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31 Seiten, Note: 1
LIST OF TABLES
1.1 Background Information
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Justification
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of Key Terms
2.2 Effective Means of Tourism Marketing and Advertising
2.3 Impact of Effective Marketing on Tourism Industry
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study area description
3.2 Sampling and Sample size
3.4 Data Collection
3.5 Data Analysis
3.6 Ethical consideration
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Social-demographic characteristics of the respondent
4.1.4 Economic activities of the respondents
4.2 Tourism knowledge among the respondents
4.3 Tourism promotion activities
5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2.1 Recommendation to the Government
5.2.2 Recommendation to the all tourism stakeholders
5.3 Limitations of the study
This study discusses the role played by Morogoro residents in promoting Tanzania’s tourism industry. The study used a total of 30 respondents. Data was collected through questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSSprogram (20 versions) and presented in form of tables and percentages.Findings show that the most used promotion channel byMorogoro residents are TVs and Radios because a great number of people have access toTVs and Radios and believe it’s easy to reach them using these channels.Respondents also mentioned social media to be thesecond mostused promotion channel, on the grounds that a lot of people have access to the internet and own multiple social media accounts such as Facebook and Twitter and it’s very easy to reach them that way. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the government support the promotion activities by reducing the cost of adverts at least on government broadcasting channels like government owed TV and radio stations and newspaper, this will easy the cost of other tourism stakeholders like the local communities in Morogoromunicipal and tour operators to make adverts and air them to the public through mass media.
I would like to thank the Almighty God for His Love, Guidance and Blessings throughout my entire life while at this University and for enabling me to perform successfully my studies including this research project.
I would also like to appreciate the valuable contribution, comments and suggestions from my supervisors Dr. Sirima, Agnes and Ms. Mngulwi, Maria of Department of Tourism at Sokoine University of Agriculture, for their tireless effort to encourage, advise, correct, comment and suggest offered throughout the period of writing a research proposal and completion of this research report towards the successful completion of my work.
Furthermore, it will be unfair if I will not acknowledge the moral and spiritual support of my parents, brothers and sisters, and all my friends who kept on encouraging me all the time despite the challenges I was facing during thiswhole process.
Last but not least, my gratitude also goes to my colleagues who advised me for the whole period of semester five and six, especially roommates, classmates and my good friend MOLEL, Jimmy Godbless .
This special effort is heavily dedicated to my Father PriminiusIshengoma,my Mother AshaSimba and my whole family, for their positive support which has enabled me to reach this level of education. May the Splendor and infinite adore of the living God, from whom we all descended be upon them.
Table 1: Total number of respondents by their sex
Table 2: Total number of respondents by their age
Table 3: Education background of respondents
Table 4: Economic activities of respondents
Table 5: Knowledge of tourism attraction in Tanzania
Table 6: Visitation in tourism attractions
This chapter consists of background of the research problem which had brought the need forthis study, statement of the research problem, research objectives which show the specific aims of conducting this study and research questions as what have to be researched and answered by this study. Also, the chapter presents research justification and the scope of the study. It is in this chapter where the focus of the research project are stated and defined.
Tourism industry has reached the stage of maturity(Wang, Hsu, & Swanson, 2012);tourists today are more experienced and therefore increasingly discerning in their choice of holidays, in terms of both destinations and activities(Wang et al., 2012). Indeed their expectations of holiday environment have often been heightened by the tourism industry itself. The industry, however, is a fiercely competitive one, with many destinations competing to attract potential tourists(Wang et al., 2012). Gone are the days when a destination could simply make known its attractions and sit back and await the arrival of visitors(Wang et al., 2012). Today tourists have to be enticed and the destination’ place product must be marketed effectively(Wang et al., 2012). The new-found maturity of the tourism market does not rule out continuous and extensive change since destination have reacted to increased competition with high levels of investment and new place products in order to maintain and increase market share and in an attempt to capture new market segments(Wang et al., 2012). Destinations are 'coming of age' in marketing context, acknowledging that place products have to be sold, implying greater emphasis on marketing techniques such as positioning and branding(Ashworth & Goodall, 2012).
Tourism, it was claimed, had become an industry that could offer an alternative to traditional export commodities (coffee, tea, cashew nut, cashew nut, cotton, sisal and cloves)dependency(MRNT, 2013). According to the policy papers, tourism had become one of the options to diversify the economy and supplement a declining agricultural sector; create jobs in both rural and urban areas; and, offer entrepreneurial opportunities for small and medium enterprises as well as community cooperatives(Chambua, 1999). In promoting it, the country could earn the badly needed foreign exchange and the government could increase its tax revenues(Chambua, 1999).
