual and organizational outcomes (Ekmekçi, 2011). There are also related research findings that job involvement might consider a person to further socialize by the organization and it enhances the employees' objectives to advance levels of work performance & quality of employees' lives at work (e.g Beheshtifar & Emambakhsh , 2013; Rizwan, Khan & Saboor , 2011).
Job involvement is considered to be a useful predictor of OCB, as some of the study findings in the area shows direct or indirect relationship between the sub scales of OCB and job involvement (e.g Diefendorff, Brown, Kamin, & Lord, 2002; Shragay &Tziner, 2011). In specific terms, for instance, other research findings have shown that OCB in the organization could cause up to 52% of job involvement of employees and it plays an important role in organizational performance of employees (Vijayabanu, Govindarajan, & Renganathan, 2014). In this regard, the prediction cababiliy of job involvement is positive and significant among its effects on OCB. (Behtooee, 2016). Concerning the area of public organization, extra-role behaviors are more available and intensive than that of the private organization (Pavalache-Ilie, 2014). To substantiate this argument, the findings by Mirzaee & Beygzadeh (2017), gives an important implication as it is shown that the employee job involvement in the government tax office can be explained 78% of OCB dimensions in the Iranian context. Other cross cultural studies indicated that there is a positive effect of the affective and behavioral involvement of employees on some OCB dimensions and cognitive involvement inversely influence helping behaviors as well as these effects were partly qualified by employee job category and gender (Yutaka, 2012). In relation to gender, there are consistent trends with some findings that sex is indeed moderate parts of the job involvement and OCB relationships which have evidence of the strong relationship between the variables and females than males (Diefendorff, Brown, Kamin, & Lord, 2002). In extended research on the mediated role of job involvement, it has considered to be one of the factors to predict the relationship between OCB, emotional exhaustion and diminished personal accomplishment ( Chiu & Tsai, 2006). In related research job involvement has also a Positive mediated role in job characteristics and OCB. (Chen & Chiu, 2009). Job involvement research has also revealed that, it has a direct and positive effect on OCB; in relation to this among the leadership styles transformational leadership has a significant influence on job involvement as well as personality can be a major indicator of job involvement(Dwirosanti, 2017). Generally, job involvement affects OCB in such a way that high involvement is increasing the probability of extra role behaviors; study in this regard has shown that, involvement partially mediates among organizational justice and OCB and suggested that to advance employees OCB employers has two primary encourage employee job involvement (Safe, Kojuri, Badi, & Agheshlouei, 2013). On the contrary, there are previous studies that are indicated that involvement in decisions leading employment practices could only contribute to a small but indirect effect on OCB (Cappelli & Rogovsky, 1998).
Organizational justice can be explained as employees' perception that are related to workplace procedures, interactions and outcomes to be fair in nature; the extent to which these perceptions avail attitudes and behavior in their differentiation which impact on the performance of employees and organizational achievement (Baldwin, 2006). In particular, the concept of organizational justice encompasses the employees' determination of whether they have been treated fairly in their jobs and the influence that is brought by these determinations in the work-related variables (Moorman, 1991). In this case, the issue of justice or fairness has concerned all individuals; concerning the issue, justice dimensions have long been demonstrated, but theoretical ways that can cause this effect are not well identified (Judge & Colquitt, 2004). In research, justice is perceived to be a socially constructed variable ( Colquitt, Colon, Wesson, Porter & Ng, 2001). Research has shown that employees' perceptions of distributive, procedural and interactional justice could contribute to the availability of key work outcomes, including performance, job attitude and citizenship behavior( Rupp, 2001). The concept of justice in terms of its effect to other related variables is indeed a most important issue because it matters is more or less identical by means of preserving that individuals care about the way they are treated by others ( Folger & Cropanzano, 1998). Its effect has also reached into not merely determining organizational performance, but also the economic well being of an employee and it could balancing employer employee relationships (Yean &Yusof, 2016). In general, organizational justice in its context is mirrored by several different aspects of employees' working lives (Colquitt,Greenberg & Zapata-Phelan , 2005)
