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147 Seiten, Note: 75.00
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURE
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Organisation of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Motivation
Types of Motivation
Concept of Teacher Motivation
Supporting Theory: Social Cognitive Career Theory
Social Cognitive Career Theory Interest Model
Social Cognitive Career Theory Choice Model
Social Cognitive Career Theory Performance Model
Concept of Career
Concept of Teaching
Concept of Teacher Education
Concept of Teaching Practice
Teaching Practice in the University of Cape Coast
Off-Campus Teaching Practice in the University of Cape Coast
Pre-service Teacher Motivation and Gender
Pre-service Teacher Motivation and Age
Pre-service Teacher Motivation and Prior Teaching Experience
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
Data Collection Instrument
Piloting of Instrument
Data Collection Procedures
Data Processing and Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Background Characteristics of Respondents
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study
Suggestions for Further Research
A Questionnaire for Pre-service Management Teachers
The study investigated the factors influencing final year pre-service management teachers’ decision to take teaching as a career. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The total population of pre-service management teachers involved in the study was 229. The census method was used to include all the respondents for the study. The FIT-Choice questionnaire was adapted from Watt and Richardson (2012) for the gathering of relevant data for the study. The data gathered was analysed through descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages, means and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent samples t-test and One-Way Analysis of Variance-ANOVA). The study found that pre-service management teachers’ were motivated by altruistic factors (shaping the future, enhance social equity), intrinsic factors (prior teaching experience, expert career, high demand, social contribution) and extrinsic factors (job security, social status). Their demographic characteristics such as gender, age and prior teaching experience were not found to significantly influence their decision to take teaching as a career. The study recommended that the Ghana Education Service (GES), which is responsible for policy-making in education, should ensure that teachers are given a better opportunity to enjoy job security, time for their families, transfers and social equity, which are crucial for the sustenance of their personal and social utility values. The government in partnership with Ministry of Education should provide various motivational packages (job security, increased salaries and improved working conditions) to sustain the efforts of practicing teachers. Potential teacher employers should couch their advertisement to reflect these factors.
Much appreciation goes to my supervisors, Dr Joseph Tufuor Kwarteng and Dr Bernard Yaw Sekyi Acquah. I must say that without them this work would have been a failure. They really directed me to higher levels of knowledge. I also express my profound appreciation to my wonderful friend, Mr Prince Yeboah Asare, a Graduate Assistant in the Department of Business and Social Sciences Education. He really encouraged and supported me in diverse ways in bringing this work to an end. Again, I thank all the faculty members for the positive impartation and making me a better finished product. Finally, I am very grateful to my late mother, Madam Akua Nyame, who saw the need to take me to school. I love you all and may God richly bless you all.
To my family and all love ones
1 Statistical Tool for Research Questions
2 Background Characteristics of the Respondents
3 Factors that Motivate Pre-Service Management Teachers to Take Teaching as a Career
4 Normality Test Results in Motivation Factors to Teach
5 Descriptive Results of Gender Motivation to Teach
6 T-test Result of Motivational Factors and Gender
7 T-test Results of Overall Motivation to Teach and Gender
8 Differences in Motivational Factors to Teach Based on Age
9 Differences in Overall Motivation to Teach Based on Age
10 T-test Result of Motivational Factors and Prior Teaching Experience
11 T-test Results of Overall Motivational Factor to Teach and Prior Teaching Experience
1 FIT-Choice empirically validated model
Education is universally recognised as the answer to socio-economic problems of the world. Nations and individuals look up to education to provide a cure for poverty, mental deficiency, joblessness, poor communication system, hunger and the others (Olamide, & Olawaiye, 2013). If all these problems can be solved by education, then teachers must not be taken for granted wherever they are found. Teachers are very crucial when it comes to the determination of quality education that students receive (UNESCO, 2006). Voluntary Service Organization (VSO, 2002) also accepts the fact that teacher’s motivation is fragile and its declination affects the performance in contributing to learning. The issue of teacher motivation is important because of its correlation with the quality of education (Javaid, 2009).
Even though there have been series of studies investigating why Ghanaian teachers leave the profession, according to Bame (1991), Godwyll and Ablenyie (1996), inadequate salary, low prestige for teachers and lack of opportunities for promotion were the major factors that triggered this unfortunate state of affairs which never helped the educational system. More recent studies have also found that, poor conditions of service and deplorable socio-economic conditions in rural areas where most teachers work were also additional factors that demotivated teachers in the profession (Cobbold, 2007). Again, Bennel (2004) concluded that, teacher’s salary and other material benefits were too low for individual and household survival needs to be met in developing countries such as Ghana. This finding supports the Education For All (EFA) report in 2005, which revealed that teacher’s in developing countries often receive earnings that are insufficient in providing them with a reasonable standard of living. All these studies (Bennel, 2004; EFA, 2005) attest to the fact that the teaching profession is not all that lucrative yet students still choose the profession as their career (Ahmad, & Aziz, 2009).
The teaching profession has been described as an area where individuals develop personal interest largely due to its nature, prospects, and flexibility in its execution. Due to this, an investigation into the factors that influences career choice in teaching among pre-service teachers’ has become very vital as the decision to become a teacher will impact them throughout their lives. Past studies on the motivation for becoming a teacher-centred on motives that concerns pre-service teachers’ values and interest in the teaching profession (Richardson, & Watt, 2006; Watt, & Richardson, 2007, 2008, 2012; Fokkens-Bruinsma & Canrinus, 2011; Salifu, Alagbela & Ofori, 2018).
There is an argument that teachers can make a difference when it comes to shaping the lives of students and their orientation for learning (Putnam & Borko, 2000). Globally, it has been acknowledged by Governments that quality teachers play a central role in the development and maintenance of intelligent citizenry in the teaching profession (Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA], 1999). This implies that teachers are architects that builds the future of society by imparting knowledge onto the new generations. Teaching is regarded as socially valued occupation, hence, a number of studies also have reported the reason why people choose the teaching profession as their career.
The desire to work with children and adolescents has been proven to be the key reason for choosing a career in the teaching profession (Fokkens- Bruinsma & Canrinus, 2014; Watt & Richardson, 2008) and the key source of satisfaction among teachers (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2011). In addition, a comprehensive international study (OECD, 2005) revealed that people opt for the teaching profession because it enables intellectual fulfilment and represents a tool for making contributions to changes in society.
In the last few decades, the field of educational science has paid significant attention to teachers and their motivation to teach. Teacher’s motivation for the teaching profession has been acknowledged as an important determinant of the teacher’s success and the success of their students and the school in general (Hattie, 2009; Pelletier, Séguin-Lévesque, & Legault, 2002; Wright & McMahan, 1992). Many researchers and employers have shown interest in the factors that influence the teacher job satisfaction and the decisions to enter the profession (Mansfield, Wosnitza, & Beltman, 2012; Sinclair, Dowson, & McInerney, 2006). People have different reasons that make them choose teaching as a career. Some future teachers will choose this career path to improve the society in which they live, others to work with children, and others to secure family-flexible work hours (Richardson & Watt, 2006). Understanding teachers’ motivations for the profession is important in relation to the recruitment of new teachers, their retention, and the learning experiences they provide for their students. The motivations that lead people to enter the teaching profession are likely to subsequently influence their professional engagement and the way they teach their students (Watt, Richardson, & Devos, 2013).
Teachers are indispensable stakeholders in education without whom no country can achieve its educational goals (Salifu & Agbenyega 2013). Teachers are, therefore, the bedrock of all human learning, and they are the hub around which individual citizens are made to realize their full potential to serve their nations (Adu, 2005). Because of this important role, attention needs to be given to teacher motivation as one of the important measures of possibly ensuring that highly qualified personnel are attracted to and retained in the teaching profession to provide quality teaching in schools in Ghana. This is particularly important given that there are many reported cases of teachers leaving the profession lately for other jobs in the country. For instance, it has been estimated that about 10,000 teachers in pre-tertiary schools (i.e. pre-school, primary school, junior high and senior high schools), representing 5% in the country, leave the classroom every year (Salifu & Agbenyega, 2013).
My motivations to conduct this research arose from this information in the literature, and also my long-time personal teaching experiences and interactions with many of the teachers indicated that some of them, still staying in the profession, were experiencing burnout, and yet, what was compelling them to hold onto a profession they were not happy in was unclear.
A plethora of studies has been conducted into motivations for choosing teaching as a career across subject disciplines and different jurisdictions (Wang, 2004; Jarvis & Woodrow, 2005; Richardson & Watt, 2005; Watt & Richardson, 2007, 2008; Eren & Tezel, 2010). Studies conducted in Nigeria (Ipidapo-Obe 2007), New Zealand (Anthony and Ord, 2008), and USA (Claeys, 2011) identified attractive salaries and job recognition as both influential and decision factors affecting teaching choice.
Mathew (2005) in Singapore and Watt and Richardson (2007; 2012) in Australia, found job security, time for family and desire to make social contributions as influential and decision factors. Similarly, other researchers (Young, 1995; Young, 1995; Reid & Caudwell, 1997; Leemers, 1998; Kyriacou & Coulthard, 2000; Watt & Richardson, 2012; Nyamwange, 2016), also highlighted a desire to work with children, wanting to contribute to society, enjoyment of teaching, student interest and potential for intellectual fulfilment as the primary motives for choosing teaching career.
It can be deduced from the above studies that, all these factors mentioned can be grouped into altruistic, external and internal to teachers (Kyriacou & Kobori, 1998; Chuene et al., 1999; den Brok et al., 2013). The multifaceted nature of these factors gives an indication that pre-service teachers in different countries might be influenced by different factors, both in making teaching a career choice and in deciding to stay in teaching. This may well be a reflection of the differences between countries in their social, economic and cultural context, and in the general image held of teaching as a career.
In Ghana, Akuoko, Dwumah and Baba (2012) found that the majority of the primary school teachers joined the teaching profession because of the interest they had in teaching. Salifu et al. (2018), using FIT-Choice scale, found that the Senior High School (SHS) teachers were influenced by social utility value and personal utility value to choose a teaching career rather than extrinsic utility value. Most of the studies on factors influencing teaching career choice among teachers focused on basic school teachers (Akuoko et al., 2012), SHS teachers (Amoah et al., 2015; Otuei, 2017; Salifu et al., 2018), non-tertiary education students (Woasey, 2015; Zotorvie, 2016; Owusu, Kwakye, Beckoe & Ofori, 2018) and health workers (Agyapong, Osei, Farren and McAuliffe, 2015). Studies undertaken so far in Ghana did not consider the motivation of pre-service management teachers at the university through the FIT-Choice framework. In order to address this limitation and provide a valid and reliable framework for understanding motivations for choosing teaching as a career, this study employed Watt and Richardson (2007) Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) scale to study pre-service management teachers’ motivation to teach.
The main purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career. The study was guided by the following specific objectives:
1. assess the factors that motivate pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career.
2. determine whether there is any statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their demographic characteristics (gender, age and teaching experience)
In order to address the problem formulated for the study, the following research question was formulated.
1. What are the factors that motivate pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career?
The following hypotheses were also formulated for the study
1. H0: There is no statistically significant difference in male and female pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers.
H1: There is a statistically significant difference in male and female pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become a teacher.
2. H0: There is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their age.
H1: There is a statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their age.
3. H0: There is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their prior teaching experience.
H1: There is a statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their prior teaching experience.
Knowledge about the motivation for becoming a teacher is important for several reasons. The outcome of this study would benefit several stakeholders of education. First, the results of this study would be of significance to the Government of Ghana (GoG) and Ministry of Education (MoE) as it would unearth the factors that influence pre-service management teachers to choose specific careers therefore forming a basis for proper information, education and communication among the youth in Ghana. This finding of this study would, again, help Government of Ghana (GoG) and Ministry of Education (MoE) on teacher recruitment campaigns which have often focused attention on those factors that appeal most to those who have embarked on teacher training courses. This study would suggest measures to be taken to improve teacher recruitment need to focus more attention on those factors that undergraduates who are undecided about teaching as a career view as important in influencing their choice of career.
The universities globally would utilize the results of this study to form a basis for proper information and training during university open days before students join the higher institutions of learning. In addition, the results of the study would indicate the value of organising teacher education programmes drawing on multiple motives, which is expected to contribute positively to completion of teacher education and teacher retention in future profession.
This research would benefit non-governmental organizations that fund youth programs as this would necessitate capacity building among the youth and their significant others. This would determine the intervention strategies that can be put in place in order to ensure that sponsored pre-service teachers make informed decisions regarding their career. This study would also be beneficial to students by helping them know the factors that motivate most pre-serve student’s teachers in choosing their career in the teaching field to suit their interest, abilities, aptitude and values.
The findings would go a long way to inform parents and other the stakeholders (eg. counsellors, academic advisers, and lecturers) who in one way or the other contributed to their educational career and also inform the policymakers in the university about why most students come to read the educational programme. Finally, the outcome of this study would contribute to existing literature on factors influencing pre-service teachers to become teachers. Scholars and academicians would find the results of this study helpful as it will form a basis for further research.
In terms of coverage, this study was delimited to the level 400 management pre-service teachers pursuing education programmes within the Department of Business and Social Sciences Education (DOBSSE) within the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education (FOHSSE) in the University of Cape Coast. The study could have been extended to other departments and programmes within the University of Cape Coast as well as other collaborators of teacher education programmes in Ghana specifically the training colleges and UEW. However, the scope was delimited to only the level 400 Management education students within DOBSSE because the study sought to assess the factors that influence pre-service management teachers in taking the teaching profession as a career for which the final year management education students provide adequate representation. The study was delimited to factors influencing teaching choice (FIT-Choice) scale developed by Watt and Richardson (2007)
The use of the fit-choice questionnaire prevented the respondents to express themselves. This is due to the fact that items measuring teacher motivation were structured. Hence, insight that could have been obtained from respondents might have been ignored. However, since the study was rooted in the quantitative method of enquiry such limitation hindered the study from gathering such rich information, hence, the respondents were informed to be objective in filling the questionnaire. There was also the possibility of the respondents not able to understand some of the items on the questionnaire which might have affected the validity and the reliability of the results obtained. So, the researcher adopted the questionnaire (FIT Choice scale) and also explained certain key issues to participants during data collection. Organisation of the Study
The study is composed of five chapters. Chapter One covers the introduction of the study that centres on the background to the study, problem statement, purpose, research questions, delimitation and limitations of the study. Chapter Two presents the review of related literature on theoretical frameworks as well as related empirical studies on the questions raised. Details of the method used in the investigation are presented in Chapter Three. This includes the research design employed, population, sample and sampling procedure, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis. The fourth chapter presents the results of the data analysis. Discussions on the resulting findings to address the questions and hypothesis raised in Chapter One are covered. The final chapter, Chapter Five, summarises the study to draw conclusions. Based on the conclusions arrived at recommendations were made to help resolve the motivation of choosing a career in the teaching profession.
