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Table of contentsv
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2 Background to the study
1.3 Statement of the problem
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Research objectives
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Assumptions of the study
1.8 Significance of the study
1.9 Delimitations of the study
1.10 Limitations and mitigations
1.11 Definition of terms
1.12 Chapter Summary
Chapter 2: Literature Review..7
2.2 Theoretical framework
2.3 Print media and its roles
2.4 Economic reporting
2.5 Genres used for economic reporting
2.6 Bond notes
2.7 Case studies
2.7.1 Economic reporting in Ethiopia
2.7.2 Portrayal of Swedish economic crisis
2.8 Chapter Summary
Chapter 3: Research Methodology..16
3.2 Research methodology
3.3 Research approach
3.4 Research design
3.5 Population of the study
3.6.1 Purposive sampling
3.6.2 Convenience sampling
3.7 Research instruments
3.7.1 Archival collection
3.7.2 Content analysis
3.8 Data collection procedure
3.9 Data presentation and analysis
3.10 Ethical considerations
3.11 Chapter Summary
Chapter 4: Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion..25
4.2 How bond notes were framed by the The Herald and Newsday
4.2.1 Analysis if sampled article: Newsday versus The Herald
4.3 Who were news sources on the reportage of bond notes
4.4 How contrasting discourse emerged from Newsday and The Herald on bond notes
4.5 Views of academics on the framing of bond notes
4.6 Views of journalists on the framing of bond notes
4.7 Chapter Summary
Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.5 Direction for further studies
I have dedicated this study to God who makes everything beautiful in its time.
Glory to the Lord my God who gives time to every activity under the Heavens. It is by His grace and that is why I choose to give the Glory to its rightful owner. I would like express my thanks to the Zimbabwe Open University for giving me this precious opportunity to pursue my academic endeavours and realise my full potential. I would also like to thank my supervisor, Mr P. Zumbo for his guidance, and academic incisiveness that helped me in pursuing this study. I would also like to express my appreciation for his valuable and constructive comments and advice. I have a great respect for his unwavering support in this study. I would also want to thank my fellow student Lazarus Sauti, who had been there for me throughout this study. I would like to thank him for making this study an enjoyable adventure. God bless you all.
This study analysed the coverage of bond notes by Newsday and The Herald between November 2016 and August 2017. Qualitative research design was employed. The research instruments included archival collection, content analysis and interviews. Interviews were used to back up the research findings of content analysis. The research population comprised of online archived newspaper articles from The Herald and Newsday between November 2016 and August 2017 which were purposively sampled. Media academics and journalists from Newsday and The Herald were also conveniently sampled so as to support research findings from content analysis. This study found out that the public and private wrestled for attention on setting perceptions in their coverage of bond notes, showing their biases. The Herald is more pro-government while the Newsday is accused of being pro-opposition and by being so, contrasting discourse emerged from these two publications. In this research, it was also found out that patterns of the media control, bias, and partisanship influenced what could be reported on bond notes. The Newsday painted a negative view of bond notes between December 2016 and August 2017. The findings reveal that the Newsday launched an attack on the government’s introduction of bond notes, condemning them as a consequential failure. The private media portrayed bond notes as failure by the government to properly address cash crisis and also framed them as causing despondency, chaos and anarchy and the return of 2008 era of economic hardship. On the other hand, The Herald focused on justifying the significance of bond notes while defending their weaknesses. It is recommended that the Print media in Zimbabwe should desist from bias and their reportage of issues should reflect a high level impartiality, objectivity, truthfulness and fairness.
Over the years, the news media and mostly the print media have been serving as the most important sources of information and the powerful modes of communication. This power has a direct bearing on how people understand events that happen around the world on daily basis. The way information is disseminated to the audiences comes through different forms of media and that information can be framed to meet the goals of the providing media house. This study seeks to analyse the coverage of bond notes by the Zimbabwean print media, focusing on The Herald and Newsday between November 2016 and August 2017. In this chapter, the researcher outlines a detailed background to the study, a detailed statement of the problem and also the purpose and objectives of the study. Moreover, assumptions of the research, delimitation of the research, significance of the study, definition of terms, limitations of research, are in this introductory chapter.
Between the year 2004 and 2009, Zimbabwe suffered one of the most serious hyperinflations ever recorded in the world history. It was during the era of bearer cheques which had a permanent feature of losing value by the day. Asante (2012) states that as the bearer cheques continued to lose value, black market, hyperinflation and the disappearance of basic commodities from the shelves of supermarkets, money market and shortage of fuel and became the order of the day. Bearer cheques were accused of causing economic hardship in the country. The situation eventually led the country to adopt a basket of currencies, dominated by the US dollar and the South African Rand after the Government of National Unity was formed, which comprised of ZANU PF and two MDC formations in 2009.