In organizations, justice results are contingent on whether one’s consequences are fair and correspondingly on degrees of procedure and treatment (Lind, 2001). The discussion of organizational justice is concerned with individuals as they relate to what they achieve with those achieved by other colleagues, however the insight of justice has not only limited to the comparison of outputs (Bayarcelik & Findikli, 2016). Furthermore, in the study of organizational justice has stipulated three reasons that it, first includes the social phenomenon related to features of social or organizational life, second, it considers each organization's human resource as a main asset, thirdly employees behavior and treatment will have a tendency to affect their future attitudes and behaviors (Jafari & Bidarian, 2012). In research traditions, the concept of justice nowadays focuses mainly focuses on employees care about justice (content theories), the process of fairness in its processes and peoples responses to perceived injustice (process theories); justice research continually directed on the multilevel stage that has turn out to be concentrated on how shared perceptions of justice create with in work group or organization as well as how these perceptions and its reaction to it has differed throughout cultural contexts including organizational and national cultures (Rupp & Thornton, 2017). In Addition to that, justice conceptualization in organizational literature has focused on the three main trendes;differenciation which is deliberate on the idea that justice conceptualization can be seen as interactively with additional justices dimensions that are up to, be segmented into different sources in advance, the cognition trend postulated on the rational and calculative issue which is part of the paramount justice theory, the exogeneity trend conceptualized justice as its independent variable position in most empirical theories (Colquitt, 2012). In general, different researchers on organizational context have revealed the best benefit of organizational justice in an organizational context for the realization a of organization vs employees nexus(Iqbal, Rehan, Fatima & Nawab, 2017). From such aspects, organizational justice has a tendency to be effectively predicted OCB, that is if there is a higher state of justice perceptions there will be a higher probability of showing OCB with a good standing relationships among employees (Jafari & Bidarian, 2012). In general, research in organizational justice and its perceptual propensities has been conceptualized in different perspectives and empirical investigations, that are contributing to the development and understanding of the concept in alignment with organizational behavior related variables.
The perceptions of organizational justice, broadly comprise from procedural and relational components; the previous one is concerned with decision making activities and their participatory tendency to different pursuits within the organization in the input, consistency, accuracy, correctablity and ethical considerations, and the later is imposed on the considerably and fair treatment among individuals in their context (Elovainio, Kivimäk & Vahtera, 2002). In this regard, organizational justice can be seen as with specific dimensions, such as, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice perceptions.
Distributive justice has conceptualized in terms of the perceived fairness of outcomes and many of the predictions this variable has been related to its strong importance to organizational contexts that have depended on the distribution of outcomes in general (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). In work places distributive justice is an emphasis on employee treatment in its utmost properties; that includes discrimination of employees, the fair- share of employees in promotion for some and marginialization for others with the tendency to be connected with top management and ethos (Yadav &Yadav, 2016). Distributive justice could be elevated in situations that are having consistent outcomes in which equity and equality of allocation of things could be managed with implicit norms (Srivastava, 2015). Moreover, the concept of distributive justice is thoroughly related to reward distribution in organizational contexts.
In theoritical explanation the concept of distributive justice can be best described three important schemes; first relative deprivation theory, which is focused on the socio economic status of peoples to compare themslves with others interms of jugding the situation they are found in that had been very much included in psychologcial literatures in distributive justice related conceptualizations,Second, social exchange theory is concentratiing about the fairness of exchanges between peopless relations including justice that are even determined future relations amonge them with the expectation from past relationships,third, equity theory is another imporatnt notion which is focused on the value of ratio of out-comes and in-puts of ppeoples in organization incomparison with the coworkers that comprisesof perceptions of fairnes and coluld lead to inequity distress (Seo, 2013).