This chapter reviews literature relating to teaching practice, particularly the OFCTP and other related issues. The review comprises the conceptual review, the theoretical review and the empirical reviews. The following subheadings are discussed under the conceptual review; the concept of teaching, concept of teacher education, concept of teaching practice, teaching practice in the University of Cape Coast and off-campus teaching practice in the University of Cape Coast. In addition, the theoretical review focused on Expectancy-value theory as the major theory which is supported by Social Cognitive career theory thus concepts of career, significant terms under career, career management, career success, career counselling, career assessment career support and career education. Whilst the empirical deals with the studies conducted on factors that influence student teachers to take teaching as a career
This section takes care of the expectancy-value theory as the main theory which is then supported by the Social cognitive career theory which further discusses some concepts like, significant terms under career, career management, career success, career counselling, career assessment career support and career education.
The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School of Management in 1964. Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes.
Expectancy theory was based on four assumptions (Vroom, 1964). One assumption is that people join organizations with the expectations of meeting their needs, being motivated and building on their past experiences. These factors influence how individuals react to organizations and institutions. The second assumption is that an individual’s behaviour is as a result of the conscious choice he or she makes. That is, people are free to choose those behaviours suggested by their own expectancy intentions.
The third assumption is that the needs of people in an organization varies (e.g., good salary, job security, advancement). The final assumption is that people will choose among alternatives so as to optimize outcomes for themselves. The expectancy-value theory is based on these three key concepts: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Which state that, employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual needs a reward (Valence), and the likelihood that, the effort will lead to the expected performance (Expectancy), and the belief that the performance will lead to the reward wanted (Instrumentality).
1. Concept of valence: Vroom (1964) defined Valence as all possible effective orientations toward outcomes, and it is interpreted as the importance, attractiveness, desirability, or anticipated satisfaction with outcomes. Valence is the importance associated by an individual about the expected outcome. It is an expected and not the actual satisfaction that an employee expects to receive after achieving the goals. An outcome is simply anything an Individual might want to attain. The valence of an outcome for an individual is defined conceptually as the strength of a person’s positive or negative orientation towards it. This refers to the anticipated satisfaction associated with an outcome and is distinguished from the value of the outcome thus the actual satisfaction resulting from the attainment of the outcome.
2. Concept of expectancy: Vroom further defined expectancy as a subjective probability of action or effort leading to an outcome or performance. In practice, expectancy has also been measured as the perceived relation or correlation between an action and an outcome. In addition, expectancy has been interpreted as the subjective probability that effort leads to the outcome of the performance. Expectancy is the faith that, efforts will result in a better performance. This may be influenced by factors such as possession of appropriate skills for performing the job, availability of right resources, availability of crucial information and getting the required support for completing the job.
3. Concept of instrumentality: Instrumentality as explained by Vroom (1964), is the faith that if a person performs well, then the desired outcome will be followed. Instrumentality is an individual’s estimate of the probability that a given level of achieved task performance will lead to various work outcomes. Instrumentality is an outcome-outcome association, and it has been interpreted not only as a relationship between an outcome and another outcome but also as a probability to obtain an outcome. According to expectancy theory, people make choices about the level at which they perform, and they do so depending on the level of performance that provides for the best possible outcomes. All three linkages must be present for motivation to occur. People who are motivated will put in much effort in a particular direction. Effort combined with ability results in a particular performance level and in turn, the realization of valued outcomes.
This theory proposes that a person’s expectancies for success and the values he or she has for succeeding is the determinants of his or her motivation to perform different tasks (Atkinson, 1957; Eccles et al., 1983). Previous studies suggest that expectancies are individual’s anticipation that their performance will be followed by either success or failure and value as the relative attractiveness of succeeding or failing on a task (Atkinson, 1957). The expectancy-value theory contained several beliefs and values constructs including subjective task values, expectancies for success, achievement goals, and beliefs about ability or competences.
Eccles and colleagues proposed four major components of subjective values: the attainment value or importance, intrinsic value, utility value or usefulness of the task, and a cost (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). The expectancy- value theory explains how the concepts appear and the role they play as factors that motivate individuals in taking any career decisions. This theory suggests that, before anybody decides to embark on any career, the person would have done his or her assessment by factoring all these concepts by analyzing them critically to even have a clear idea or mindset of the outcome before even starting to be committed in that activity. It clearly shows that student teachers in concern did not just woke up one day and finally decided to take teaching as their career, but rather went through these concepts as their source of motivation.
The concept ‘motivation’ is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in a certain way or manner. Motivating people is about getting them to move in the direction that one wants them to go in order to achieve a result. Motivation can be described as goal-directed behaviour. People are motivated when they expect that a course of action is likely to lead to the attainment of a goal and a valued reward thus one that satisfies their needs (Armstrong, 2007; Hoy & Miskel, 1991; Tracy as cited in Ofoegbu, 2004). Motivation is thought to be responsible for why a lot of people decide to do something, how long they are willing to sustain the activity and how hard they are going to pursue it (Dörnyei, 2001). The basic underlying question is why do people do what they do? A lot of writers have defined motivation in different forms. Motivation is described as the direction and persistence of an action (Mullin, 2002). It is all about why people choose a particular course of action in preference to others and the reasons why they continue with such a decision over a long a period of time, even when problems or difficulties persist in that field (Ingham, 2000). According to Dembo (2004), motivation is the internal process that gives behaviour its energy and direction. Demo further asserted that the individual beliefs can also bring about the course of one’s failure or success which can also be depended on the person’s current task influence and behaviour.
According to Robbins and Longton (2003), motivation refers to the act that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Moorhead and Griffins (1998), defines motivation as the set of forces that courses people to engage in a particular behaviour rather than some alternative behaviour. According to Armstrong and Murlis (1991), motivation is all about what makes people act or behave in a certain way that they behave. This is therefore anchored on two basic concepts; the needs that operate within the individual and the goals towards which the individual moves.
Basically, there are two types of motivations, as originally identified by Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
This type of motivation is self-generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular way or to move in a particular direction. These factors include responsibility (feeling that the work is important and having control over one’s own resources), autonomy (freedom to act), scope to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting and challenging work and opportunities for advancement (Armstrong, 2007). On the other hand, intrinsic motivation comes from the individual’s internal desire to do something which is motivated by things like interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction (Dessler, 2005; Robbins & Longton, 2003; Muullins, 2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation finds expression in McGregor’s Theory X and Y of motivations. According to him, theory X, suggest that people are almost exclusively driven by extrinsic motivations. Whilst the theory Y suggests that people are more intrinsically motivated to work.
This kind of motivation on the other hand as suggested by Latham (1998), maybe described as tangible benefits such as salary, fringe benefit, and job security which are associated with the jobs. Lathan sees extrinsic motivation as all the issues in the work situation associated with physical conditions, the amount of work and the facilities available in the workplace for doing the work. It is very crucial to note that intrinsic and extrinsic are both important concepts to consider when discussing the motivation of teachers in relation to their job satisfaction, especially in the western world. However, studies conducted from developing countries seem to point out to the fact that, extrinsic factors such as salary are very crucial in determining teacher job satisfaction. For example, in the study of Tansim (2006), it was revealed that teachers were not motivated to their satisfaction as a result of issues like low salary and lack of teachers being involved in administrators-decision making process.
The concept of motivation comes with the expenditure of effort to achieve a goal, creating the forces that power and drive behaviour (Bursahoglu, 2002), improving situations that are perceived to be complex by the individuals and meeting their needs (Dull, 1981), providing driving forces to urge people into action (Genc,1987), increasing employee’s willingness to work and making them believe that they will satisfy their personal needs best if they work efficiently in their place of work (Yuksel & Rimmington, 1998).
According to Cole (1986), motivation is a term used to describe those processes, both initiative and situational by which people seek to satisfy their basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals which trigger human behaviour. Robin (1989) also define motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards an institutional-goals conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual needs. It is the desire on the part of the individual to work productively and efficiently in order to perform to a higher level than required of him under a normal-circumstances for achieving the institutional goal (Nayyar, 2005).
In other words, motivation can be termed as a management function that stimulates individuals to accomplish the laid down institutional goals. It is purposive, designated and goal-oriented behaviour that involves certain forces acting on or initiate, sustain and direct behaviour. Teacher motivation has been dear to the heart of many policymakers because of its correlation with the quality of education. Most of the national policies and action plans influenced by the international commitment like Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for all (EFA), highlight the importance of teachers and the pivotal role they play in education. Government of Ghana over the years has committed a lot of resources with the intention of enhancing the good status, morale and the professionalism of teachers. This proves the fact that a huge sum of money and resources is allocated to education showed in the budget of developing countries (UNESCO, 2006).
Extrinsic motivation relates to what is done to or for people to motivate them. These include rewards such as increased pay, praises, or promotion, and punishments, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay or criticism, (Armstrong, 2007). Motivation has been viewed as one of the main factors that drive, shapes, start and sustain the behaviour of human beings (Locke & Lathan, 2004). Lathan and Pinder (2005) defined work motivation as “a set of energetic forces that originate from within and as well as beyond individual’s being to initiate work-related behaviour and to determine its form, direction, intensity and duration” (p. 486).
It can be argued that the interest, abilities, value options, advice from families, and friends play a role in some degree in orienting the young people toward a certain profession. This implies that the teaching career choice might also be influenced by those factors that have already been stated. Aside from those factors, it is also very important to examine an individual’s expectancies and the effect or the consequences regarding the chosen profession. Grounded in the expectancy-value theory (Wifield & Eccles, 2000), which also argue that, individual’s choice and behaviour are shaped by their expectancies and their values they have about their work.
According to Finedo (2003), employee motivation is a complex and difficult term to define. The precise definition given to this concept is elusive as the notion comprises the characteristics of individuals and the perception they have about situations. Lewis, Goodman and Fandt (1995), posit that organisation’s liveliness comes from the motivation of its employees, although their abilities play a role in determining their work performance as their motivation. Teacher motivation, therefore, has to do with a teacher’s attitude to work. It comprises the desire to participate in the pedagogical process within the school environment. If the teachers are not properly motivated, it goes a long way to affect the performance of his or her students since there is going to be a lot of problems like truancies, low prestige and the worst of it all is to leave the profession in search of a new job to replace the teaching (Bame, 1991; Cobbold, 2007).
Social cognitive career theory is a theory developed by Robert W. Lent, Steven D. Brown and Gail Hackett in 1994; SCCT, it is based on Albert Bandura's general social cognitive theory. This theory is aimed at explaining three interrelated aspects of career development;
1. How basic academic and career interest develops
2. How educational and career choice are made
3. How academic and career success is obtained.
The theory incorporates different concepts (for example, Interest, abilities, values, and environmental factors) that appear in earlier career theories and have been found to affect career development. It is an influential theory of cognitive and motivational process that has been extended to the study of many areas of psychosocial functioning, such as academic performance, health behaviour and organizational development (Lent, Brown & Hackett, 1994). SCCT basically has three variables as its building blocks and these are the Self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, and goals to be achieved (Lent et al., 1994). Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s personal beliefs about his or her abilities to perform a particular behaviour or courses of action (Lent et al., 1994). Self-efficacy beliefs are relatively dynamic and are specific to a particular activity-domain. People vary in their self- efficacy regarding the behaviours required in a different occupational domain. SCCT assumes that the more people are likely to become interested in something, the more they choose to pursue and perform it better due to the strong self- efficacy beliefs they had, by not forgetting the supportive environment and the necessary skills acquired (Lent, 1994). The social cognitive theory posits that goals are importantly tied to both self-efficacy and outcome expectations. A lot of people learn to set objectives or goals that are inconsistent with their views of their personal abilities and capabilities with the expectation of achieving such goals (Lent et al., 1994). Success or failure in reaching personal goals, in turn, becomes important information since it helps to alter or maintain self- efficacy, believes and outcome expectations.
Self-efficacy beliefs are perceived to be emanated from four primary sources of information; these are the personal performance accomplishment, vicarious experiences (example, observing similar others), social persuasion and physiological and emotional states. Personal accomplishments (success and failure with specific tasks) are perceived to offer a specific compelling source of efficacy information, but the nature of social models and reinforcing messages to which one is exposed, and the type of physiological states one experiences while engaged in that particular task can all affect one’s self- efficacy regarding different performance domains.
Outcome expectation refers to the beliefs about the consequences of performing a particular behaviour (for example, what will happen if I do this?) the choices that people make about the activities in which they engage themselves, and their effort and persistence at these activities entail the consideration of the outcome as well as the self-efficacy beliefs. According to SCCT, there are three models that further explains the factors that influence the choice of career (lent brown &Hackett, 2000). These are;
Social Cognitive Career Theory interest model cannot be explained without talking about Self-efficacy and outcome expectations since they play a key role in the SCCT model of education and vocational interest development, choice-making, and performance attainment. Over the course of childhood and adolescence, people are exposed directly and vicariously to a variety of occupations which are relevant to the activities in the school, homes and in their communities.
People are differently reinforced for pursuing their course of interest, and for developing their skills in different activity domains. The varieties of activities to which and students are exposed is partly influenced by the culture in which they were brought up. Through continued activity exposure, practice and feedback, students refine their skills, develop personal performance standards, form a sense of efficacy in a particular task, and acquire certain expectations about the outcomes of activity engagement (Lent et al., 1994). People are most likely to develop an interest in activities in which they feel efficacious and from which they expect positive outcomes. As people develop an interest in an activity, they are likely to develop goals for sustaining or increasing their involvement (Lent et al., 2000). Further, involvement in activity leads to a subsequent mastery experience, which in turn, helps to boost self-efficacy, outcome expectations and interest within an ongoing feedback loop. In summary, people are likely to form an enduring interest in an activity when they observe or view themselves as competent at performing it and when they expect the activity to produce valued outcomes. Conversely, interest is unlikely to develop in activities whereby people doubt their competency level of achieving the set goals.
Social Cognitive Career Theory choice’s model of career choice process is built on the interest model which rises largely through self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Career-related interest also helps to foster particular educational and occupational choice goals. In essence, such goals are very clear, specific, strongly held, and supported by significant policies. Choice goals make it more likely that people will take the necessary actions to achieve their set goals. Subsequent performance attainments provide valuable feedback that can strengthen or weaken self-efficacy and the outcome expectation which ultimately helps to revise or confirm the choice taken (Lent, all., 1994).
SCCT also emphasizes that choice of goals are sometimes influenced directly and indirectly by self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations and environmental conditions. Choice and interest are believed to have an impact on academic and occupational choice under-supported environmental conditions, which enable people to pursue their interest (Lent et al., 1994). However, a lot of people are not able to pursue their interest either by obstacles or with the full support of other important options. These people’s choices are constrained by experiences like economic needs, family pressure and educational limitations (Lent et al., 2000). In such an instance, people may need to compromise their interest and instead, make their choice on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the type of work which is available to them, their self-efficacy beliefs (can I do this type of work?), and outcome expectations (will the job pay enough to make it worthwhile?), cultural values may also limit the role of their personal interests in their career choice (Lent, et al, 2000). SCCT, hypotheses that, interest will be a more potent predictor of the type of choice people make under a supportive environment rather than on more restrictive environmental conditions (Lent, et al 2000). Since under the restrictive environmental conditions, one’s interest may need to be bypassed or compromised in favour of more pragmatic, pressing or culturally acceptable considerations.
