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List of Abbreviations.
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures.
List of Plates.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 The General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Limitation of the study
1.7 Structure of the Dissertation
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of key Terms
2.1.1 Timber Production
2.1.2 Small scale Timber Production
2.2 Empirical Literature Review
2.2.1 The Practices of Small scale Timber Production
126.96.36.199 Land Size
188.8.131.52 Harvesting Timber
184.108.40.206 Marketing Timber from Small scale Producers
2.2.2 Role of Small scale Timber Production on Poverty Reduction
220.127.116.11 Poverty Reduction Strategies in Tanzania
2.2.3 Timber Production and Food Security
2.2.4 Small scale Timber Production and Employment Creation
2.2.5 Timber Production and Social, Economic and Human aspects of Livelihood
2.3 Conceptual Framework
2.3.2 Financial Capital
2.3.4 Policy and Strategies
2.3.5 Livelihood Outcomes
2.4 Research Gap
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.2 Study Area
3.2.2 Economic Activities in the Study Area
3.3 Research Design
3.4 Sampling Design
3.4.1 Sampling Frame
3.4.2 Determination of Sample Size
3.4.3 Sampling Procedures
3.5 Data Collection Techniques
3.5.1 Structured Questionnaire Interviews
3.5.2 Field Observation
3.5.3 In-depth Interview
3.5.4 Documentary Review
3.6 Data Analysis
3.7 Data Presentation
CHAPTER FOUR: STUDY FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.2.1 Age of the Respondents
4.2.2 Sex of the Respondents
4.2.3 Ethnical Representations of the Respondents
4.2.4 Education Level of the Respondents
4.2.5 Main Occupations
4.3 Practices of Small scale Timber Production
4.3.1 Land Ownership
4.3.2 Land Acquisition
4.3.3 Timeframe of the Land Ownership and Practices
4.3.4 Species of Tree for Timber Production
4.3.5 The Number of Trees in a Plot
4.3.6 The First Harvest Time
4.3.7 Amount of Harvest
4.3.8 The Form of Timber Sold
4.3.9 Methods Used in Sawing Timber
4.3.10 Timber Selling Means
4.3.11 Timber Customers
4.3.12 Access to Customers
4.3.13 Price Determination
4.3.14 NGOs Support
4.4 The Role of Small scale Timber Production in Income and Employment Generation and Ensuring Food Security
4.4.1 Small scale Timber Production and Income
18.104.22.168 Annual Average Income
22.214.171.124 Other Sources of Income apart from Small Scale Timber Production
126.96.36.199 Possession of Physical Assets
4.4.2 Timber Production and Food Security
188.8.131.52 Uses of Income from Timber
4.4.3 Source of Employment
184.108.40.206 Opportunities of Small scale Timber Production
4.5 Potential for More Gains from Small Scale Timber Production
4.5.1 Challenges that small scale timber producers face
4.5.2 Measures to Improve Livelihoods of Small scale Timber Producers
4.6 Chapter Summary
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of the Major Findings
This dissertation concludes my two-year course of Masters of Arts in Geography and Environmental Management (MAGEM) at the University of Dar es salaam (UDSM). The completion of this work is due to the cooperation, help and support from a number of people and institutions. Firstly, I am very grateful to my supervisor, Dr. C.M.P. William for his consistent comments and encouragement towards quality work that has led to the successful completion of this study. I also extend my heartfelt gratitude to Prof. S. Misana, Prof. M. Mbonile, Dr. H. Hambati, Dr.F. Ndumbaro, Prof. W. Rugumamu, Dr. V. Tilumanywa and Dr. A. Mwamfupe for their academic assistance throughout the programme.
I am also grateful to my colleagues of M.A. GEM class of 2015/2017 for their tirelessly support to this work. Additionally, this study was made possible, due to the generosity and cooperation of all the respondents, from district to village level. Special thanks should go to the village leaders and villagers of Igoda and Luhunga for their moral and material support during data collection in their respective villages.
I thank my LORD, the Almighty GOD for granting me life, strength, good health and blessing to pursue my MA-GEM degree course.