According to Mushure (2016), the Zimbabwean economy went through a boom period after the introduction of a multicurrency system on 29 January 2009. He states that there was confidence in the business operating from one quarter to the next for three and a half years until the last quarter of 2012. Mushure (2016), states as 2012 ended, the revenue growth of major companies in the Zimbabwean economy started to deteriorate, and in the following quarters the revenues dropped as a result of falling demand. He further stated that the causes of the weakening economy of Zimbabwe after the introduction of multicurrency system can be attributed to corporate mismanagement and government policymaking.
As from the year 2016, Zimbabwe was hit by serious cash shortages that affected the social and economic wellbeing of the citizens. According to Zimbabwe Coalition on Debt and Development (2018), the authorities attributed the cash shortage to the imbalances between inputs and exports and also the over-reliance on one currency. The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe decided to print bond note in order to tackle cash problem in the nation. According to the RBZ press statement (2016), The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe informed the citizens of the introduction of bond notes with effect from Monday, 28 November 2016. Bond notes would be injected into the market through normal banking channels and they were pegged 1:1 to the US dollar. The issue of bond notes received a significant attention in the Zimbabwean print media and was also framed in different ways. Therefore, this study seeks to analyse the coverage of bond notes by the Zimbabwean print media, analysing The Herald and Newsday, between November 2016 and August 2017 .
This study analyses the coverage of bond notes by the Zimbabwean print media between November 2016 and August 2017. The private media (Newsday) has continuously attached bond notes by using negative frames, portraying them as failure, by the government reminding the readers about 2008 era of economic hardship while the state media (The Herald) adopted a defensive posture using the positive frames. Through the framing of bond notes by The Herald and Newsday, contrasting discourses emerged from these two publications thereby having an impact on the perception of bond notes in the minds of the public.
The purpose of the study is to analyse the coverage of bond notes by the print media in Zimbabwe, focusing on Newsday and The Herald.
The objectives of this study are to:
- Examine how bond notes were framed by The Herald and Newsday
- Identify news sources used in covering bond notes by Newsday and The Herald.
- Examine the contrasting discourse which emerged from Newsday and The Herald on bond notes.
The following were research questions guiding the study:
- How were bond notes framed by The Herald and Newsday ?
- Who were news sources used in covering bond notes by Newsday and The Herald?
- How did contrasting discourse emerge from Newsday and The Herald on bond notes?
- The press portrays stories through different frames to influence interpretations of issues.
- Owners of the media pursue their interest in their news reportages by focusing attention on certain issues proposing what audiences should think about, know about and also have feelings about.
The print media plays pivotal roles in the society which include providing information, education, providing platforms for public discussion, playing as watchdog role to monitor government activities amongst them. This study is of importance because it encourages the media houses to upholding media ethics which are very important when covering news stories as far as promoting unity, integrity and even the avoidance of divisiveness. The media ethics are very important because they preserve the image and the integrity of the media. These ethics include fairness, truthfulness, impartiality, balanced reporting amongst them.
This study is also importance since it can lead to rethinking on the Government and monetary policy makers when implementing certain policies, thereby improving policy formulation and even implementation. It will also reduce the abuse of office by government officials since they will be aware that they will be exposed by the media.
This study is also importance because it can educate members of the public that newspapers have certain agendas and which have a direct influence on the news coverage. This research can also educate members of the public to be careful with the media.
The Zimbabwe Open University Media and Journalism department will be stimulated into adding Economic or Business journalism module in the curriculum of the Media Studies degree program since it is one of the most covered issues by the Media in the contemporary time.
This study will focus on the reportage of bond note by the print media between November 2016 and August 2017. The Herald and Newsday are selected to analyse their coverage during that period and content analysis was used. This research therefore ought to investigate the framing of bond notes by these two publications, paying attention to the contrasting discourse which emerged. This study focused on The Herald because it is the state media which supports and defends the policies of the government. The Newsday was also chosen because it is private media which provides an alternative voice.
In conducting this study, challenges were faced. The major challenge is that many newspaper articles in The Herald and the Newsday from November 2016 to August 2017 were analysed and the sampling of relevant newspaper articles demanded a lot of time. However, the use of internet to search for the articles made the research easier.
Bond notes: Forms of banknotes in circulation in Zimbabwe, which were released by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ). The notes are stated not to be a currency, but rather a tender near pegged equally against the U.S. dollar.