Social Cognitive Career Theory’s performance model is concerned with predicting and explaining two primary aspects of performance; the level of success that people attain in educational and occupational pursuits and the degree to which they persist in the face of obstacles (Lent, 1994). The performance involves both ability and motivations. SCCT emphasis the motivational role of self-efficacy, outcome expectations performance goal (Lent et al., 1994). SCCT suggest that self-efficacy and outcome expectations work in connection with the ability the person possesses. In measuring the level of ability, people with higher self-efficacy and more positive outcome expectations are more likely to establish higher performance, organize their skills more effectively and to persist longer in the face of set-backs (Lent et al., 1994). As a result, they may achieve a higher level of success than those with lower self-efficacy and less positive outcome expectations.
A career is a sequence of positions held by a person during the course of a lifetime (Bedu-Addo, 2000). It comprises a series of work-related activities that provide continuity, order, and meaning in a person’s life. A career may consist of the changes in values, attitudes and a motivation that occurs as a person grows older. In both the perception the primary focus is on the individual. The underlying assumption is that a person can shape his destiny through a series of well-planned and well-timed positive moves (Osipow, 2003). However, it must be stated here as a word of caution that mere choice does not ensure career success. He continued to state that, a person’s career is shaped by many complex factors such as education, environment and parents.
Career is also defined by the dictionary as a person‘s course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life) (Webster’s International Dictionary, 1998). It is usually considered to pertain to remunerative work. The term, career, comes from the French word, ‘carrier’, which means road or racecourse which, in turn, comes from the Latin word, ‘cararia’, which is a track for wheeled vehicles which originated from the Latin word, carrus, which means wagon (Bedu-Addo, 2000).
According to Bedu-Addo (2009), career refers to a person’s lifetime sequence of occupations, activities, responsibilities and services performed. Furthermore, Shertzer and Stone (2006) saw a career as a chosen pursuit, life work, and success in one’s profession. It is a sequence of major positions occupied by a person throughout his lifetime. Additionally, Olando (2010) pointed out that career is the totality of work one does in his lifetime and is person-centred. Olando further posits that career is a meaningful progression on a person’s working life. It is a course pursued over a period of time.
Further, Helliwell and Wolf (2002) defined career as encompassing a variety of possible patterns of personal choice related to an individual’s total lifestyle, including occupation, education, personal and social behaviour, learning how to learn, social responsibility and leisure time activities. Finally, Super (2005) proposed a definition of a career that involved the interaction of various life roles over the life span. He called it the ‘life career rainbow’. For Super then the term, career, refers to all the roles a person may play during the lifetime and the pattern in which they fit together at any point in time.
A c areer is an individual’s metaphorical journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. Career can be explained in so many ways. The term career as defined by the Oxford dictionary as a person’s” course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life.)” in this definition, career is understood in relation to some range of aspect of individual’s life, learning and work. The term can also be mean as the occupation or a profession that usually involves special training or formal education and is considered to be a person’s life work (Vance & McNulty, 2014). In explaining the term career, certain key concept cropped up, and these concepts were: career management, career success and career support.
Career management is a concept that describes the active and purposeful management of a career by a person. The constituents of the career management skills are described to include the ability to reflect on one’s currents career, research the labour market, determine whether education is necessary, and find job openings and make career changes (Hooley, Watts, Sultana, & Neary, 2013). Career management cannot be explained without talking about career choice, objective factor, Subjective factor concept, Critical contact concept, and Career (occupational) changing .
i. Career choice; career choice is a very crucial term that has to be explained when it comes to career management. An individual’s decision to join a firm or an institution may depend on any of these three factors, Objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact factors (Coetzee & Schreuder, 2011).
ii. Objective factor theory, posit that the applicants are rational. With the motive that, before any person or an individual may decide to take any activity as an objective, then that person might have gone through some series of assessment. And through the assessment, the choice is therefore opted for. But there are some factors that may come up in the course of the assessment which may include salary, location, and other opportunities for career advancement.
iii. Subjective factor concept also suggests that decision making in a career choice is mostly dominated by social and psychological factors. Thus the job status, its reputations and other similar factors may also play an important role in this factor.
iv. Critical contact concept also advances the idea that a candidate’s observation while interacting with the job or the organization plays a vital role in the decision-making process. Thus how the recruiter keeps in touch with the candidate or the applicant, the promptness of responses are also very crucial. All these theories assume that candidates or applicants have the free choice of employers and the careers of which they will want to venture. In reality, the scarcity of jobs and the strong competition for a desirable-job severely delays the decision-making process in searching for the preferred jobs. In many markets, employees are into a particular-careers all because they were forced to accept those careers due to the scarcity of the preferred job availability. Additionally, culture has also been found as another major influence on career choice (Ott-Holland, Huang, Ryan, Elizondo, & Wadlington, 2013).
Occupational change is an important aspect of career management. In a life time, both the individual and the labour market changes, it is expected that many people will change occupations during their lifetime. A study conducted by the U.S Bureau of labour statistics through the National Longitudinal Survey of youth in 1979 showed that individuals between the ages of 18 and 38 will hold more than 10 jobs their lifetime (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2012).
Career success is a term used frequently in academic and popular writing about careers. It refers to the ways in which an individual can be described as successful in his or her working life so far (Gunz & Heslin, 2005). Traditionally, career success has often been taught as earnings and status within an occupation or organization. This can be expressed either in absolute term or in relative terms. Many researchers argue that careers are less predictable than they once were due to the fast pace of economic and technological changes (Inkson, Dries & Anold, 2014). This means that career management is more obviously the responsibility of the individual rather than his or her employing organization, “job for life “is a thing of the past. This has placed more emphasis on subjective criteria of career success (Ng & Feldman, 2014) these include job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work-life balance, a sense of personal achievement and attaining work that is consistent with one’s personal values. A person assessing his or her career success is likely to be influenced by social comparisons, such as how well family members, friends or contemporaries at school have done (Heslin, 2003).
The amount and type of career an individual achieves are mostly affected by several forms of career capital (Bergstrom & Randall, 2016). These include social capital (the extent and depth of personal contact in which a person can draw upon)., human capital (demonstrable abilities, experiences and qualifications), economic capital (money and other materials or resources which permit access to career-related resources, ) and cultural capital having skills attitude, or general know-how to operate-.effectively in a particular social context
There are different educational, counselling, and human resource management interventions that can support and be offered while people are in education when they are transitioning to the labour market, changing career during periods of unemployment and during the transition to retirement (OECD, 2004).
Career supports are into different forms which are explained to include; Career information, this describes the information that, support career and learning choices. One very important sub-set of career information is the labour market information (LMI). This information’s include the salaries of the various professions, the rate of employment in the various professions, availability of training programs and current job openings.
a. Career assessments; these test that comes in a variety of forms and also depends on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career assessment helps individuals to identify and better articulate their unique interest personality values and skills to determine how well they may match with a certain career. Some of the skills that career assessment could help to determine are job-specific skills, transferable skills, and self- management skills (OECD, 2004). A career assessment can also help to provide a window of potential opportunities by helping individuals to discover the task, experience, education and training that is needed for a career they would want to pursue (Hooley et al., 2013). Career counsellors, executive coaches, educational institutions, career development centres and outplacement companies most at times administer career assessment to help individuals to focus their search on careers that closely match their unique personal profile.
b. Career counselling, this is done to check people’s interest, personality, values and skills and also help to explore career options and research on them. Career counselling provides one- on – one or group professional assistance in exploration and decision-making process in relation to choosing a major occupation, transitioning into the world of work.
c. Career education, this describes the process by which people come to learn about themselves, their career, and the world of work. There is a strong tradition of career education in school, however, career education can also occur in a wide range of other contexts including further and higher education and even the workplace (Hooley et al, 2013). A commonly used framework for career education is DOTS which means decision learning (D), opportunity awareness (O), transition learning (T) and self-awareness (S) (Law & Watt, 1977). Most at times, higher education is thought as being too narrow or too researched based and lacking a deeper understanding of the material to develop the skills necessary for a certain career.
Based on these theories, it is deduced that an individual would select a career based on what he or she or the entire society that surrounds them think about the career. It also looks at the extent to which the individual perceives success or failure in the career selected. Career selection is perceived to be influenced by some factors which may encourage or trigger a person to pursue that career in his or her lifetime. Teaching as a career is also another choice that has been opted by other people after considering a lot of factors that motivate in that field. In other get these factors right, a model was developed by some researchers which helps to know and choose correctly to be fully convinced about the career.
Factors influencing teaching choice model was developed by Watt and Richardson (2007) to provide or give a comprehensive and coherent framework to guide the systematic investigation into the motives behind the teaching profession as a career by students. The model put together themes from the teacher education literature that has been known with teaching career choice and the ability related beliefs regarding the profession. The framework conceptualizes both the altruistic type of motivations that have been highlighted in the teacher education literature (Moran, Kilpatrick, Abbott, Dallat & McClune, 2001) along with personally utilitarian motivations which are the intrinsic motivations together with the ability-related beliefs which are also seen to be the central point of career choice (Lent, Lopez, & Bieschke, 1993).
The concept of teaching in its broadest sense may be described as the process whereby a teacher or an instructor guides a learner or a group of learners to acquire a higher level of knowledge or skills (Nilsen & Albertalli, 2002). Desforges (1995) also describes teaching as the management of pupils’ experience, which largely occurs in the classrooms with a deliberate intention of promoting their learning. Teaching has repeatedly been described as a science or an art. As a ‘science’, teaching is believed to integrate a body of systematized knowledge on teaching methodology, human development and human learning or educational psychology (Tamakloe, Amadahe & Atta, 2005).
Teaching as an ‘art’ on the other hand embraces students by way of inducing them to behave in a manner that is assumed to lead to learning, including an attempt to induce students to behave (Schlechty, 2004). Therefore teaching as an “art” could mean that the teacher, with his or her experiences, could create a jovial situation to facilitate the learning by way of motivating the learners in the classroom in order to have an interest in whatever is being transmitted to them. Teaching should therefore not be viewed as merely dispensing of a subject or lesson but an art which involves the students in the teaching and learning process where the student is given the opportunity to participate fully in the process and where the teacher is also accepting each student and has a favourable attitude towards each individual differences (Melby, 1994). There must always be a cordial relationship between the students and the teacher in order to eschew sarcastic statements, ridicule them to fish out their problems in the classroom (Ababio, 2013).
Thring (2001) affirms that the pouring out of knowledge is not teaching. The mere act of speaking and listening to lessons cannot be termed as teaching. Teaching involves all the means that adopted to the heart and mind of the learner for the learner to value and believe that learning is possible in his or her own unique way. Smith (2004), describes teaching as the actions that result in learning. Ferrant (1980), also sides with Smith’s assertion that teaching is the act of facilitating learning.
All the above description of teaching shows that teaching is not the provision of information to the learner but rather goes beyond such a simple process. Teaching includes how the learner assimilates what is taught, interacts with it, and receives guidance and feedback from the teacher. Teaching is expected to guide students not to string them along, nor suppress them but to open the way for them by means of making sure not spoon-feed them learning concepts but to help them get the necessary concepts themselves. And when this is achieved then, we say teaching has taken place (Knott & Mutunga, 1993). Effective teaching, therefore, involves that which leads to improved student achievement using outcomes that matter to their future success. Teachers may often teach within a context or framework of assumptions that shape their planning and interactive decisions. The teacher’s beliefs and understanding of teaching, as well as learning, play an important role in their classroom practices and in their professional growth (Kuzborska, 2011). According to Harste and Burke (1977), teachers must at times make decisions in relation to classroom instruction in light of the theoretical beliefs that, they hold concerning teaching and learning. These beliefs go a long way to influence their goals, procedures, materials, classroom interaction patterns, their roles, their students, and the schools of which they teach. Hence, it is argued that if theoretical orientation is a major determinant of how teachers act during instruction, then teacher educators can affect classroom practice by ensuring that teachers develop a theoretical orientation that is “reflective of current and pertinent research in the field” (Cummins, Cheek, & Lindsey, 2004). Theories of teaching are therefore central to how every teacher understands the nature and importance of classroom practices. The traditional “chalk and talk” lecture approach with the student as the passive recipient of knowledge may not be suitable for today’s generation. Even though the traditional lecture approach method has its own advantages, it has become increasingly critical that teachers employ a wide range of pedagogies and strategies to encourage students’ participation which often involves learning by doing. Learning by “doing” is a theme that many teachers have stressed since John Dewey’s convincing argument that children must be engaged in an active quest for learning new ideas (Serbessa, 2006). Learners should be presented with real-life problems and then helped to discover the information required to solve them (Dewey, 1966). Research has identified that learning is generally more effective if it is based on experiences; either direct experiences or indirect experiences. There has thus been a shift from the traditional role of teaching to the modern role in the present context of education (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).
Teaching, like any other profession, depends on a skill and knowledge base (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005) which suggests that teaching as an activity, will require individual teachers to develop skills and knowledge through an approach that draws on their experiences and understanding as well as their personal principles and theories of teaching.
Educational institutions are charged with the task of providing learning experiences that are expected to lead learners from the gloom of ignorance to the light of knowledge. Since the teacher is often seen as the most important constituent in any educational institution, the competency level, sensitivity and teacher motivation should not be taken for granted. Because teachers are the final implementers of the syllabus in every institution, the quality and the extent of learner’s achievement may be determined by the teachers. A report by the UNESCO also defines teacher education as the pre-service and in- service programmes which look at both formal and non-formal approaches through a continuing process which focuses on teacher career development. Kanayo (2012) also described teacher education as a thought of any programme that is related to the development of teacher proficiency and competence that is expected to enable and empower the teacher in training to meet the requirement of the profession and faces the challenges associated with the teaching profession.
According to Florian and Rouse (2009), the task of initial teacher education is to train people to enter a profession which welcomes individuals and collectively improves the learning and the participation of all children. Savolainen (2009), also states that, teachers play a very vital role in quality education and quotes McKinsey and company who said, “the quality of an educational system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers” Some studies (Sanders & Horn, 1998) also suggest that the quality of a teacher plays a major role in the learner’s achievement than any other factor like the class size or class composition. The quest for ‘high quality’ teachers is equipped to meet the needs of all learners as evident to provide not only equal opportunities for all but also education for an inclusive society. Reynolds (1990) also posits that teacher education is the knowledge, beliefs and values of the teacher that are displayed in creating an effective learning environment for pupils, making the teacher a critical influence in education for inclusion and the development of the inclusive school.
Teachers are presented like managers that need a special body of knowledge and set of skills. The nature of the various subject areas as formal academic disciplines, the objectives for teaching various subjects, the competencies demanded their teaching and learning and the varied methods and materials required for teaching makes it vital for every teacher to possess a repertoire of knowledge, qualities, attitudes and values. Shulman (1987), asserts that every professionally trained teacher should possess some specific characteristics. These characteristics include content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, curriculum knowledge, knowledge of learners and their characteristics, knowledge of educational context/human relations, pedagogical content knowledge/teacher craft knowledge and knowledge of educational ends.