The perception of distributive justice has been a critical viewpoint because of the employees’ nature of seeing the concept of fairness with partiality, that is outcomes and resources are not allocated with the same quality and quantity in terms of pay/salary, job status, and etc (Mathur & Padmakumari, 2013). Furthermore, the idea of fairness is noticeable especially when decisions are regarded to be made with limited resources that are causing both decision makers and peoples to be concerned with fairness (Bertolino, 2006). In conclusion, distributive justice has orientated to be a major factor for its predictability capability to cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to specific consequences (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001)
In organizational perspective, procedural justice encompasses the process of allocation of outcomes with no intention to the obtainability outcomes themselves and it is a vital element to keep institutional legitimacy when decisions are affecting individuals and can definitely cause certain outcomes (Colquitt, Baer, Long, & Ganepola, 2014). The concept of procedural justice was first developed from studying fairness of formal procedures governing decisions that are the basis for individual perceptions (Masterson,Lewis, Goldman & Taylor ,2000). As the consideration of procedural justice is comprehend on the process of decision making, procedures in organizations are free to be set up and there still are differences in the procedures used to address same important questions (Lind & Taylor, 1988). In relation to that, the procedural justice contribution to workplace is pointing to for work attitude and performance of employees in that;ressearch support, procedural justice can increase the presence of organizational identification and it revolved the influence of moral identity centrality on employee engagement (He, Zhu , & Zheng, 2014).As an important notion, Procedural justice was first conceptualized in early theories like Levental et.al introduced six important determinants of procecedural justice judements;consitency of appliying with a time and space congurence, taking accounatabllity freeing from bias especially from the interference of the third party, accuracy of information to put al decisions with enough evidence, using some alternative mechanizms to correct inacurate decisions,be loyal to moral and instrumental standards of ethics and be open to the participation of important bodies or peoples that are percived to be or actualiy affected by the decision (Colquitt ,Colon ,Wesson , Porter , Christopher & Ng ,2001).These conceptualizations are important indicators of the value of procedural jutice and its implication in organizational context.
Interactional justice is concerned about the dignity of people in relationships in the area of in an organization, which is an addition to procedural justice that is giving emphasis to the way management of an organization is showing conduct to their employees or recipients of justice (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). In short, Interactional justice is a recent conceptualization in justice literatures with which the development of organizational justice theory has an impact in its development and heavily relying on (Xie, 2016). With regard to interactional justice, fulfillment criterion, researchers like, Bies has identified respect and neutrality in serving as rules and truthfulness and justification in other side as the guiding principles to its success (Hegtvedt, 2006).Interactional justice may sometimes confused with procedural justice, but as Lonsdale,(2013), suggetsts the relation ship between this two variables has a clear conceptual boundary between the organizational and supervisor level of analysis; that is procedural justice more strongly attached with organizational level variables and interactional justice with supervisor related variables like leader – member exchange and organizational citiezenship behavior focused on individuals in relation with one’s supervisor.However, supervisor related justce perceptions are explained vairances in citizenship out comes better than organization-originated justice irrespective of the target they are focused in (Colquitt, 2012). The major characteristics of interactional justice are that they are unaffected by the individual self- interest and the tendency of its perceptions is interactional justice (Ladebo, 2014). Furthermore, interactional justice could be extended into sub two sub components: informational and interpersonal (Usmani & Jamal, 2013). Informational justice is the examination of peoples truthfulness and it is about the justifications of things with an adequate explanation in cases which generates wrong things, on the other hand, interpersonal justice has focused on the relationship between peoples in the justice process that whether they are treated with dignity (Cropanzano, Bowen & Gilliland, 2007). In sum, interactional justice is a very powerful construct that give a very good insight to explain organizational justice dynamics throughout the entire organizational processes and outcomes (Bies, 2015). In general, some theories, predicted that employees' perception of interactional injustice may be resulting in a negative reaction towards the organization and concerning specific outcomes (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001).