In terms of promotion of the industry itself, Tanzania has been participating in various international and national tourist trade fairs such as:Karibu and Kili fairs that ended early June 2017. Theseevents showcases unique opportunities to meet, network, explore and forge new business ties with a range of industry-related professionals, opportunities in eco-tourism, nature conservation, travel, trade, hospitality, service and marketing (Swahili International,2016). In the year 2004, Tanzania participated in fairs in the United Arab Emirates, India, France, China, Canada, USA, Japan, Spain, Russia, the UK and South Africa, at international level.Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism reported towards the end 2014 thatTTB spent a total of Tshs. 1.2 billion (about USD 1.2 million) for its operations annually, including salaries and overheads(MRNT, 2013). All this expenditure is justified by what is considered to be the sector’s contribution to the economy.
The contribution of the tourism sector to the national economy is also a significant one, according toAnderson & Box(2015), the tourism sector in Tanzania contributed about 17% of the country’s GDP in 2012.Tourism marketing in Tanzania is done at both company and National levels. Individual operators would naturally be expected to plan and run their own marketing and promotional programmes that cover products they offer. TTB on the other hand is the government’s arm for marketing and promotion of the entire destination. In both company and National levels however, attending trade fair in the source countries continues to be the most important avenue for retaining a good marketing position for most companies of almost all sizes. In Tanzania, emphasis is also placed in having a strong joint marketing initiative between public and private sector and there have been a number of achievements towards this direction. The International Marketing Strategy for Tanzania as a tourist destination (2012), which is supposed to be a guide for TTB is an outcome of this partnership between private and public sectors(Anderson & Box, 2015).
Tourism, which accounts for about 24 percent of Tanzania’s exports of goods and services, has recorded an improved performance in recent years(MNRT, 2013). This is evidenced by the increase in the number of international tourist arrivals by 1.7 percent to 1,095,885 in 2013 from 1,077,058 recorded in 2012(MNRT, 2013). This performance is largely attributed to the ongoing macroeconomic reforms and enhanced promotional efforts. As a result, tourism earnings increased by 8.2 percent to USD 1,853.28 million in 2013 from USD 1,712.7 million recorded in 2012(MNRT, 2013).From different studies it shows that tourism marketing and promotion is a task performed mainly by the government and the private sector (the private tour companies, private tour organizers and some private tourism training institutions), individuals do not fully participate in any way to promote and market the unique tourism attractions that the Country has despite having multiple social media networks. This and the economic advantages brought by a well marketed and promoted tourism industry are among the push factors for conducting this study with the aim of assessing the role played by Tanzanians in advertising and promoting Tanzania’s tourism industry, using Morogoro as a case study.
Despite the efforts shown by Tanzania Tourist Board in promoting and advertising the tourism sector through different channels like social media, websites, radio and TV stations (even the international ones like BBC and CNN), brochures and posters and incurs a very big cost in the course of doing so, Tanzanians too still have the obligatory role of promoting and marketing its tourism sector.Despite the fact that Tanzania has large number of tourist attractions, it receives little number of tourists yearly as compared to other African countries which do not have many attractions like Tanzania. Likewise Tanzania is a very unique destination with several world heritage sites but it is not well known by people outside Tanzania due to poor marketing strategies and promotion. Not only the attractions are lessknown worldwide, but also they are not well known by the Tanzanians themselves. Hence, it was for this reason that the study to investigate the role played by Tanzanians in promoting Tanzania’s tourism industry using Morogoro as a case study was envisaged.
To analyze the role played by Tanzanians in promotion of the Tanzanian’s tourism sector.
Specific Research Objective
The research will cover the following specific research objectives:
I. Identify the common promotion channels used by Morogoro Municipal residents in promoting the tourism sector.
II. Examine promotion challenges faced by Morogoro Municipal residents in promoting their tourism.
With respect to the study the research questions are the following;
I. What are the common promotion channels used by Morogoro Municipal residents in promoting the tourism sector?
II. What are the promotion challenges faced by Morogoro Municipal residents in promoting tourism?
This study will produce information that is valuable to be used in the tourism sector. It will also add more knowledge in the academic world. The study will also help to identify promotion related challenges with some measure to make sure the country’s tourism resources are well known to both Tanzanians and abroad. Data from this study may be used by government and non-organizations and like Tanzania Tourism Board (TTB), tour agencies and TANAPA to have proper marketing strategies with minimum challenges so that they will increase the number of tourist in the country, domestic and International. Furthermore, as per one of the requirement of the SokoineUniversity of Agriculture to all its undergraduate scholars, the study will help me attain Bachelor degree in Tourism Management.