Many teacher education programmes thus encompass teaching skills, sound pedagogical theory and professional skills (Joshi & Latha, 2014). It is concerned with playing a critical role in empowering trainee teachers’ capacities in content knowledge and pedagogical skills to equip the greater majority of individual students to adapt to the rapidly changing social, economic and cultural environment to ensure the development of human capital required for the economic and social growth of societies (Anamuah Mensah, 1997). An amalgamation of teaching skills, pedagogical theory and professional skills would serve to create the right knowledge, attitude and skills in teachers, thus promoting the holistic development of the student- teacher (Sachar, 2015). Generally, teacher education programmes includes four elements which imbibe the teaching skills, pedagogical theory and professional skills; improving the general educational background of the trainee teachers; increasing their knowledge and understanding of the subjects they are to teach; pedagogy and understanding of children and learning; and the development of practical skills and competences (Joshi & Latha, 2014).
The balance between these four elements varies widely (Perraton, 2010), however the changing workforce and the need for the 21st century skills have called for an effective education programme that prepares all learners for a full and productive life, making it no longer the issue of simply transmitting information that students memorize and store for future use (Barron & Darling-Hammond,2008). Teacher education in the 21st century is expected to focus on aiding student teachers to learn how to teach, so they can manage the demands of their changing profession, technologies, and social conditions. It also focuses on some relevant aspects of teaching such as, who (Teacher Educator), whom (Student teacher), what (Content) and how (Teaching Strategy).
Although there are similarities for most aspects of teacher education, The way in which teacher education is organized varies in many ways both within and across countries. Some of these variances are high in the sense that, they are likely to have a considerable impact on the amount, scope, and nature of the opportunities to learn offered to future teachers as well as on what those teachers actually learn (Ingvarson et al., 2013). Teacher education is expected to empower student teachers with the skills (teaching and soft skills) that would enable them to carry on teaching in the most efficient and effective manner. Teacher education also pays attention to its content matter (Joshi & Latha, 2014) that has become necessary for an effective teaching and learning process. Teacher education programmes give training to the student teachers to be well equipped in the profession, through an increasing range and types of preparation programmes.
Many teacher education programmes, primarily prepare those we call the “early deciders,” take the traditional route of teaching by preparing student teachers to teach while they are in college, either in four- or five-year programmes of study. Much attention is given to the subject matter of which they will teach. Many students often pursue the teacher education programme with beliefs, values, commitments, personalities and moral codes from their background and schooling which may affect who they are as teachers and what they are able to learn through teacher education (Sachar, 2015).
Encouraging teacher candidate, also asses their beliefs and values in terms of teaching, learning and the subject matter by way of helping the student teachers to develop a good image of teaching expected to guide and stimulate their learning and work which is, therefore, the central task of the teacher education (Feiman-Nemser, 2001). According to Glattenhorn (1987), by gaining increased experience in one’s teaching role, student teachers should systematically gain increased experience in their professional growth through an examination of their teaching ability. Teacher education in several ways has become more sensitive to the emerging demands from the school system since teachers are being prepared to operate in a larger context and to handle the dynamics as well as concerns which impinge upon her functioning (Sachar, 2015). In order to encourage the new teachers begin to apply the knowledge gained through the teacher education programmes to the classroom, most preparation programme should include a range of guided field experiences under the tutelage of a more experienced classroom teacher and/or a university supervisor. Teachers’ pre-service programmes may differ in the approach they take. But in general, teachers can be expected to bring this knowledge and experience to their first position. The entire process of teacher education is therefore dependent on its curriculum design, structure, organization and transaction modes as well as the extent of appropriateness (Kanayo, 2012). Nonetheless, it is very crucial for teachers to understand that they hardly ever finish learning about the profession they have chosen.
Teaching practice resides in a key position in every teacher education programme. It is a culminating experience in teacher preparation which helps to provide an opportunity to beginning teachers to become socialized into the teaching profession (Furlong, Hirst, Pocklington, & Miles, 2014). A number of terms such as the practice teaching, student teaching, teaching practice, field studies, infield experience, school-based experience or internship are used to refer to this activity (Taneja, 2000). It embraces all the learning experiences of student teachers in schools. According to Stones and Morris (2012), the term practice teaching has three major connotations: the practising of teaching skills and acquisition of the role of a teacher; the whole range of experiences that students go through in school and the practical aspects of the course as distinct from theoretical studies. Teaching practice is thus the preparation of student teachers for teaching through practical training which involves the practical use of teaching methods, teaching strategies, teaching principles, teaching techniques, practical training and practice or exercise of different activities of daily school life (Gujjar, Naoreen, Saifi & Bajwa, 2010)
The popularity and criticality of teaching practice is a relevant contributing factor to the quality of teacher education programmes. This is likely due to the fact that the teacher trainee’s performance during teaching practice often provides a basis for predicting the future success of the teacher.
During teaching practice, pre-service teachers feel themselves growing through experience and begin to link to a culture of teaching. They often feel involved, challenged and even empowered (Trowbridge & Bybee, 2006). Teaching practice exposes teacher trainees to the activity of preparing for teaching by way of practical training. According to Akbar (2002) teaching practice often have a number of objectives which helps to;
1. to provide the prospective teachers with an opportunity of establishing an appropriate teacher-pupil relationship,
2. provide an opportunity for evaluating the student potential as a teacher and suitability for the teaching profession,
3. develop a personal relationship with others: administrators, teachers, parents and students,
4. provide the future teacher with practical experience in school to overcome the problems of discipline and enable him/her to develop a method of control, and
5. provide an opportunity for the trainee to put theories into practice and to develop a deeper understanding of educational principles and their implication for learning. These objectives suggest that teaching practice is not only a learning experience but also an opportunity for pre-service teachers to acquaint themselves with the practical school environment and to gather skills and knowledge that were not fully assimilated during the theoretical aspect of their studies which may be evident in the practical experience of teaching.
Teaching practice plays a crucial role in all teacher education programmes because it provides an avenue that allows student teachers to develop the knowledge and skills necessary for the teaching profession. Every institution has its own beliefs and considerations about what should constitute effective teaching practice. An institution’s philosophy of teaching practice is thus all that the institution accepts as part of its teaching practice. In the University of Cape Coast, teaching practice is organized into two main phases; micro-teaching (on-campus teaching practice) and field experiences (off- campus teaching practice).
The on-campus teaching practice (ONCTP) in UCC is mainly concentrated on helping student teachers in their third year of study to acquire knowledge and skills peculiar to the teaching profession through peer teaching under the supervision of trained professionals to help improve their future classroom skills. The off-campus teaching practice, on the other hand, exposes students in their final year of study to an extended period of actual school teaching experience under the guidance of experienced and trained university supervisors and mentors selected from individual host schools. According to the teaching practice handbook, the philosophy that guides teaching the practice in the University of Cape Coast is based on the knowledge that teaching is an activity intended to promote learning while taking into consideration the fact that there is no one best approach for achieving such intended outcomes.
The College of Education Studies views teaching practice as an opportunity to provide students with knowledge, skills and experiences as may be required by students within an enabling environment that places a priority on the need for diversity. This environment is expected to provide avenues for problem-solving, experimentation and discovery of proper teaching strategies. Again, teaching practice is expected to provide an atmosphere that stimulates critical questioning and discussions aimed at proper construction of knowledge for both the learner and the teacher as well as to foster the reflective capacities of observation, analysis, critical thinking and decision making for the teacher in particular (University of Cape Coast, 2013).
The University of Cape Coast responds positively to the fact that effective teaching is dependent on good mastery of subject matter; demonstration of effective use of diverse teaching techniques, strategies and resources; warm interpersonal relationships and thoughtful reflection on practice. It also recognizes the school and classroom settings where teaching and learning take place as an indeterminate, dynamic and knotty environment which requires a teacher to be a reflective practitioner. Teaching practice has its relevance in its ability to provide intense training and socialization for teacher trainees in all aspects of the teaching profession both in and outside the classroom (Chiang, 2008). It serves as an outlet for exposing the realities of teaching and the performance of professional activities to teacher trainees even before they enter into the profession.
Research has indicated that teacher trainees value the teaching practice component of their teacher education programmes (Chiang, 2008). It is also equally important for teacher trainees to have a feel of the intensiveness of the teaching profession through initial training to help minimize the difficulties associated with translating theoretical ideas into practice as experienced by many (Bhargava, 2009). According to Vieira and Marques (2002), the quality of teacher development practices has become a major concern in recent educational discourse with a growing emphasis on a reflective approach which has necessitated the need for quality to be assessed through reflection with reference to teacher empowerment. This reflective process involves continuous self-observation and evaluation of the trainee to understand individual actions and reactions of learners (Brookfield, 2012).
People may often learn and create knowledge by critically reflecting upon their activities and experiences, forming abstract concepts and testing the implications of these concepts in new situations. The ability to reflect is often regarded as an important attribute of effective teachers (O’Donoghue & Brooker, 2006,), thus the University of Cape Coast has integrated into its training programmes to give trainees the opportunity to acquire such skills before and during the OFCTP.
Teacher education training programmes offer two main types of knowledge; the received knowledge and experiential knowledge (Wallace, 1991). According to him, received knowledge include all theoretical knowledge handed down from experts while experiential knowledge comes from the trainee’s direct contact with the real context of teaching. Teaching as one of several professions whose mission is to effect desirable changes in human learning abilities and behaviour in our society (Afram, 2001) requires members of the profession to undergo both academic and professional training to acquire skills and techniques evident in the work of teaching. The off- campus teaching practice is a critical aspect of every teacher training programme because it is a period which provides teacher trainees with the first-hand experience in working with a particular group of students in a school setting (Perry, 2003). In UCC, OFCTP is cooperative endeavours in which host schools work closely with the University to provide quality practical experiences for teacher trainees. It is structured as a clinical component of the teacher education programme to provide practical experiences to final year students for a semester duration as part of the teacher preparation programme within the University. Trainees are provided guidance and assistance from professors, supervisors and co-operating school teachers (Al-Mahrooqi, 2011)
According to Ligadu (2004), the essence of the teaching practicum is to integrate educational theory with practice. This is capitalised on the assumption that the practicum will provide teacher trainees with the opportunity to develop a professional identity, be able to teach and to participate in multiple complex and concrete experiences essential for meaningful teaching and learning. The University of Cape Coast holds that teaching practice is not only a process of learning to teach but also teaching to learn, thus to facilitate this process, the University believes that student teachers must experience an extended period of school placement under the guidance of experienced mentors and university supervisors. Students must be prepared not only for work in classrooms but also for work in schools and communities. The supervisor and teacher trainees are the two main parties of concern during teaching practice. Each has a set of responsibility to carry out during teaching practice. The College of Education Studies has also documented in the teaching practice handbook (University of Cape Coast, 2013) rules and regulations that teacher trainees are expected to strictly adhere to during the OFCTP. These rules clearly state that student teachers are expected to teach for a minimum of 14 periods and a maximum of 18 periods. Students are also expected to prepare detailed notes of what is to be taught in a bound notebook which is to be made available to all supervisors.
Again, students are to remain in their host schools whether or not they have a lesson. If for any reason, a teacher trainee has to leave the school before the normal daily session is over, a written request for permission must be lodged with the head of the host school. After every visit by a supervisor, teacher trainees are to request a copy of the supervisor’s report (Form B) which enables them to know their performance. It is also expressly stated and in categorical terms that for the trainee’s own interest; he/she should welcome advice and criticism from experienced staff and supervisors and feel free to present problems in connection with their teaching to supervisors. These rules and regulations are expected to ensure that the teacher trainee is well-groomed for the teaching profession. Tamakloe (1999) indicates that the student’s knowledge of rules and regulations governing teaching practice helps to equip him/her with facts about what to expect and what not to and from whom and where. This also provides caution to a student about their individual conduct. Knowledge of such rules and regulations saves and shields the teacher trainee from embarrassing situations and provides adequate information about the workings of the practice (Tamakloe, 1999). Student teaching has been described as the most challenging, rewarding and critical stage of teacher education (Geothal & Howard, 2000). It is also generally agreed that students teaching experience is key for every teacher preparation programme (Guyton & McIntyre, 1990)
Due to the inability or the frustration people go through in choosing a desired career, this conceptual framework was constructed to make it very explicit to the students who have the desire to take teaching as a career in their life journey. The construct emphasis the potential elements that will help to enable the students to actually understand the career of which they are going for. This teaching choice model was developed by Watt and Richardson (2007) to provide or give a comprehensive and coherent framework to guide the systematic investigation into the motives behind the teaching profession as a career by students.
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Figure 1: FIT-Choice empirically validated model
Source: Watt and Richardson (2012).
The framework include two higher-order factors: personal utility values (which includes the first-order latent factors of job security, time for family, job transferability) and social utility values (which includes the first- order latent factors of shape future of children/adolescents, enhance social equity, make social contribution, and work with children/adolescents). There are also the first-order latent motivation factors of social influences, prior teaching and learning experiences, ability, and intrinsic value. Each first-order motivation factor is represented by three items within the scale (with the exception of the time for a family factor which is represented by five items). All the motivation items in the model scale are prefaced with the following statement; “I chose to become a teacher because of...”. The constructs on perceptions of teaching and the decision to become a teacher also consist of two higher-order factors: task demand (which includes the first-order latent factors of expertise and diﬃculty, both represented through three items each) and task return (which includes the first-order latent factors of social status, represented through six items and salary, represented through two items) The six constructs also include the first-order factors of social dissuasion and satisfaction with choice, both represented through three items each (Watt & Richardson, 2008).
Watt and Richardson adjusted and applied the expectancy-value theory for measuring ‘why individuals choose teaching as a career’ (Watt & Richardson 2007, p. 170). In general, the expectancy-value theory suggests that values, ability and beliefs are very crucial in predicting career choices. Intrinsic motivation stems from intrinsic values and refers to the enjoyment one gets from performing a task (Watt & Richardson, 2007). In a similar vein, utility values influence the extrinsic motivation and refer to the extent to which a task is likely to be useful in the future. Altruistic motivation stems from personal values. This theoretical framework provides the basis for the FIT–choice scale, a scale to study the factors influencing the choice for a teaching career, which is used in this study. Drawing on other motivational theories, the authors believe that “educational, vocational and other achievement-related choices are most directly related to two sets of beliefs; the individual's expectations for success and the importance or value the individual attaches to the various options perceived by the individual as available” (Eccles, 2005, p. 105). These two sets of beliefs are influenced by multiple variables derived from the surrounding social world and cognitive processes as shown in Figure 1.
Socialization, as stated on the framework, can be explained as the process whereby an individual learns different aspects of life by interacting with other people from his or her environment. The socialization phenomenon is the process of learning from different peoples and individuals regardless of their age and sex. Every individual has to be acquainted with the rules of the social group he/she belongs to. A social group may be in a form of family, teenager crowd, army or a country. Socialization is the process whereby a person lives in strict accordance with the way of life that society leads. The influence of socialization becomes obvious in everything. This process includes all aspects of everyday life, such as principles, values, rules of life and goals people set up and share with one another. The first and the most prominent part of the socialization process is the family . The family has a great influence upon every individual and also affects the individual’s because family members are the closest people and most of their time is spent with them as part of their life. They are the first people in the world who teach the young ones how to live and what principles to stick to. Family is a nation in miniature where some rules are established and it is also the first place where lessons are learnt and interaction also takes place with the people of our environment. Peers also might have one of the most important influences on a person’s life next to the family. People get used to trusting their peers and spend most of their time with them that leads to some kind of isolation from other social groups. The other part of social development in school. The school years play an exceptionally important role in the socialization process of the young generation
Personal utility value as a high-order factor which motivates students- teacher to take teaching as a career as stated on the framework can be explained to include job security, time for family, and job transferability. Job security as stated can be explained as the means of providing a reliable income with a steady career path. Whist job transferability means that the teacher can be sent to any place to work has a teacher since the teaching qualification is recognized everywhere. After going through all these factors, then the social utility value is also considered.