In organizational settings, the availability of organizational justice has a great impact to generate organizational citizenship behavior (Jafari & Bidarian, 2012). In this regard, the state of organizational justice has an important role to positively predict both organizational identification and organizational justice and the interplay between the two (Guangling, 2011). In broader respect, the dimensions of OCB are all positively related to additional factors in organizations an towards work in general ( Tziner & Sharoni, 2014). Among the dimensions of perceived organizational justice, there are early evidences that supports the value of interactional justice into predicting the occurrence of citizenship behaviors (Moorman, 1991). Other researches were also shown the effect of distributive and procedural dimensions of justice in relation to OCB, that culture and gender has also has been seen with different to these variables (Farh, 1997). The quality of overall fairness is influencing the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior as some studies like, Tansky(1993).On the other hand, leadership training of organizational justice for members of a certain organization has a tendency to increase positive justice perceptions behaviors in both the leadership-member relationships (Skarlicki &Latham, 1997). In recent decades, as a meta-analytic study shown, interactional and procedural justice perceptions are found to be a strong predictor of OCB (Fassina, Jones & Uggerslev, 2008). And other researches have proven the significant relationship between distributive and interactional justice in relation to OCB (Awang & Ahmad, 2015). Moreover, manager trustworthiness could contribute to the variation in the explanation of OCB other an above than interactional fairness (Cobra & Lim, 2007). Additionally, in theoretical respects, the concept of justice and citizenship behavior has been primarily drawn from equity and other social exchange theories (Moorman, 1991). Finally, the dimensions of organizational justice have different level, but the influence to organizational outcomes, including OCB (Jawahar & Stone, 2016).
Organizations are not always the formal task oriented entities, rather they also depend on voluntary activities such as task completions that are based on positive and helpful social behaviors which are not bounded by time or personnel inconvenience that are not intended to getting any opportunities or further benefits (Bez, 2010). In this regard, the concept of organizational citizenship behavior is an instance that is comprised of different dimensions and the cumulative effect of these dimensions are indeed very important to create an astonishing influence on organizational operations and effectiveness (Organ, 1988). As construct OCB is important in organizational contexts that could not be explained by different things like same inducements that prompt entity, conventionality to contractual role prescriptions, or high production (Smith, Organ & Near, 1983).
Among the major conceptualization of organizational citizenship behavior in terms of the dimension was proposed in 1980’s with the scholarly papers (e.g, the works of Smith, Organ & Near 1983; Organ 1988; Organ & Ryan, 1995;Podsakoff, Ahearne & MacKenzie, 1997; Organ, 1997). On the essential characteristics of the construct, there are concrete evidences that supports the strong relationship of OCB (Altruism, Civic-virtue, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, and Courtesy) and different predictors like those to be studied in this paper as many scholars reflected (e.g. Le Pine, Erez, & Jhonson, 2002). In its conceptualization the construct is comparatively new to other organizational behavior concepts (Bukhari, 2008).
The major conceptualization of OCB is focused on the extra role behavior of employees that are performed by outside of the contracts and with a non- obligatory manner (Organ, 1988). But the conceptualization has even changed in by even Organ (1997), that he asserts the considetaion of OCB as an extra role behavior, outside the job and unrewarded by the formal system is not adequate. However the in most situations, these behaviors are not rewarded or reinforced by the organization as a formal job achievements. The explanations of these behavioral patterns are distinctly seen in the formal role and extra role activities that can easily distinguish what is expected of the organization and free standing contributions (Lo, 2009). In this regard, the best explanation of OCB is included that; first, its action may or may not be compensated in the future, but the action in this regard might be included in the formal reward system of the organization; Second, the action of OCB has a great impact to cause organizational effectiveness (Organ, 1997).