This work is dedicated to my beloved Parents Naused K, N. and Dafrosa F. Ngailo who laid the foundation of my education with many sacrifices. This work is also dedicated to my beloved wife Hilarian and my daughter Ritha for their patience during my absence.
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The general objective of this study was to assess the contribution of small scale timber production in improving livelihoods of the local communities’. The specific objectives were, to examine practices of small scale timber production in improving livelihoods, to examine the role of small scale timber production in generating income, providing employment and food security to the local communities and to evaluate the potential for small scale timber producers to gain more from their activities. Detailed information on the association between small scale timber production and local community’s livelihood improvement were collected from key informants by using purposive sampling technique and from 160 household heads through simple random technique in Igoda and Luhunga villages. Moreover, personal observation and documentary reviews were also used to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 20 whereby descriptive univariate analyses were performed to inspect the frequency distributions of variables while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. In examining the practices of small-scale timber production the study revealed that, majority of small scale timber producers (52%) owned 5 or less hectares, which they planted trees. People in Mufindi district preferred to plant Pinus patula, because they do not deplete nutrients on land as Eucalyptus saligna does. Furthermore, it was revealed that, 59% of small scale timber producers planted many trees in one plot. Due to cash needs, trees were harvested very prematurely. Some producers used old-fashioned methods like pit sawing (23%); others (40%), used modern technologies to produce timber. Timber prices were determined by negotiations between producers and customers. Again, it was noted that, small scale timber producers did not get support from NGOs. On the role of small scale timber production in providing income and employment, the researcher found that, majority (48%) of the respondents earned more than 500, 000 TSH per annum from small scale timber production and 64% of the respondents had other sources of income apart from timber production. Furthermore, the study revealed that, 33% of the respondents were employed directly in small scale timber production. Furthermore, on the potential of small scale timber producers to gain more from their activities, the researcher found that, Small scale timber producers should be empowered through local initiatives combined with the government interventions, NGOs and CSOs. Improvement of infrastructure, improvement of market, provision of loans and technical education should be considered to help small scale timber producers gain more from timber production.
Table 4. 1 Respondents Distribution by Age
Table 4. 2 Sex of the Respondents
Table 4. 3 Ethnic Presentations of the Respondents
Table 4. 4 Main Occupation of the Respondents
Table 4. 5 Respondent’s Ownership of Land
Table 4. 6 The Number of Trees in a Plot
Table 4. 7 Timber Selling Means
Table 4. 8 Price Determination
Table 4.9 Uses of Income Attained from Small scale Timber Production
Figure 2. 1 The Relationship between Small Scale Timber Production and Livelihoods Improvement
Figure 3. 1: Map of Mufindi District Showing the Location of Luhunga Ward
Figure 4. 1 Education Level of the Respondents
Figure 4. 2 Respondent’s Land Acquisition
Figure 4. 3 Timeframe of Land Ownership and Practices
Figure 4. 4 Species of Tree Planted for Timber Production
Figure 4. 5 The First Harvest Time
Figure 4. 6 Amount of Harvest
Figure 4. 7 The Form of Timber Sold
Figure 4. 8 Methods Used in Sawing Timbers
Figure 4. 9 Timber Customers
Figure 4. 10 Access to Customers
Figure 4. 11 Annual Average Income of Small scale Timber Producers
Figure 4. 12 Other Sources of Income apart from Timber Production
Figure 4. 13 Possession of Physical Assets as a result of Practising Small scale Timber Production
Figure 4. 14 Opportunities of Small scale Timber Production
Figure 4. 15 Challenges Facing Small scale Timber Producers
Figure 4. 16 Measures to Improve Livelihoods of Small scale Timber Producers
Plate 4. 1 A Stranded Lorry due to Poor Road Network in Igoda Village, in Mufindi District
Plate 4. 2 Burnt Pine Trees in Luhunga Village, because of Fire Outbreak. 70
Small-scale timber production is growing throughout the world. This growth is especially clear in developing countries where small scale timber production is of growing importance as seen in respective countries. A report by FAO (1993) indicated that, in Latin America, 3 500 000 hectares were owned by small-scale timber producers. Furthermore, in the Asia and pacific regions, 23 100 000 hectares were owned by small-scale timber producers. Small-scale timber production is a composite activity, important to many local communities in Tanzania. The production contributes much to the improvement of local community’s livelihoods in terms of income, food security, poverty alleviation, employment and general economic growth (Magcale-Macandog, 1999).