The social utility value is explained to include the shaping of the future of children or adolescents, enhancing social equity, making a social contribution and prior teaching and learning experiences. In terms of shaping the future of the children, it is basically talking about the teacher having access to influence and imparting knowledge to the future generation. Whereas enhancing social equity explains the teacher being able to raise the ambitions of the under-privilege youth. Making social contribution also explains the teacher being able to provide good services to the society as a means of bringing improvement to the society and finally on this factor, the prior teaching experiences also motivates a lot of the students teachers to take the teaching profession as a career since these students teachers had good teachers as role models with positive learning experiences.
Task demand is also another high-order factor that student-teacher weighs and access very well before making a decision on whether they will like the teaching profession or not. Task demand as stated in the framework can also be explained having in mind that teaching will require a high level of knowledge in the teaching profession. That is whether teachers will need that high level of technical knowledge before they can teach. In other words, to know if the profession requires a heavy workload.
Task return also signifies another high-order factor that motivates students-teachers to take teaching as a career. This factor can be explained to include social status, salary, social dissuasion and the satisfaction gained with the choice made as a means of motivation. Social status can be explained as the perception that people in the society have about the profession as to whether it is a high-status occupation which raises arguments like whether the profession is well respected, or does the profession has a high a morale. Salary on the other hand basically talks about the pay that will be attached to the profession. Whist the social dissuasion also explains whether the decision to take teaching as a career was initiated or influenced by friends or family members. The satisfaction with the career explains how happy the person chose the profession will be in the career considered.
This section takes care of the studies conducted by other researchers which are related to the problem under investigation in this study. It critically examines the works conducted in the area of student-teachers motivation to take the teaching profession as a career. A review of the literature on motivations for choosing teaching as a career highlighted intrinsic, altruistic and extrinsic motivations as the most important groups of reasons influencing teaching career choice (Brookhart & Freeman, 1992). The passion for teaching plays a major role in society by educating the young ones in the society as a sign of giving back to society. Having a positive teaching experience at school are described as having a good intrinsic and altruistic motivation for entering the teaching profession (Brookhart & Freeman, 1992; Farka, Johnson, & Foleno, 2000; Reif & Warring, 2002; Richardson & Watt, 2006). Accordingly, much research has been conducted into motivations for choosing teaching as a career across subject disciplines and diﬀerent jurisdictions (Brookhart & Freeman, 1992; Eren & Tezel, 2010; Jarvis & Woodrow, 2005; Lortie & Clement, 1975; Mori, 1965; Richardson & Watt, 2005; Wang & Guthrie, 2004; Watt & Richardson, 2007, 2008). In an earlier study involving 556 student teachers studying at Michigan State University, Mori (1965, p. 182) concluded that “motivations for becoming a teacher derived from five components – Economic, Social, Interpersonal, Intellectual, and Ethical”. In a meta-analysis that reviewed 44 studies, Brookhart and Freeman (1992, p. 46) suggested that “altruistic, service-oriented goals and other intrinsic sources of motivation” were the primary reasons provided for choosing teaching as a career. More recent studies also highlighted that the desire to work with children, the potential for intellectual fulfilment, and the opportunity to make a meaningful social contribution were the primary motives for choosing teaching as a career (Kyriacou & Coulthard, 2000; Watt & Richardson, 2012). Comparing these studies and their findings, however, remains very diﬃcult as they “lacked an integrative theoretical framework to guide their selection and the organisation of their influential factors” (Richardson & Watt, 2006, p. 31).
In order to address this limitation and provide a valid and reliable framework for investigating motivations for choosing teaching as a career, Watt and Richardson (2007) developed the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT- Choice) scale. The FIT-Choice scale, designed by Watt and Richardson (2007), provides a theoretical and analytical framework to guide systematic investigation into motivations for choosing teaching as a future career. It was developed in response to the absence of a common framework for research in the area and a proliferation of studies on teaching motivations using divergent scales and questionnaires which often failed to provide a platform for comparisons across subsamples and settings (Watt & Richardson, 2012), this scale acts as a coherent framework which draws together recurrent themes within prior studies in the field and general career choice literature.
Employing the FIT-Choice Scale for the first time as part of a large- scale study in 2006, Richardson and Watt conducted a study across three Australian universities in order to explore, amongst other factors, teaching motivations and perceptions about the profession. The results of this research identified the highest-rated motivations for choosing teaching as; perceived teaching abilities, the intrinsic value of teaching, and the desire to make a social contribution shape the future, and work with children/adolescents. The lowest rated motivation was noted as choosing teaching as a “fallback” career, followed by the social influences of others. Within the Dutch context, the primacy of self-perception of teaching-related ability was also noted amongst teachers in a study employing the use of the FIT-Choice scale (Fokkens- Bruinsma & Canrinus, 2012). Similarly, findings from the Turkish teacher education context, using this scale, identified the highest-rated motivations of teachers in this jurisdiction as; personal utility, along with social utility and prior teaching and learning experiences highly (Akar, 2012). This is supported by the earlier work of Eren and Tezel (2010), using the FIT-Choice scale, with respect to a sub-cohort of English teachers in the Turkish context. However, contrary to the findings of Richardson and Watt (2006), one-fourth of the participants in Turkey stated that they would have chosen a diﬀerent career if their university entrance exam scores had been higher (Akar, 2012).
Subsequently, in an international FIT-Choice scale comparison study carried out by Watt and Richardson (2012) across samples within Australia, the United States, Germany, and Norway, motivations for teaching were noted to hold more similarities than diﬀerences. Five common motivations were emergent within the study, namely; intrinsic value, perceived teaching ability, the desire to make a social contribution, to work with children/adolescents, and having had positive prior teaching and learning experiences. Factors deemed to be of minor influence were the personal utility values of job security and time for family, and the desire to enhance social equity, with social influences of friends, family, and co-workers were noted to be the least influential motivating factors. A consensus also emerged amongst the samples in this study regarding the perception of teaching as a career-high in task demand. However, divergences of opinions were noted across these countries concerning additional perceptions about teaching. Acknowledging the outlined findings on the suitability of the FIT-Choice scale across the variety of jurisdictions, this simply means that, the influential factors found on the framework varies from one country to the other. This means that the factor that suits or motivate European teachers may not favour that of Ghanaian teachers.
Similar findings were found in the Dutch sampled by Fokkens- Bruinsma and Canrinus (2012a). They found that ability and work with children were the most important factors for choosing the teaching profession. Similarly, Konig and Rothland (2012) also conducted a study on influential factors of becoming a teacher and found that, work with children/adolescents, intrinsic career value and shape the future of children/adolescents, and teaching abilities to be among the most influential factors; however, social influences and fall back career were the least influential ones. They also found that fall back career was negatively associated with intrinsic motivations and social utility values. In a similar study by Lin et al. (2012) with samples from the US and China, participants from both countries rated social utility values among the most influential factors. Again, social influences and fallback career were the least influential factors for participants from both the US and China.
Another study was also carried out by Fokkens-Bruinsma and Canrinus (2012b) on the Dutch prospective teachers. They found ability and intrinsic values as being the highest-rated ones. Time for family, job transferability, social influences, and fallback career factors were rated below under the scale mean, suggesting that these factors were not influential on participants’ decision.
Similar studies were also carried out in Turkey using the FIT-Choice scale. In these studies (Eren & Tezel, 2010; Ozturk Akar, 2012; Topkaya & Uztosun, 2012), social utility values such as enhance social equity, make a social contribution, shape future of children/adolescents were found to be mostly highly rated. Moreover, the results of these studies showed that teacher candidates did not choose teaching as a fallback career as being rated well below the scale mid-point. Although there is one research finding (Mtika & Gates, 2011) in which teaching was chosen as a last resort, studies summarized above show that individuals choose teaching more likely for reasons other than as a fallback career.
However, Hennesey and Lynch (2017), investigated the suitability of the FIT choice scale for use within an Irish initial teacher education setting with a cohort of first-year pre-service teachers (n = 143), across five different subject disciplines. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine participants’ motivations for choosing teaching as a career as well as their perception about teaching. Prior teaching and learning experiences, as well as perceived ability, were found to be the strongest influential factors in participants decision to become a teacher. These findings further highlighted the prominence given to subject based-knowledge in Ireland. The relationships between participants’ motivation for becoming a teacher and their satisfaction with career were also examined. Choosing teaching as a fallback career was negatively related to satisfaction whereas a desire to work with children was found to be a significant positive predictor.
Regarding motivation for the teaching profession, the most common division found in the literature is on intrinsic (passion for teaching and interest for the subjects taught), extrinsic (job security, salary, holidays and flexibility) and altruistic motivation (serving children and society) (Brookhart & Freeman, 1992; Kyriacou & Coulthard, 2000). This is often simplified to just intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, with intrinsic motivation including what other authors define as altruistic orientation (Marsh, 1990; Morgan, Kilpatrick, Abbott, Dallat, & McClune, 2001; OECD, 2005; Sinclair et al., 2006). The desire to work with children and adolescents has been proven to be the key reason for choosing a career in teaching (Fokkens-Bruinsma & Canrinus, 2014; Watt & Richardson, 2008) and the key source of satisfaction among teachers (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2011).
In addition, a comprehensive international study (OECD, 2005) revealed that people opt for the teaching profession because it enables intellectual fulfilment and represents a tool for making contributions to changes in society. Other researchers also investigated the reasons why entering student teachers enrolled in teacher education programs and ultimately become teachers. They found out that, the most commonly reasons include, the perceived teaching ability: an appreciation of the intrinsic value of teaching: the desire to make social contribution, shape the future and also work children: a personal interest in the subject area and job security (Brookhart & Freeman, 1992, Ok & Onkol, 2007; Richardson & Watt, 2006). An examination of the career plans of entering student teachers indicates that many do not plan to teach for the entire lengths of their careers. West and Brousseau (1987). They also found out that, the majority of the student teachers (94%) in sample planned to work as teachers, for a minimum of five years. But only a few students about (57%) planned to teach for 10 years or more. Freeman, (1998) reported that the overall commitment to teaching among student teachers is very high and it does not relate to academic ability.
Apart from Ghana, studies in other countries have also indicated that there are several factors influencing teaching choice and why teachers leave or stay in the profession. For example, in New Zealand, the US and Nigeria, Anthony and Ord (2008), Claeys (2011) and Ipidapo-Obe (2007), respectively, have identified attractive salaries and job recognition as both influential and decision factors affecting a teaching choice. These findings apparently contrast with findings in other countries, such as Singapore and Australia, where Mathew (2005), and Watt and Richardson (2007, 2012), respectively, have found, rather, that job security, time for family and desire to make social contributions are influential and decision factors. Altogether these factors have been noted to be external and internal to teachers (den Brok et al., 2013). The multifaceted nature of these factors gives an indication that would-be teachers and practising teachers in different countries might be influenced by different factors, both in making teaching a career choice and in deciding to stay in teaching.
Other previous studies have pointed to the existence of extensive research on teacher motivation all over the world. In Ghana, for instance, some studies by Tawia-Armah (2010) and Mensah (2011) have shown that working in rural schools is considerably more difficult and does more de- motivating than working in urban schools. According to their studies, the de- motivating factor was mainly due to unbearable living and working conditions in remote areas.
Other studies by Agezo (2010) and Asadullah (2006) have established that teachers who work in Ghanaian schools as natives tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than their colleagues who are non-natives. This is because locally based teachers are more likely to have supported to extended family and social networks, be known to the community and have higher levels of commitment to promoting education and development activities in the area (Asadullah, 2006; Agezo, 2010).
Turning our attention to other developing African countries, in Gambia, Cowen (2007), in a research reported on teachers’ motivations and perceptions of their profession, and revealed that 28% of teachers interviewed had the desire to leave the profession in the following five years to seek perceived better working conditions in other professions. It is interesting to note that most teachers who are not happy with the professions but choose to stay in the profession often engage in substandard professional practices such as absenteeism, lateness and misuse of instructional times (Salifu & Agbenyega 2013). For example, it is on record that in Malawi, Kenya and Uganda, absentee rates among primary school teachers are high and stand at 18, 20 and 27%, respectively (Tanaka, 2010). These rates compare to an equally 27% high rate among teachers at the same level in Ghana (Ghana Centre for Democratic Development, 2008). In Nigeria, Ipidapo-Obe (2007) and Ololube (2006) have revealed that teacher-related sources of job dissatisfaction seem to have a greater impact on teacher performance. The dissatisfaction has largely been attributed to unattractive pay and the lack of recognition for the teaching profession. Elsewhere in the developed world, the UNESCO and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) have reported that contemporary teacher attrition rates even in the developed countries are high and vary between 5 and 30% (Salifu & Agbenyega, 2013).
In Germany, for example, it is reported that less than 10% of teachers stay in the teaching profession until retirement (Watt et al., 2012). In the United Kingdom, the number of teachers leaving the profession through premature retirement far exceeds the number staying until retirement (Barmby & Coe, 2004). In the Czech Republic, it is estimated that about 25% of the young, newly trained teachers do not join the teaching profession (Smithers & Robinson, 2003). Similarly, in Australia, estimations are that about 25% of teachers leave the profession within their initial five years of professional practice (Fourie, 2010). However, in Hong Kong, teacher attrition appears minimal with a wastage rate of only between 3.9 and 9.3% in the primary sector and between 3.9 and 6.6% in the secondary sector from 2001 to 2009 (Choi & Tang, 2011). This minimal rate in Hong Kong has been attributed to factors such as payment of competitive wages and better recognition for the teachers. Despite the seemingly gloomy picture regarding the teaching profession painted above, Watt and Richardson’s (2012) international comparative research has presented a rather more positive picture of the profession. According to them, in Australia, it is not uncommon to find many people (young men and women) from diverse career backgrounds including engineering, medicine, veterinary surgery, solicitors, accountants, psychologists and company executives leaving their more prestigious and lucrative professions to pursue teaching as a career. And it might be interesting to explore what motivates other professionals to choose teaching.
Studies regarding the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques for investigation, based their interpretations on the traditional classification of intrinsic, extrinsic and altruistic attractors. For example, Hayes (cited in Moran & Lu, 2001) found that in a cohort of American students entering teaching had altruistic reasons such as making a positive difference in the lives of children were more significant. Similarly, Stiegelbauer (cited in Fullan, 1993) reported that in her study with Canadian prospective teachers, the need to make a difference to students and society as well as the desire to be role models for students emerged as the main themes for entering the profession. Darling-Hammond (2002), in a small-scale study including trainee teachers of information and communication technology, found that trainees frequently drew upon their own past experience of teaching as well as their own interest to explain their career choice. On the other hand, in their comparative study of Norwegian and British pre-service teachers, Kyriacou, Hultgren and Stephens (1999) reported that the participants rated “enjoying teaching” and “enjoying working with children” higher than the other factors, placing more emphasis on intrinsic reasons.