In different studies including a meta-analytic review by Organ& Ryan (1995) which referred 55 studies in areas of OCB, shown that diverse job attitudes are vigorous predictors of its presence. These attitudinal factors are helpful to effectively create optimistic and productive act of employees that are heavily based on the wishes of those individuals to support other workers and their organization in general ( Shanker, 2014). In general, all the conceptualizations of OCB focus on employee behaviors that are supportive but not critical to the task or the job which can encompass behaviors like helping co-workers and involving in functions outside of the formal job description ( Lee & Allen, 2002). And the construct has strongly linked to many predictor variables with behavioral and attitudinal predispositions and these relationships are also true to the dimensions within OCB (LePine, Jeffrey, Ertiz, Amir, Johnson & Danie, 2002).
OCB can be performed in both individual level and team level: the former is mostly characterized by secluded behaviors and the other is more observable and could be reinforced by team members and it created shared acceptance and anticipations as well (Nelson & Hrivnak, 2009). In this regard, the dimensions of OCB are served as to measure the individual and team patterns in the actual presence of the construct and its relations with other organizations related variables. In accordance of dimensions, various theoreticians have developed different ranges that they could be reflected in the overall scale of the OCB measurement. That may create a confusion over the conceptualizations of OCB dimensions, as the rapid growth in research on the area overlaps with the nature of the construct (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000). In relation to the dimensions this research focuses on the five dimensions outlined by different scholars, but with more emphasis by Organ (1988) before and after the further development of the construct.
These are actions that constructively contribute to help other persons in day to day work problem by instructing those individuals who are new to the organization in different situations like by showing the way to use materials, support co-workers to catch up with work types, fetching for another co-worker materials which are not accessible to the worker (Organ, 1988). It is primarily introduced to point on individuals with the considerations of groups by increasing individuals’ achievable (Jahangir, Akbar, & Haq, 2004). In general, altruism is concerned with the helping style of members of the organization (Chahal & Mehta, 2010)
It represents the awareness and performances of individuals in organizational contexts, that are beyond the least possible necessities like, timekeeping, housekeeping, wise use of resources and maintenance related activities (Organ, 1988). This dimension also has a tendency to boost the capacity of individuals and groups in an organization (Jahangir, Akbar, & Haq, 2004).
This dimension concerned about the ability of individuals to show citizen-like posture in relationships with others by tolerating the inconveniences that are foreseeable and the capability of peoples to accept the burdens of work without complaining and whims (Organ, 1988). The presence of this behavior has a positive impact to enhance the constructive effects of the organization and times spend to achieve this task (Jahangir, Akbar & Haq, 2004)
The best explanation of this dimension comes from individuals’ attainment in showing considerable gestures for others to prevent problems and contacting (keep in touch) with people to reduce actions that have negative consequences to people and it also includes giving an advance notification about work schedules to peoples who require them (Organ, 1988). If courtesy is achieved helps to prevent problems and enables effective use of time (Jahangir, Akbar& Haq, 2004).
It is focused on the actual and active political participations of employees in the internal organizational context that could consist of expressing one’s opinion and carefully reading the sending & received mails, be present in the meetings, well-informed to organizational issues at large(Organ, 1988). This is concerned largely on both the interest of the individuals and the organization as well (Jahangir, Akbar & Haq, 2004). Moreover, the responsibility of individuals to participate and show a meaningful concern is helpful to bring about the existence of the organization(Chahal & Mehta, 2010).
Organizational citizenship behavior as a construct treated with different patterns such as comparing peoples that are having high in their functioning related to OCB and those who are showing less performance in OCB. These studies are focused on OCB as the dependent variable to observe the factors that are known to affect the presence and consequences of OCB (Alizadeh, Darvishi, Nazari & Emami, 2012). Moreover, the variety of studies that are providing the domain of OCB in accordance with the effect they brought to organizational performance (Chahal & Mehta, 2010). According to studies in the area, especially from public sector settings, the Occerance of OCB is known to be affected by gender, age Marital status, personality factors and organizational climate (Suresh & Venkatammal, 2010). Some Other research has been showing that leadership-styles like servant leadership and procedural justice can strong predictors of OCB (Ehrhart, 2004). These conditions largely known as antecedents of OCB.