Discourse: Ii is systems of representation, or statements that provide a language for talking about or a way of representing knowledge about a particular topic at a particular historical moment
Framing: The way something is portrayed in the media.
Private media: Media owned by private companies or individuals.
State media: This is media owned by the government.
This introductory chapter has highlighted the problem and its setting and has also introduced the research; giving the background to how the research came about. Assumptions of the study have also been provided in this chapter. Research questions that the research seeks to answer have also been outlined. The significance of this research, limitations and also the delimitations of the research has also been highlighted in this introductory chapter. The following chapter focuses on literature review.
The previous chapter focused on the problem and its setting. In this chapter, the researcher will focus on literature review. Literature review is defined by Chilisa and Preece (2005) as a summary of what has been written already about your chosen research topic. Literature review is comprised of the framing theory as theoretical framework, print media and its roles, economic reporting and the genres used in economic reporting. Case studies from previously done researches will also be discussed in this chapter.
This research is guided by Framing theory. Framing theory is more related to the agenda-setting theory, but it magnifies the research by focusing more on the importance of the issues than on particular topics. Framing theory was proposed by Goffman, under the title of Frame Analysis and he states that audiences interpret what is going on around their world through their primary framework (Mass Communication Theory, 2017). These frameworks and the frames created in communication significantly impact how information is interpreted, processed, and communicated. Goffman’s assumption is that audiences are capable users of these frameworks on a daily basis.
According to Entman (1993:52), to frame is:
To select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or treatment recommendation for the item described.
According to Mass Communication Theory (2017), the major basis of framing theory is that the media focus attention on certain events and place them within a field of meaning. Framing theory has caused confusion in distinguishing it from the agenda setting theory, therefore it is important to distinguish them sine this study is focusing with framing theory. Scheufele and Tewksbury (2007) states that:
Agenda setting looks on story selection as a determinant of public perceptions of issue importance and, indirectly through priming, evaluations of political leaders. Framing focuses not on which topics or issues are selected for coverage by the news media, but instead on the particular ways those issues are presented.
Agenda setting state that the media have the capability of carrying the salience of issues on their news agendas and then transfer it to the public agenda. Mostly, reporters focus on news in different ways. The media decide which news to report on and which to ignore and then they assess all of the available reports. Supporting this, McCombs (2002) asserts that in a typical daily newspaper, over seventy per cent of the potential news of the day is rejected and never transmitted to the audience. Thus, agenda setting is mostly concerned with importance of issues whilst framing focus more on presentation of issues.
Framing theory outlines that the way something is portrayed in the media has an impact on the choices people process that information and that frames can organise and structure the meaning of messages and also attract public discourse (Mass Communication Theory, 2017). Framing, asserts Aailai (2017), has more to do with how a given story is packaged and presented in the media audiences. The scholar adds the language used by the media to describe news stories or actors identified as critical features of news coverage has great impact. Therefore, the media plays a pivotal role on how the audiences perceive the events based on their framing. Framing is also described as an angle or dimension into which a news story is reported. To frame, argues Arnold (2010), is to communicate in a way that causes audiences to perceive something in a certain light or in a certain dimension. He further states that a news reportage describing a certain problem or policy has an element of frame. Media framing also refers to the way news media provide meaning to news stories by focusing on some parts of reality and ignoring other parts and this frames influence news consumers attitudes and perceptions regarding the given issues at hand. Smith (2017) affirms that through framing, the media can present the facts of a news story in a way that news consumers are given particular viewpoints or reference and interpretation. Media framing can be observed by the use of keywords, pictures and phrases that strengthen certain representations of reality and specific emotions towards it. It can also be observed by reporter’s selection of the people to quote, what they quote and also where the quotation will be located in the news story (Scheufele and Tewksbury, 2007). The selection of quotes is influenced by various factors which include the journalist personal belief, the editorial policy, political environment, ideological prevalent amongst them. The definitions of framing theory put across that, story arrangement is one of the method used by journalists to frame news in a particular way. The selection of specific words or phrases can also be another mechanism used by journalists to frame a news story. Thus, in order to analyse how journalists frame events or issues, it is vital to identify the location of frames in the news stories.