Yet, in another study, Sinclair (2008) found that prospective teachers are multi-motivated. In her study, the primary pre-service teachers stated to have the necessary qualities and attributes to be teachers and to work with children as their basic sources of motivation to become teachers besides the factor that they found teaching intellectually stimulating. As can be seen, it is difficult to generalize the reasons why students choose teaching as a career. The variety in their responses may be due to the cultural, social, and economic contexts they live in (Kyriacou et al., 1999) as well as the subject areas they will teach. In another study, Watt and Richardson (2007), on the other hand, used a comprehensive scale named Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT- Choice), which they developed (Richardson & Watt, 2006) heavily relying on the expectancy-value theory. They conducted the study with pre-service teachers enrolled in three Australian universities and found that perceived teaching abilities, the intrinsic value of teaching and the desire to make a social contribution were the highest-rated motivations. As stated in the introduction, in Turkey not many studies have been conducted. Those undertaken, however, present different results. For example, in one of the earlier studies Saban (2003) found that prospective elementary school teachers considered altruistic reasons to be more important and the extrinsic ones such as getting a secure job and a steady monthly income as more influential than intrinsic reasons in their career choice. In another study, Gürbüz and Sülün (2004) reported that prospective biology teachers were primarily motivated by their love for biology, while they rated the extrinsic motive of “job security” as the second reason for choosing teaching career. Similarly, Kılınç and Mahiroğlu’s (2009) study on biology pre-service teachers yielded the same results. According to the findings of a qualitative study carried out by Boz and Boz (2008), prospective chemistry and mathematics teachers were influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic values emphasizing that especially prior positive experience with the subject itself and teachers play a determining role on the choice of teaching career.
In a large-scale study Aksu, Denir, Daloglu, Yildirim and Kiraz (2010) investigated the profiles of prospective teachers from different teaching programs and found that more than half of the students voluntarily chose to become teachers. On the other hand, the same group of participants reported more extrinsic reasons such as job security, flexible hours and holidays as well as the possibility of engaging in secondary employment as motives that led them to select teaching for a profession. Özsoy et al. (2010) also conducted a large-scale study comprising pre-service teachers from four universities and found that the majority of the participants chose teaching, not as a “fallback” career, that is the last-resort one, but because it was their ideal to teach. Based on this sample of studies done in Turkey, it could be concluded that Turkish prospective teachers of different subject areas are primarily led by intrinsic and altruistic reasons but also heavily affected by extrinsic factors such as job security and regular income.
Many Researchers have also emphasized similar reasons to choose teaching in various forms, combinations, and rankings over the past four decades. Brookhart and Freeman (1992) highlighted intrinsic, extrinsic, and altruistic motivations as the most important groups of reasons on the basis of studies predominantly using participant rankings of various reasons. Although many researchers have used surveys and open-ended questions with large samples in their studies (e.g., Alexander, Chant, & Cox, 1994; Bastick, 1999; Hanushek & Pace, 1995; Jantzen, 1981; Joseph & Green, 1986), the methods of analysis and reporting of results have not always been as sophisticated as they could have been, with an overreliance on single-item indicators, raw frequency counts, and the ranking of themes, resulting in a lack of consistency across studies. Researchers have developed and implemented survey instruments with no information regarding reliability or validity, and results have often been reported without the inclusion of the survey instruments. This, combined with the absence of an agreed-upon analytical and theoretical framework, has meant that researchers have not always concurred on what constitutes intrinsic, altruistic, extrinsic, or various other motivations that are examined by individual researchers. Various operationalizations of intrinsic, extrinsic, and altruistic motivations have resulted in a lack of definitional precision and overlapping categorizations from one study to another. For example, the desire to work with children has been frequently nominated as a form of intrinsic motivation (e.g., Young, 1995) and has also often been referred to as a form of altruistic motivation (e.g., Young, 1995).
In a review of the research conducted up until the early 1990s, Brookhart and Freeman (1992) suggested that "altruistic, service-oriented goals and other intrinsic motivations are the sources of the primary reasons entering teacher candidates report for why they chose teaching as a career" (p. 46). Identified motivations have frequently included working with children and adolescents, making a social contribution, making a difference, job security, job benefits, enjoyment of teaching, compatibility with other interests and activities, compatibility with family life, and self-education (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2005), although those have been classified variously across different studies.
In Malaysia, Azman (2013) conducted a study to determine the perspectives of male and female student teachers in choosing teaching as a career. This study was initiated due to the concern about the decline in the numbers of males entering the teaching profession in Malaysia. The study explored the factors that influenced the student teachers’ views of teaching as a career choice and the factors that influenced their decision to opt for the teaching profession. These student teachers were in the field of science, mathematics, sports, recreational and English. A sample of 425 pre-service teachers was made to complete a questionnaire in which they were to rate some factors that influenced their decision to become teachers. After which the researcher compared their ratings with respect to their gender with the aid of independent samples t-test.
The study showed that their level of motivation to take teaching as a career was high. However, the researcher noted that they seem to be mainly influenced by altruistic factors. These factors included contribute to society, a service of moral value to society, help the government achieve vision 2020 and teaching is a respected job. Interestingly, the salary factor was ranked very low among the motivating factors. This clearly shows the level of enthusiasm they have for the job and can serve as a proxy to the level of commitment that they will demonstrate to the profession. It was not, therefore, a surprise why the altruistic factors dominated in their motivation to teach. The inferential results showed no significant differences in the mean scores on their motivational factors. By implication, both the male and female pre-service teachers were equally influenced by altruistic factors, intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors to teach. The issues with this study were that the design used for the conduct of the study was not stated and also assumptions met for the use of the inferential statistics were not provided. However, the study demonstrates the need for teacher educators to consider the motivation of entrant pre-service teachers so that those who are forced into the profession can be counselled accordingly.
In Turkey, Yuce, Sahin, Kocer and Kana (2013) examined the motivation for choosing teaching as a career from the perspectives of pre- service teachers. The study employed mixed methods to examine the phenomenon among 283 Turkish pre-service teachers who have chosen teaching as a career. Independent samples t-test was run by the researchers to determine differences in motivational factors based on gender. It was found that extrinsic, altruistic, and intrinsic motivations all play a role when individuals choose teaching as a career. A significant difference was found in the extrinsic, altruistic and intrinsic factors between the male and female pre- service teachers. In all the three factors, the female preservice teachers were highly motivated by them as compare to their male counterparts. In addition, although altruistic motives are very dominant for females, mercenary-based extrinsic motives are dominant for males. Associatively, teaching is further desired as a first profession by females.
In Victoria University, Spittle and Spittle (2014) examined the reasons and motivations for pre-service teachers choosing to specialize in primary physical education teacher education. A total of 248 pre-service teachers completed the questionnaires comprising 120 (48.4%) male and 128 (51.6%) female participants. These pre-service teachers were from subject areas such as health, mathematics, English, history, psychology, art and information technology. Male pre-service teachers reported significantly higher attraction to the primary physical education specialisation for low perceived demand and family reasons than females. There were no statistically significant differences for any type of motivation based on gender.
Tomšik (2015) conducted a study of gender differences in motivations for choosing teaching as a career. The study aimed at identifying gender differences in selected types of motivations of the teaching profession. Data was gathered from 300 teacher trainees through the scale of motivations for choosing teaching as a career. Independent samples t-test was used to detect differences in the various types of factors which motivated pre-service teachers to teach. The results showed significant differences in the motivational factors for family and benefits and working with adolescents. In terms of the family and benefits motivational factor, the female pre-service teachers were highly influenced by it to take teaching as a career than the male pre-service teachers. By implication, the female pre-service teachers are more extrinsically motivated than the male pre-service teachers. Also, in terms of working with adolescents, the male pre-service teachers were more motivated by it than the female pre-service teachers. By implication, the male pre-service teachers are more altruistically motivated than the female pre-service teachers. The study, however, did not state the subject areas of the teacher trainees. It is believed that the subject taught by these pre-service teachers could present a different situation. Neither the design for the study was indicated nor the assumptions for the use of independent samples t-test.
In Pakistan, Waheed, Wazir and Rasheed (2016) examined background demography of pre-service teachers and their motivation to teach. In the study, the descriptive survey design was used to gather data from all first-year entrant teachers. The questionnaire served as the main data collection tool. All 184 entrant teachers were included in the study. As part of the background, the characteristics were the teachers’ gender. In determining whether their gender influence their motivation, the independent samples t-test was used to analyse the data. The researchers employed the FIT- Choice scale (Factors Influencing Teaching Choice) which was adapted from Watt and Richardson (2006) to gather the data. The mean and the standard deviation was used to estimate their level of motivation to teach. After, independent samples t-test was used to examine if the pre-service and in-service teachers’ motivation was gender- sensitive.
The study revealed that most of the preservice teachers were motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically. However, the level of such motivations was not the same for both male and female pre-service teachers. A statistically significant difference was found in the means scores for intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to teach for both male and female teachers. Specifically, the female preservice teachers were highly intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to teach than the male pre-service teachers. If motivation triggers productivity, then the female pre-service teachers are likely to be effective than that of the male teachers. Hence, the researchers concluded that background characteristics and motivation types needed to teach should be considered as key factors in teacher education programmes with emphasis at the time of entrance. In as much convincingly the results obtained, the researchers did not state the design employed. Also, they did not provide the results on the assumptions for the statistical test run.
In Malaysia, Qin, Rashid, Ibrahim, Shing, Menon, and Abdelaziz (2017) explored teachers’ background factors and their relation to motivation. Among other demographic factors considered are teachers’ gender and age. In all, 200 preservice and in-service teachers of different levels from preschool through to secondary level from different places across Malaysia participated in the study. Out of the 200, 115 were pre-service teachers and the rest (n = 85) were in-service teachers. Pearson Correlation was also used to determine the relationship between teachers’ motivation and their age.
The results show that teachers’ were highly motivated in teaching. Highly influential factors motivated them to teach. They were also positive in their decision to enter the teaching career. Gender was sensitive to teachers’ motivation to teach. Both male in-service and pre-service teachers were significantly higher in their motivation as compared to the female in-service and pre-service teachers. The researchers believed the lower motivation experienced by the female teachers might be as a result of their workload and stress. There was no sample randomization and thus findings might not represent the views of other groups of teachers from different settings.
In Turkey Güzel (2011) investigated demographic properties and motivation factors of physics teachers. The study examined both demographic and professional profiles of secondary school physics teachers together with factors motivating them. The survey design was employed for the study. The research was carried out on 103 physics teachers who were working at public and private high schools in Konya city centre. The motivation factors priority order questionnaire was used in gathering data. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine differences in motivation based on age.
The results showed that the most motivating factor for physics teachers was factors related to advantages (e.g. salary and benefits) and the least motivating factor was related to the profession (e.g. work satisfaction). In the ordering of factors related to advantages, profession and relationships between parts, significant differences were found between age groups. The difference between senior groups was found statistically significant just in the factor related to the profession. The study could have been better if evidence of the results were provided. The author stated tables reporting the results but no place in the report captured the tables. It, therefore, made it very difficult to follow the results. All that can be picked from the results is that age is sensitive to teachers’ motivation. However, the very age group that might be sensitive cannot be confirmed in the study. This creates a vacuum in the results and the findings obtained.
Qin et al.’ (2017) study pre-service and in-service teachers’ motivation significantly correlated with their age. The relationship was positive, however, the degree of the relationship was low. The low relationship creates a bit of a doubt as to whether gender played many roles in teacher motivation. The researchers were also in doubt about the validity of the finding due to the limited number of respondents in the different age groups. They, therefore, indicated that the finding is inclusive and needs further verification.
Previous teaching experience is important to the decision of entering teaching (Miller & Endo, 2005; Tamir, 2009). Watt and Richardson (2007) found that previous teaching experience was among the highest-rated influences on the choice of a teaching career. The previous teaching experience was also positively correlated with participants’ development aspirations, planned persistence, leadership aspirations, and satisfaction with their choice of teaching. Wang and Guthrie (2004) noted that many students reported developing an interest in teaching from their informal teaching experiences prior to their entry into the teacher education programs and after attending the course. Having previous teaching experience is also a motivation factor that distinguishes the career choice of teacher education students and non-teacher education majors (Milanowski, 2003). Güzel (2011) found in the study that teachers with 0–5 year-experiences have the highest motivation and the teachers with 26+ year-experiences have the lowest motivation. The finding seems to suggest that teachers with no teaching experience are not likely to be motivated for the teaching profession. However, teacher education institutions are training teachers who might not have experienced teaching in their lifetime. If indeed teachers with no prior teaching experience are likely to be demotivated, such teachers must be motivated in one way or another for the teaching profession. This means that evidence is needed as to whether significant differences exist in teacher motivation based on those with and those without prior experience. It was therefore not surprising when Qin et al.’ (2017) suggested that further research should examine years of experience in teacher motivation.
This chapter discussed the concepts which were key factors in choosing a career in our jurisdiction. There were a lot of concepts that were explained to aid the understanding of this study. These concepts include; career concept, career management concept, career choice concepts, subjective factor concepts, critical contact concept, career-changing concepts, career success concept and finally the career support concept. This chapter again discussed some theories that were seen as important to support the study. There were two theories that were reviewed, and these were the Expectancy value theory and the Social Cognitive Career theory. These theories helped in the exploration of the major career management skills that motivate to determine the ability to reflect on one’s current career and the individual’s decision of selecting a career. This study also revealed varying empirical findings of other studies done outside Ghana which elaborated on some of the key factors that motivate student-teachers to take teaching as a career. Even though a lot of researches have been conducted in relation to the factors that motivate or influence pre-service teachers in taking teaching as a career in different subject disciplines. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the influential factors that motivate pre-service management teachers in taking teaching as their career precisely in the University of Cape Coast
This chapter describes the methods employed to execute the study. It presents the research design, the population, the census method used, data collection instrument, ethical consideration, and finally the data processing and analysis guidelines. In addition, it describes how the instrument was pilot- tested to ensure reliability and validity.
The descriptive census study was employed for this study because the objective of the study was basically to analyse the factors influencing pre- service management teachers to take teaching as a career. Census is normally used when the data is given on all the population (Ogah, 2013). It is further noted that, in an event where a researcher can easily reach all the respondents, then the researcher is advised to use the census.
A census is an attempt to make use of all the elements in a group to measure one or more characteristics of those elements. The descriptive census study sought to assess the factors that motivate pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career and also to determine whether there is any statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their demographic characteristics (gender, age and teaching experience)
According to Burns and Grove (2003, p. 201), “descriptive research is designed to provide a sort of situations as they naturally happen”. It may be used to justify the current practice, make a judgment and to develop theories.
The purpose of descriptive research is to observe, describe, and document some aspects of things as they naturally occur. The reason for employing a cross-sectional census survey in this study is that cross-sectional census surveys help in determining the frequency or level of a particular attribute.
A descriptive census study is a non-experimental design which measures the characteristics of a sample at one point in time (Muijs, 2010). Census study is traditional ways of conducting research. It is particularly useful for descriptive designs that seek to describe reality. It is carried out at one point in time. It provides a snapshot of what is happening in a group at a particular time.