A) Major Antecedents of OCB
The relationships of different attitudes and behavioral factors are complex in their nature. Dependent on the interplay between such variables and OCB sometimes been stronger and in other dimensions they could be loose; for instance a meta analytic review of the area showed that, OCB has a strong relationship with job satisfaction, in role – performance, perceived fairness, organizational commitment, leader supprotiveness as well as differences in this case dissimilarity in subject groups and work settings be registered not registered as the cause for much variation in the correlation between those variables (Organ & Ryan, 1995). Generally, as a predisopstion and antecceedent the major factors to influence OCB are including to consider both the environment and personal context (Harper, 2015). Moreover the research tradition on OCBs are focused largely on the four classifications of antecedents, including, individual (employees' characteristics), task characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership behaviors (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000, p. 526). However, these antecedents of may differ across cultures (Gelfand, Erez & Aycan, 2007). In general, studies in OCBs are more concerned with understanding the factors that cause employees to achieve it (Jex & Britt, 2008).
From individual characteristics the role of socio-demographic variables is very important. Nevertheless, there is no generalizability to the influence it has on individual OCBs. As research in the area with different studies does not guarantee the prediction of such variables on OCB (Qureshi, 2015).However, previous research found that race and age, sex dissimilarities are factors that may affect OCB in general basis (Chattopadhyay, 1999). There are also research findings that support the effect of educational level (educational qualification) and employee's length of services as a means to get into helpful behaviors including OCB in an organization (Pavalache-Ilie, 2014)
According to research, from the major personalities, the big five personality traits are important antecedents. In this regard four of which, namely: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness are found to be correlated with OCB with a weak bond however (Zhang, 2011). Nevertheless, A meta-analytic review showed that the five factor model of personality traits is indeed predicting stronger than job satisfaction and the relationship between each personality traits are significantly varied with inducing OCB (Chiaburu, Oh, Berry, Li, &Gardner, 2011). Furthermore, personality is recognized as a disposition factor that is studied using different dimensions OCB with direct and indirect effects (E.g Suresh &Venkatammal, 2010;IIies, 2009). In other hand, as Li, Liang & Crant (2010) revealed, proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior have a strong correlation that is effectively moderated by procedural justice perceptions.
Attitudinal factors are another important factors to predict OCB. These factors include; job satisfaction, motivation, organizational commitment, employee engagement and the level of trust are measured by attitudinal patterns and the relationship with OCB is a significant indicator (Zhang, 2011). Employees with more positive attitudes see OCB an in role behavior which gives them to act on citizenship behaviors and role description effect; in this case employees attitudes and their citizenship may also increase with their definition of OCB as an extra role (Tepper, Lockhart & Hobber, 2001). On the other hand, the availability of OCB is less strict than in-role performances to be limited with ability and work process (Organ & Ryan, 1995). Some studies are supported the role of different attitudinal patterns like job satisfaction and organizational commitment; in this regard, these variables are positively related to OCB while there is no abusive supervision in organizations (Tepper, Duffy, Hoobler, & Ensley, 2004). In general, as meta -analysis demonstrated there is a strong and
Furthermore, received organizational justice perceptions are an important antecedents of OCB. The influence they are having is also well researched (e.g. Moorman, 1991). Some studies also show the effect of organizational justice in direct and interactive process, especially the procedural justice type and its influence on the basis of individual differences that brought about OCB role definitions (e.g Kamdar, McAllister, & Turban, 2006). In accordance with justice perceptions and their relationship between other work related variables, the research has proved that procedural justice, climate could be affected together with positive service climate employees' commitment to supervisors to aid them with having OCB (e.g Walumbwa, Hartnell, & Oke, 2010).
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