Small-scale timber production plays multiple roles in relation to food security and household subsistence. Forests are increasingly becoming important in the rural life of the majority of Tanzanians (FAO, 2001). Small-scale timber production plays an important role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people, principally as a subsistence safety net, but also as a source of cash income, capital asset, and a source of employment (Scherr et al., 2003).
Small-scale timber production in Mufindi is practised along with crop production and livestock keeping systems. Trees are grown together with other crops in a mixed farming system, along farm boundaries and sometimes in blocks (Tyndall, 1996). Due to the nature of the local communities, small-scale timber production is practised in limited land sizes. Small-scale timber producers lack ability to buy large farms to plant trees. This limits the local people to acquire higher incomes from small-scale timber production. Overall, small-scale timber production can only meet domestic wood requirements, provision of employment and provision of income to both individuals and the government. Small-scale timber production is, therefore, an important activity, which plays a key role in securing many local community’s livelihoods (Lengkeek and Carsan, 2004). Poor prices of agricultural crops such as tea, coffee and cotton have influenced farmers to turn to small-scale timber production as an alternative income generating activity. Small-scale timber production provides not only income, employment and food security but also it provides fuel and housing materials (Holding & Roshetko, 2003; Scherr, 2004).
The role of small-scale timber production activity is also reinforced by many factors, creating opportunities for small-scale timber producers to gain more from timber production activity (Opanga, 2001). Many studies and reviews have discovered the value of timber. There is, therefore, a need to strengthen its production practices to meet objectives like poverty reduction, employment and economic growth (Magcale-Macandog, 1999). According to FAO (2005), local communities control at least 25% of forests in developing countries.
Small-scale timber production is an important activity for commercial purposes even in countries like Kenya, where forests are very scarce. However, poor marketing practices and inadequate organization capabilities of the local communities’ leads into individual marketing, which reduces their bargaining power hence exploitation of small-scale timber producers by elite customers. Intermediaries do marketing of timber, from small-scale timber producers, and many times, the customers arrange prices. This reduces the possibility of small-scale timber producers to benefit from their practices. On the other hand, poor management practices of trees on farm and overharvesting of trees for acute cash needs and poor technology reduces the social and economic benefits to small-scale timber producers (Holding et. al., 2002).
Most of the Small-scale timber producers in Mufindi harvest timbers by using local methods such as pit sawing due to poor technology and only few of producers use either chainsaws or sawing on platform. For the small scale timber producers to benefit more from their activities, there is a need to undertake a critical resource audit to facilitate market planning and technological improvement. A study that highlights the practices of small-scale timber production, its contribution on local community’s livelihood improvement in countries like Tanzania cannot be underestimated.
Small scale timber production in Mufindi district is growing annually,<1970 2.2%, 1971-1980 7.8%, 1981-1990 20.7%, 1991-2000 34.4%, 2001-2010 34.8% (Singunda 2010). This growth is contributed by a favourable environment and presence of forest institutions that significantly contribute to the livelihoods of local communities and national economy (URT, 2006). Nevertheless, most forestry-dependent people in the country, especially in rural areas, still experience poverty, despite the availability of plentiful resources, including forests (Akida et. al., 2006). There is a knowledge gap between small-scale timber production and local communities’ livelihood improvement as most of the literature (singunda, 2010 and Nkwera, 2010) focuses on the aspect of poverty alleviation only. This study examined the contribution of small-scale timber production on the improvement of local community’s livelihood and poverty reduction in Mufindi.
The general objective of the study was to assess the contribution of small-scale timber production in improving livelihoods of the local communities.
i. To examine practices of small-scale timber production in Mufindi District.
ii. To assess the role of small-scale timber production in generating income, providing employment and food security to the local communities.
iii. To evaluate the potential for small-scale timber producers to gain more from small-scale timber production.
The study was guided by the following questions:
i. What practices of small-scale timber production would improve livelihoods?
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