Descriptive census study involves acquiring information about one or more groups of people, perhaps about their opinions, characteristics, attitudes, or previous experiences, by asking questions and tabulating the answers. The ultimate goal is to learn about a large population by surveying a sample of it (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). In other instances, a census study is viewed as the research method used to structure the collection and analysis of standardized information from a defined population using a representative sample of that population (Creswell, 2009).
Also, census study has ethical advantages. Since most descriptive study does not expose individuals to possibly invasive techniques or withhold treatment, they may be considered more ethical, since the individuals included in a study will merely be exposed to events that occur in the real world and would have taken place anyway. Despite the fact that this design is appropriate for the study, it does not go without problems. Fraenkel and Wallen (2000) are of the view that the difficulties in using the descriptive census design includes: unclear questions and misleading, getting the respondents not to answer the questions honestly and thoroughly and getting an insufficient number of the questionnaires completed and returned. With these difficulties in mind, the researcher had made sure to make the statements in the questionnaire very clear to the understanding of the respondents through pilot testing and content validity before they were administered.
The population of the study was 229 final year Bachelor of Education (management) students of the University of Cape Coast (UCC). This was made up of 105 male and 85 female pre-service management teachers. These were students who were pursuing a four-year Bachelor of Education programme with a speciality in business management. The final year pre- service management teachers were used in the study because they have gone through the necessary requirement in the teacher education in UCC. Hence, it is believed that there might be factors influencing their motivation to choose teaching profession as their careers.
The questionnaire was the instrument used in the collection of the data. Questionnaires are easy to administer, friendly to answer and fast to score and therefore take relatively very little time of the respondents. Additionally, questionnaires are valuable methods for collecting a wide range of information from a large number of individuals or respondents. The questionnaire was used for the study since it affords the respondents adequate time to give well- thought answers (Kothari, 2004). The questionnaire was used because it is less expensive since respondents were not interviewed which saves time and financial resources. Also, it offers greater anonymity as there is no face to face interaction between respondents and interviewer. Despite these strengths, there is also the possibility that respondents may not understand some questions which may go a long way to affect the results of the study (Kumar, 1999).
The questionnaire was made up of a five points Likert scale item of strongly agree to strongly disagree. Respondents were required to respond by ticking the appropriate level regarding statements on the Likert scale. In this case, the population size of the Level four hundred students reading Bed. Management program at the University of Cape Coast is large enough to use a questionnaire to obtain statistically useful information.
The key to getting the right data depends on the questions that were set. Every well-structured questionnaire should contain either close, open- ended or both types of questions (Sanders, 1997). The questionnaire had closed-ended items. In all, there were 52 closed-ended items which were structured into five sections; A, B, C, D, and E.
Section A sought information from pre-service student-teachers on their gender and age. This section consisted of item 1 to 2. Under item 1, respondents were asked to identify their gender whether male or a female. Item 2 sought the age of the respondents. The age ranges given were: 15-18, 19-21 and 22 and above
Section B focused on the abilities of the student-teachers. It contained three (3) items consisting of items three (3) to six (6). Item 7 and 8 contained statements on intrinsic career value of the student teachers. Item number 9 to 12 contained statements on fall back career of these student teachers. Item number 13 to 17 contained information on the job security of the career chosen. Item 18 to 21 were concerned with statements on job transferability of the career chosen. Item 22 to 24 also carried information on the shape and future of children whilst item 25 to 27 also dwells on the information on the enhancement of social equity. Again item 28 to 32 also describes the social contribution. Item number 33 to 35 also gives information on prior teaching and learning experiences. Item 36 to 38 also discussed the social influences of these chosen careers whilst item 39 to 41 also discussed the information on the expert career. Again item 42 to 44 also comments on the demand of the chosen career and finally, item 46 to 51 gives information on the social status of the career chosen. Respondents were asked to indicate their responses by ticking whether they strongly disagree, disagree, agree or strongly agree with the statements. The weights for the scale were: Strongly disagree = 1, Disagree =2, Agree, = 3 and Strongly Agree = 4.
Golafshani, (2003) states that an instrument is valid if it measures what it was intended to measure. Again, the instrument covered all the research issues pertaining to the content. Nardi (2007) discussed several ways of determining the measures used to determine the reliability of an instrument. In this study, the values of the research findings were ensured by addressing the issues of both reliability and validity in the following manner:
The instrument was examined for both face and content validity. Face validity of the research instrument was established by ensuring that the questionnaires were related to the research questions. The items were checked using the research questions of the study as a yardstick. The content validity of the instrument was also checked by making the questionnaire available to the research assistance for scrutiny. After that, it was given to my supervisors to ensure that the items in the questionnaire were appropriate.
After establishing face and content validity, the research instrument was pilot-tested with the aim of ascertaining its reliability. This involved 45 number of Level 300 BEd (management) students in the University of Cape Coast. These students were chosen because they had a similar –characteristics since they all read the same programme just that the study focused on the Level 400 Bed (management) students. The resulting Cronback Alpha was 0.71 which was as an initiative of the appropriateness of the questionnaire for the fieldwork. This implies that the instrument is reliable and acceptable for the sample (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2000; Creswell, 2009).
An introductory letter was obtained from the Department of Business and Social Sciences Education to facilitate the fieldwork. This letter enabled the researcher to obtain permission from the University of Cape Coast where the data was collected. The questionnaires were administered by the researcher himself and a college student. Before the administration and subsequent filling of the questionnaire, respondents were assured of their anonymity and any information provided will be kept confidential.
Observation of research ethics helps to protect the rights of the research participants and promote the integrity of the research (Israel & Hay, 2006). The following measures were taken as a way of observing ethics in research. The researcher applied for a research permit from IRB from UCC. It is necessary that research participants get informed before they are approached for data collection. To comply with this, the respondents were informed before data collection through the use of consent letters. The aim was to seek their consent and ensure voluntary participation.
Data collected from the respondents were screened for normality and homogeneity and to ensure that, those assumptions were not violated. Data were then analysed with SPSS version 23. Table 1 presents the details of the data analysis guidelines.
Table 1: Statistical Tool for Research Questions
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This study adopted the descriptive census design to study BED management pre-service teachers motivational factors that encourage them to take the teaching as a career with a population of 229 pre-service teachers. The questionnaire was developed on a four-point Likert scale which facilitated the collection of the relevant data necessary to address the research questions that guided the study. The instrument was highly reliable with a whole reliability coefficient of .824 for the pilot study and .887 for the actual study. The main limitation of the instrument was that only closed-ended questions were used which in a way restricted the respondents from openly giving out their responses that could have further enriched the study. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analysing the data obtained. Specifically, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data on demographical variables, mean, and standard deviation for research question one and independent t-test, one-way ANOVA was used in running the hypothesis.
This chapter presents the results of the motivational factors influencing preservice management teachers to teach. Out of a total population of 229 preservice management teachers, 190 of them participated in the study with a return rate of 83%. In all, 105 male and 85 female preservice management teachers gave valid data for the study. These respondents were involved in the study through the census method. These respondents provided data to address the research question one and the three hypotheses formulated for the study. The data were analysed using inferential statistics (independent samples t-test, between groups one-way analysis of Variance- ANOVA) and descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages). The first part of this chapter presents the demographic results of the respondents. In the second part, the main results are presented to address the research question and hypothesis formulated.
Results were obtained on two important demographic variables for the study. These are the gender and ages of the respondents. These variables were essential to understanding the nature of the respondents in terms of their level of maturity. Also, it helped to analyse the hypothesis formulated for the study which sought to identify differences in their motivational factors based on gender and age. Table 2 shows the results of the respondents’ demographic characteristics.
Table 2: Background Characteristics of the Respondents
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Source: Field Data, (2019)
The majority (n = 105, 55.3%) of the pre-service management teachers were males. By implication, more male management teachers are likely to be produced by the University of Cape Coast in one academic year. The dominance of the male preservice teachers (students) in educational institutions has been a usual phenomenon observed. The female seem disadvantaged at a point due to some social, economic and financial reasons. Socially, some female at the school-going age get dropped out of school due to early pregnancy. The Ghanaian society seems not to support the girl child to continue their education when they are caught up in teenage pregnancy. Most of such teenage pregnant girls pick up early jobs to support themselves and family and the upcoming child. Economically, most families that are not economically sound seem to prefer to train the male child rather than the girl child. Some possible reasons being that the girl child will be married and taken care by the husband. Hence, by their perception the education of the male child is important. The dominance of the male preservice management teachers also means that the findings that are likely to be obtained in the study will be highly influenced by them.
The preservice management teachers were also considered matured with the ability to provide credible data for the study. Most (n = 188, 98.9%) of them were above 18 years of age. Those who were 22 years and above represented 88.4% of all the respondents.
Few of the preservice teachers seem to have had prior teaching experience. In all, 68 of them had taught before in various schools. However, the majority (n = 122, 64.2%) of them had not had any formal teaching exposure. It is possible that they might not have a clear experience of how the teaching profession really motivates teachers. Hence, most of them are likely to base their motivation for the job on the grounds of what they have been told by their friends and families who are teachers. However, since they have been exposed to off-campus teaching practice, they are likely to be intrinsically motivated or not and not highly based on extrinsic motivation. It is not ruled out that salary might serve as one of the key motivating factors, however, the comfort the job provides could override it. Teaching practice experienced by them is much likely to communicate the comfort of the job (intrinsic motivation) rather than the external motivations (extrinsic motivations).
The results that address the research question and hypothesis formulated for the study are presented and discussed in the part of the chapter. One research question and three hypothesis were formulated for the study. The four-point Likert scale questionnaire assisted in the data collection with scale such as Strongly Agree (4), Agree (3), Strongly Disagree (2) and Disagree (1).
Hence, any mean value of 2.5 and above on an item on the questionnaire was considered as an agreement. When the mean is below 2.5, then the response is considered as a disagreement. All the items measuring specific motivational factors were transformed into their respective construct as directed by the FIT- Choice model. Hence, it is the factors that are presented and discussed rather than the items that formed the factors. The results are also presented under each research question and hypothesis formulated for the study to facilitate the respondents understanding.
Literature gives evidence to believe that several factors motivate pre- service management teachers to take teaching as a career. These factors are country-specific, whilst some influence in other jurisdiction, the same factors are believed to fail in other context. This made the researcher to explore these factors in the case of final year pre-service management teachers’ in the University of Cape Coast. Means and standard deviations were used to analyse the data that was gathered on the research question. Factors presented to the preservice management teachers based on the fit-choice model were Job security, social status, social contribution, ability, job transferability, expert career, shaping the future of the youth, prior teaching, social equity, high demand, fall-back, social influence, and intrinsic career value. Table 3 presents the results that were obtained on the factors.
As shown in Table 3, a number of motivational factors seem to influence pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career. Among the factors is shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance
social equity, expert career, ability and high demand. Shaping the Future factor seems to be the most dominant factor (mean = 3.34) teaching for the pre-service management teachers. They can influence the behaviour of the youth positively with the help of this profession, they can impact the generation in a way of influencing them to identify their full potentials through teaching and learning process. They seem to rate themselves confidently high (SD = 0.56) to develop in learners and to prepare them for the world of work (Table 3).
Table 3: Factors that Motivate Pre-Service Management Teachers to
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Source: Field Data (2019).
In Table 3, the preservice teachers were of the view that prior teaching experience influences their choice for the teaching profession (mean = 3.30, SD = 0.58). They might have generated much interest for probably the little experience they have gathered while practicing for the job. Such interest is likely to make them learn the profession very well so that executing their duties on the job becomes easier. It does communicate that the experiences provided to them were seen by them to be relevant and interesting for the job.
Such experiences might have directed them to believe that they can use the profession to Enhance Social Equity (mean = 3.28, SD = 0.55). They believe it will help them to get to the less privileged youth in the community. Through teaching, they believe they could reach out to the needy children and work to assist those who are socially disadvantaged. By implication, the teaching profession cushions them if not economically, intellectually to assist people around them (Table 3).
In addition, pre-service management teachers seem motivated due to the relaxed nature of the teaching profession. The profession in their view does not require expert knowledge (mean = 3.27, SD = 0.49). By expert knowledge, they believe it does not require technical knowledge and specialized knowledge. This makes them believe that they can easily get into the profession without much difficulty, hence, their motivation for the profession. It was therefore not surprising when they affirmed that they have the ability to teach (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.53). This ability is supported by the teaching skills they seem to possess including qualities of a good teacher. To them, the profession matches their abilities. Their motivation is then explainable since teaching is within their frame of competence (Table 3).
Coupled with that the teaching profession is not demanding (mean = 3.11, SD = 0.61). To them, it is not too hard and not heavily loaded or emotionally demanding. These characteristics of teaching would certainly draw people into the profession. One would like to work in an atmosphere of comfort and stress-free. If the teaching profession can provide these to them, then they would surely be motivated as currently expressed (Table 3).
It can be generally concluded that preservice management teachers are influenced by several factors to take teaching as a career. Among the factors are shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance social equity, expert career, ability and high demand. These motivating factors are not different from that which seem to motivate other teachers in other countries or jurisdictions (Table 3).
In the Netherlands, Fokkens-Bruinsma and Canrinus (2012a) found that ability and work with children were the most important factors for choosing the teaching profession. In Germany, Konig and Rothland (2012) found intrinsic career value and shape the future of children/adolescents, and teaching abilities as the most influential factor motivating future teachers to choose the profession. In Turkey, Eren and Tezel (2010); Kilin (2012), Akar, (2012) and Topkaya and Uztosun (2012) all found that social utility values such as enhance social equity, make a social contribution, shape future of children/adolescents were found to be highly rated. These studies are confirmed by the factors found within the Ghanaian content. The influential factors found were shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance social equity, expert career and ability. The only factor not found in the earlier studies is the prior teaching experience. By implication, it is not just enough for preservice teachers to be motivated to take the teaching profession by just considering on shape the future, enhance social equity, expert career, ability and high demand. Opportunities provided for them to practice is likely to complete their level of motivation. Similarly, Özsoy et al. (2010) indicating that the majority of preservice teachers chose teaching, not as a “fallback” career, that is the last-resort one, but because it was their ideal to teach. The study did not find fallback factor as a motivational factor to the preservice teachers (Table 3).
By inference, the preservice management teachers are motivated intrinsically by factors such as ability, expert career and high demand. Extrinsically by factors such as job security, job transfer, shape the future and prior teaching experiences and altruistically motivated by social equity factor (serving children and society). Ok and Onkol (2007), and Richardson and Watt (2006) indicated that the perceived teaching ability: an appreciation of the intrinsic value of teaching: the desire to make social contribution, shape the future and also work children: a personal interest in the subject area and job security stand to motivate most preservice teachers. OECD (2005) people opt for the teaching profession because it enables intellectual fulfilment and represents a tool for making contributions to changes in society (Table 3).
These findings apparently contrast with findings in other countries, such as Singapore and Australia, where Mathew (2005) and Watt and Richardson (2007; 2012), respectively found that time for family and desire to make social contributions are influential and decision factors. The findings also disconfirmed that of Fokkens-Bruinsma and Canrinus (2012b) who found that social influences were rated low. The current study found the respondents seeing social influences as a major motivating factor. The multifaceted nature of these factors gives an indication that would-be teachers and practicing teachers in different countries might be influenced by different factors, both in making teaching a career choice and in deciding to stay in teaching. However, most of the factors seem to be constant in all countries and therefore cannot be said to be country-specific. Among such factors are ability, make a social contribution, shape the future and enhance social equity (Table 3).