Abebe (2013) declares that one of the reasons why journalists frame news stories in particular ways is that Elites desire to impose certain belief or ideology and that has an impact on the framing process. She further outlines that journalistic framing of issues is shaped by the frames sponsored by organisations, politicians, social movements and actors and as a result, news stories become the medium of framing competition where the political forces compete by sponsoring their definition of issues and how they are portrayed (Abebe 2013). Another reason noted by Abebe (2013) is that, journalists’ perceptions on what is allowed or not allowed push them to write stories that can make them relevant with their respective media houses norms or policy. Thus, journalists and writers decide what facts should be included or excluded in their news stories. Framing theory has its strengths. Rempoutzakos (2017) found out that the strengths of framing theory lies in media’s potential to influence audiences by creating pictures that can shape different perceptions. For example, the way an issue is presented has an impact in creating meanings in the minds of the publics. However, framing theory has its weaknesses since it is found in the context of media effects theories, and most particularly in media manipulation theories. Media effect theories are criticised for emphasising media effect as “powerful” and framing theory shares the same critic. In this regard, Abebe (2013) states that it is not clear if the audience focuses on the frame or facts about the news story and it sees the audiences as powerless and passive who cannot resist the views of the media. However, this might not discredit its vitality rather it has become an interesting subject of study. Thus, analysing how the media portrays an issue is very important to understand framing theory. This research intention is to analyse how bond notes were portrayed in the print media.
Print media is regarded as the physical carriers the channels used to disseminate societal records of important economic, political, societal and cultural events and phenomenon and the examples range from newspapers, magazines to mention a few (Nyakupinda, 2003). The major functions of print media are to inform, to educate and to entertain. Print media also help as the most relevant sources of information and one of the most powerful modes of communication. This power controls what people understand events that happen around the world on day to day basis and this is the surveillance function of the print media. According to Luce (2016), surveillance function is the flow of news or information happening in the country or in the world and it is regarded as the most common function of the print media. Luce (2016) also states that surveillance as an informative role of the media and divided it into two namely warning surveillance which occurs when the media inform about threats of poor economic conditions, inflation, terrorism and many more and instrumental surveillance which occurs when the media disseminates information which is useful in the day to day life. Nyakupinda (2003) pronounces that the print media has an interpretive role. This interpretive role is commonly shown on the editorial pages of the publications through editorial comments, cartoons, and opinion given so that the readers can get an understanding on the position of the newspaper on important issues. Agenda setting function is another function of the media. According to McCombs (2002), agenda setting states that the audiences get the salience of issues from the media. The news media does not only inform about the world at large, giving the major elements for our pictures of the world, but they also influence the importance of those elements.
Kazem (2013) defines economic journalism simply as a branch of journalism that tracks, analyses, and interprets changes in the economic state of a society. He further states that just like other journalists who cover politics, and government, economic journalists are supposed to hold public officials accountable for their actions and have a responsibility to find the truth and report it to the people, therefore business and economic journalists have the same responsibility. Forgary (2005) adds that the public learn about the prevailing economic conditions by the kind of economic news framed by the media. The kind of economic news portrayed in the media can affect the information that citizens gain. The scholar also argues that when the news coverage lacks objectivity and reality, it has consequences on public opinion. Forgary (2005) also notes that citizens’ perception on the prevailing economic conditions is developed directly by news framing, therefore, the economic news which citizens are exposed to have a direct bearing on their perception on the prevailing economic conditions. He adds that the attention of economic news has also focused on the consequences to the citizens and little attention is given to detecting and clarifications for the causes of economic hardship and when the economy is good condition, the news media gives less attention and when the economy is bad, it attracts more attention of the media. This is because the media gives attention to the negative than the positive. As for Kazem (2013), the media coverage of economic issues may be influenced by public perception and opinion concerning the economy.
Nyakupinda (2003) delineates genre as a category of writing with own conversation of style, treatment and language. Genres influences understanding and appreciation of the economic news presented in the media. He also declares that the structure of the genre, shape and language gives it outstanding news content character. Mabaso (2003) further outlines that they are three broad categories of genres in journalist which are informative genres, analytic genre and literacy artistic genre and under these three falls several types of genres used. For Nyakupinda (2003), hard news can be described as new and vital information about events of significance. This is also the news which can be found on the front page of newspapers. The scholar further argues that this genre looks at topical issues affecting the county. He further assets that opinion columns can be in the form of political and socio-economic issues. More so, Nyakupinda (2003) states that letters to the editor are widely used by economist, politicians and analyst to gauge to performance of social opinion under which they operate. Many letters tend to comment or follow up articles that have already appeared in the media. Commentaries also provide the readers with the media house world outlook on socio and economic as well as political issues (Nyakupinda, 2003). Editorial comments reflect the position of the media house on any given issue. An editorial comment is an article written by or under the direction of the editors of the newspaper. Editorials comments give opinion on important economic, social, or legal issues of the day and they aim to influence readers to subscribe to a particular viewpoint.
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Bachelorarbeit, 44 Seiten
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Masterarbeit, 95 Seiten
Diplomarbeit, 118 Seiten
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