This Chapter provides a review of related literature. It indicates various researches that have been done by different researchers’ worldwide in the area of tourism marketing, advertising and promotion. This part involves an abstract concept that defines the terms in an academic discipline. In this research study theoretical literature will be looking on definition of key terms, the effective means of tourism marketing and advertising and impact of effective marketing on tourism industry.
There is no universally agreed definition of the tourism industry. Indeed, there is no agreement that tourism can be described as an industry. Mill and Morrison (1998), for example, argue that it is hard to describe tourism as an industry given that there is a great deal of complementarily as well as competition between tourism businesses. They place definitions of tourism in context by highlighting the link between travel, tourism, recreation and leisure. However, Mill and Morrison (1998), go on to describe this link as ‘fuzzy’ and to make the distinction that all tourism involves travel yet all travel is not tourism. Nevertheless, tourism is often described merely as an activity(Pender & Sharpley, 2004).
The WTO’s definition of tourism is now the one that is most widely accepted around the world. The definition, provided at the International Conference on Travel and Tourism Statistics in Ottawa in 1991 that defines the tourism as the activities of a person outside his or her usual environment for less than a specified period of time and whose main purpose of travel is other than exercise of an activity remunerated from the place visited (UNWTO, 1992).
Marketing is a process through which individuals and groups provide, exchange and obtain products ideas, goods and services capable of satisfying customers’ needs and desires at a desirable price and place(Burnett, 2008). Marketing requires a strategy. It is an all-encompassing, planning, scheduling, studying, figuring-stuff-out, researching, testing, and practicing strategy(Spatial & Management, 2012).
Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives (Pender & Sharpley,2004).Destination marketing, refers to a management process through which the national tourist organizations and/or tourist enterprises identify their selected tourists, actual and potential, communicate with them to ascertain and influence their wishes, needs, motivations, and likes and dislikes, on local/rural, regional, national and international levels, and to formulate and adapt their tourist products accordingly with a view to achieving optimal tourist satisfaction, thereby fulfilling their objectives(Spatial & Management, 2012).
Promotion is the process (set of means and actions) designed to inform potential visitors about the tourism product offered, sharing with them its most attractive and innovative attributes(Spatial & Management, 2012). As such it is usually integrated with distribution and implies communication activities, including advertising(Spatial & Management, 2012).
In order to promote tourism, radio and television advertising is likely to be used(Salehi & Farahbakhsh, 2014). However, in recent years due to the increased use of internet and electronic advertising online advertising method is found to be more effective than the radio, television and newspaper advertising(Salehi & Farahbakhsh, 2014). For the business person online advertising has made it cost-effective method as compared to other methods of advertising. Observation and experience have shown how group tourists react to the various grouping of advertisements, and the degree of effectiveness they have towards the purchasing power of the consumer. Based on the components of the package and its presentation it will thus entice the consumer to purchase the package or not (Salehi & Farahbakhsh, 2014). Travel brochures and maps are also an effective advertising tool as they contain valuable information about the city the tourist is visiting. Posters are also a popular and effective tool in the promotion and advancement for this industry, as well as alerting the consumer of travel locations and/or travel agency, which have re-opened for business (Salehi & Farahbakhsh, 2014).
In today's competitive world, for enterprises to survive need to use marketing techniques and marketing specialization research. Studies have shown that failure of companies emanate from their inability to use marketing techniques (Gilaninia & Mohammadi, 2015).These companies ignored market developments and changes in consumption patterns of customers and begin sales instead of marketing so as to earn more profit than customer satisfaction (Gilaninia & Mohammadi, 2015).
Marketing tools and parameters areamong the factors that can improve and develop the country's tourism industry. The aim of marketing is to identify and anticipate the needs of tourists and to achieve organizational goals. Tourism marketing is important, because if we know marketing as management process, thus all the activities of planning, tourism product development and to attract tourists will be done smoothly as they all in one way or the other they depend on marketing. With careful planning and implementation of marketing, management can largely increase income of foreign exchange obtained from tourism, diversify foreign income, and increase the number of tourists(Gilaninia & Mohammadi, 2015).
This Chapter presents the study area description, the research design which includes sampling, sample size and sampling techniques. It also describes methods of data collection and tools, data processing and analysis.
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