Three hypotheses of differences were formulated in the study. All the hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of .05. The dependent variable was the motivation to teach and the independent variables were gender, age and prior teaching experience.
In all parametric test, one key assumption that must be met is the normality assumption (Pallant, 2005). Table 4 shows the coefficient of skewness and kurtoses which were used to determine the normality of the motivational factors influencing pre-service teachers to take teaching as their career.
Table 4: Normality Test Results in Motivation Factors to Teach
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The results show that motivational factors follow a normal distribution. This is based on the reason that the skewness and kurtosis values were within the acceptable limit for normal distribution of ±2 (George & Mallery, 2011) indicating that the data is approximately normal.
Hypothesis One: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their gender.
The first hypothesis concentrated on determining if preservice management teachers’ motivation to teach is sensitive to gender. The essence was to determine which of the gender exhibit higher motivation to teach. Finding would help teacher educators in the preparation of teachers for the country. Gender served as the independent variable and motivation to teach was the dependent variable. Hence, the independent samples t-test was used to analyse the data. The independent samples t-test is appropriate when a researcher is interested in determining differences between two groups on a particular construct. The descriptive results that were obtained are presented in Table 5.
Table5: Descriptive Results of Gender Motivation to Teach
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Source: Field data (2019)
In Table 5, the descriptive results show that some differences seem to exist in motivational factors influencing preservice management teachers to teach based on their gender. The male preservice management teachers seemed to be highly motivated on factors such as ability, intrinsic career, fallback, enhance social equity and high demand. However, the female preservice management teachers seem to be highly motivated to take teaching by factors such as job security, job transfer, shape the future, make social contribution, prior teaching experiences and social influence. Further, both male and female preservice management teachers seem to be equally influenced by motivational factors such as expert career and social status to take teaching as a career.
The differences observed in the mean scores do not provide enough evidence that one gender group is highly motivated on a particular motivational factor to teach than the other gender group. Hence, the difference observed on each of the factor was tested at 5% level of significance. Table 6 presents the results in terms of Levene’s test for equality of variances (using the F test) which test the t-test assumption and the t-test results which actually test the mean difference on each gender group.
Table 6: T-test Result of Motivational Factors and Gender
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In Table 6, the assumption of homoscedasticity was determined on all the factors. Independent samples t-test is based on the assumption that equal variances (homoscedasticity) are obtained between the independent groups at each level of the dependent variable before any results are reported. The Levene’s results show that the differences in the variance of the groups (gender) on all the factors are equal: ability (f = .032, p =.859); intrinsic career (f = 3.747, p =.054); fallback career (f = .107, p =.744); job security (f = .277, p =.599); job transfer (f = .149, p =.700); shape the future (f = 3.511, p =.063); enhance social equity (f = .070, p =.792); make social contribution (f = .384, p =.536); prior teaching experiences (f = 1.210, p =.273); social influence (f = .075, p =.784); expert career (f = 1.190, p =.277); high demand (f = .080, p =.777); and social status (f = .076, p =.783).
The results show that there is a statistically significant difference between male preservice management teachers (mean = 2.90, SD = 0.48) and female preservice management teachers’ motivation to teach based on the job security factor (mean = 3.05, SD = 0.47); t (188) = -2.121, p = .035, eta squared = 0.023. The null hypothesis is therefore rejected for the job security factor. This means that there are differences in the mean values (2.90) of the male preservice management teachers and that of the female preservice management teachers (3.05). This implies that the female preservice management teachers are highly motivated on the job security factor to take teaching as a professional career. However, the difference observed is small (eta squared = 0.023) (Table 7).
Significant differences were not found between the male and female preservice management teachers on the other factors that explains their motivation to take teaching as a career. Specifically, ability [ t (188) = 1.680; p = .095], intrinsic career [ t (188) = .701; p = .484], fallback career [ t (188) = .392; p = .696], job transfer [ t (188) = -1.582; p = .115], shape the future [ t (188) = -1.183; p = .238], enhance social equity [ t (188) = .198; p = .844], make social contribution [ t (188) = -1.292; p = .198], prior teaching experiences [ t (188) = -.340; p = .734], social influence [ t (188) = -1.830; p = .069], expert career [ t (188) = .029; p = .977], high demand [ t (188) = .462; p = .645] and social status [ t (188) = .046; p = .963] motivational factors to teach is not gender sensitive (Table 6).
In order to determine the overall difference in the motivation of preservice management teachers to take teaching as a career based on gender, the motivational factors were transformed. The independent samples t-test was used to test the overall difference. The results are presented in Table 7.
Table 7: T-test Results of Overall Motivation to Teach and Gender
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Source: Field data (2019)
In Table 7, the test of homoscedasticity as shown by the Levene’s results (F = 1.821, p = .179) imply that there are equal variances between the male and female management teachers on each level on their motivation to teach. The t-test results indicate that there are no significant difference between male (mean = 2.98, SD = .28) preservice management teachers motivation to teach and female (mean = 3.01, SD = .33); t (188) = -.712, p = .477. The null hypothesis that there is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their gender is therefore not rejected. Implying that preservice management teachers’ motivation influencing them to take teaching as a career is not gender-sensitive.
Both male and female management teachers seem to have been exposed to the same teaching conditions or possess the same knowledge as far as teaching is concerned. Apart from the private senior high schools that conditions might be different, teaching at the senior high schools in the public school remain almost the same. Notably, conditions in public senior high schools seem to be better than private senior high schools in the country. Such similarity in conditions might explain why there are no gender differences in their motivation to teach. These preservice teachers are also exposed to the same rudiments of the teaching profession in the same training institution. Sameness in experiences created for them could also explain why the motivation to teach was not gender sensitive.
Similarly, Azman (2013) and Spittle and Spittle (2014) found that pre- service teachers’ choice of the teaching profession is not gender sensitive. However, the finding contradicted with that of Yuce, Sahin, Kocer and Kana (2013), Tomšik (2015), Waheed, Wazir and Rasheed (2016), and Qin, Rashid, Ibrahim, Shing, Menon, and Abdelaziz (2017). Even though these studies found significant differences in motivational factors to teach, they seem not to communicate the same finding. Yuce et al. (2013) indicated that male teachers are influenced by extrinsic factors and female teachers’ altruistic factors. Tomšik (2015) found that female preservice teachers were highly influenced by family and benefits motivational factors than their male counterparts. The argument as to which of them is highly influenced by extrinsic factors is inconclusive.
Again, Tomšik indicated that male pre-service teachers are more altruistically motivated than female pre-service teachers. Yuce et al. were also of the view that female teachers are altruistically motivated. In compounding the level of disagreement between various studies, Waheed, Wazir and Rasheed (2016) also stated that female pre-service teachers were highly intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to teach than the male pre-service teachers. Qin, Rashid, Ibrahim, Shing, Menon, and Abdelaziz (2017) found that male in-service and pre-service teachers were significantly higher in their motivation as compared to the female in-service and pre-service teachers. The only possible explanation is that motivational factors influencing pre-service teachers to take teaching as a profession is country-specific. This study further argues that it is also subject-specific since the study found entirely no significant differences in the motivational factors to teach based on gender. Hence, in influencing pre-service teachers to teach based on gender, the same motivational factors cannot be focused in all countries.
Hypothesis Two: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their age.
The second hypothesis examined whether preservice management teachers’ motivational factors influencing them to teach is age-wise sensitive. The ages of the preservice management teachers range from 16-18 years, 19- 21 years and 22 years and above. The age groups (independent variable) are in three categories, hence differences in their ages were best examined through the use of one-way ANOVA. The ANOVA results obtained are presented in Table 8.
Table 8: Differences in Motivational Factors to Teach Based on Age
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Source: Field data (2019)
In ANOVA test, the assumption of homoscedasticity is important when a post hoc test is needed following a significant result. This assumption was determined on all the factors between the independent groups at each level of the dependent variable. The Levene’s results show that the differences in the variance of the groups (age) on all the factors but one are equal: ability (f = .608, p =.545); intrinsic career (f = .624, p =.537); job transfer (f = .954, p =.387); shape the future (f = .283, p =.754); enhance social equity (f = .994, p =.372); make social contribution (f = .275, p =.760); prior teaching experiences (f = .286, p =.752); social influence (f = 1.120, p =.328); expert career (f = .392, p =.676); high demand (f = .461, p =.631); and social status (f = 1.939, p =.147). Job security (F = 8.582, p =.000) was the only factor which was significant (Table 8).
In testing the means, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference in preservice teachers’ specific motivational factors influencing them to teach based on their age groups. Specifically, ability [ f (2) = .159, p = .853]; intrinsic career [ f (2) = .070, p = .933]; job security [ f (2) = 1.835, p = .162]; job transfer [ f (2) = 2.075, p = .128]; shape the future [ f (2) = .506, p = .604]; enhance social equity [ f (2) = 1.126, p = .326]; make social contribution [ f (2) = .350, p = .705]; prior teaching experiences [ f (2) = .559, p = .573]; social influence [ f (2) = 1.819, p = .165]; expert career [ f (2) = .515, p = .598]; high demand [ f (2) = .791, p = .455]; and social status [ f (2) = 1.618, p = .201] factors were all not age sensitive. The null hypothesis that there is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ specific motivation to become professional teachers based on their ages is therefore not rejected. Hence, any differences that are observed in the mean values of specific preservice teachers’ motivational factors to teach based on their ages is just by chance. There is, however, the possibility that significant differences can be obtained on the composite motivational variable, hence, ANOVA test was run on the composite variable and the results reported in Table 9.
Table 9: Differences in Overall Motivation to Teach Based on Age
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: Field data (2019)
From Table 9, the one way ANOVA results confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference [ f (2) = 1.567, p = .211] in preservice management teachers’ overall motivational to teach based on their ages. It is, therefore, concluded that the null hypothesis is not rejected. The implication is that age is not sensitive to preservice management teachers’ motivation to teach. Hence, the argument that any differences found in the means of the preservice management teachers’ motivation to teach based on age is due to chance. The respondents seem to be around the same age and this could have resulted in not finding a significant difference in their motivation to teach. In the Age distribution, it was realised that the majority (n = 168, 88.4%) of them were 22 years and above. Few of them (n = 20, 10.5%) were found in the age group of 19-21 years. If their actual ages were used it could be that the variation in their ages could be low.
If pre-service teachers’ motivation to teach is sensitive to age, then Qin et al.’ (2017) should have found a moderate or a strong relationship between gender and pre-service teachers’ motivation to teach. Qin et al.’ study seems to suffer from the problem of limited number of respondents in each of the age categories. If the sample selected was relatively large in each age category, the significant relationship found between gender and motivation to teach could have been wholly accepted. Güzel (2011) could have provided much focus as to whether the significant results they found between gender and teacher motivation should be accepted. But the study failed to provide empirical proof in their presentation of the results casting some form of doubt. In the reportage, almost all the quantitative results were not provided making it look like a qualitative study. However, qualitative studies are not used to establish statistical significance. This study, therefore, aligning its’ results with that of the weak relationship found between the variables in Qin et al.’ (2017) study, state that pre-service teachers’ motivation to teach is not sensitive to gender.
The discussion is, however, still inconclusive and subjected to further arguments.
Hypothesis Three: There is no statistically significant difference between pre-service management teachers’ motivation and their prior teaching experience.
The hypothesis examined whether preservice management teachers who had taught before were motivated or not to take teaching as a career. Prior experience was measured as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ on the questionnaire. These categories served as the independent variable with the specific motivational factors as the dependent variable. The data gathered was analysed through the independent samples t-test. The results obtained are presented in Table 10.
Table 10: T-test Result of Motivational Factors and Prior Teaching
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
In Table 11, the test of homogeneity of variances was conducted through the Levene’s test of equality of variances. Ability [ f = 2.422, p = .121]; intrinsic career [ f = .639, p = .425]; job security [ f = 1.156, p = .284]; job transfer [ f = 3.320, p = .070]; shape the future [ f = .071, p = .790]; enhance social equity [ f = .587, p = .445]; make social contribution [ f = .635, p = .426]; social influence [ f = .098, p = .754]; expert career [ f = .008, p = .928]; high demand [ f = .794, p = .374]; and social status [ f = .794, p = .374] factors were all assumed to have equal variance for the prior teaching experience (Table 10).
In testing the means, it was found that there was also no statistically significant difference in preservice teachers’ specific motivational factors influencing them to teach based on their prior teaching experience. Specifically, ability [ t (188) = -1.032, p = .303]; intrinsic career [ t (188) = .279, p = .780]; job security [ t (188) = -.261, p = .794]; job transfer [ t (188) = .110, p = .912]; shape the future [ t (188) = -.755, p = .451]; enhance social equity [ t (188) = -1.120, p = .264]; make social contribution [ t (188) = -.136, p = .892]; social influence [ t (188) = -.840, p = .402]; expert career [ t (188) = - .706, p = .481]; high demand [ t (188) = -1.108, p = .269]; and social status [ t (188) = -1.108, p = .269] factors were all not influenced by preservice management teachers’ prior experience. The null hypothesis that there is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ specific motivation to become professional teachers based on their prior experience is therefore not rejected. Hence, any differences that are observed in the mean values of specific preservice teachers’ motivational factors to teach based on their prior teaching experiences is just by chance. A further test on preservice management teachers’ motivation to teach based on experience was conducted on the composite motivational factors. Table 11 presents the results.
Table 11: T-test Results of Overall Motivation to Teach and Prior
able 11, the test of homogeneity of variances was
Source: Field data (2019)
From Table 11, the independent samples t-test results confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference in preservice management teachers’ overall motivational factor to teach based on their prior teaching experience [ t (188) = -1.063, p = .289]. It is therefore concluded that the null hypothesis is not rejected. The implication is that prior teaching experience is not sensitive to preservice management teachers’ motivation to teach. This might be due to the actual lack of teaching experience on the part of most of the preservice management teachers. If most of them had experienced teaching they would have been well informed about the nitty-gritty of the teaching profession and that would have influenced the motivation now being exhibited which might bring about some differences. This finding, therefore, creates the need to compare the motivation of in-service teachers on the basis of their teaching experiences so that conclusive argument can be made in terms of the sensitivity of prior teaching experience on teaching motivation (Table 11).
The finding, prior teaching experience does not influence pre-service teachers’ motivation to teach, disagrees with that of Milanowski (2003), Wang and Guthrie (2004) and Watt and Richardson (2007). These studies all indicated that prior teaching experiences influence the decision of entering into the teaching profession. Even though it is a motivational factor to teach as endorsed by this study, differences were not obtained between those with prior teaching experience and those without prior teaching experience. The results could have been influenced by the high number of pre-service teachers with no prior teaching experience.
The chapter presented the results which assisted in addressing the research question and the hypotheses that were formulated for the study. Through the results and discussion, it was found that several factors influenced the pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career. The most dominant factors were shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance social equity, expert career, ability and high demand. These numerous factors did not seem to vary across the gender of the students, age and prior teaching experience. Evidence was provided on the independent samples t-test results and the ANOVA results. The independent results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the motivational factors influencing the pre-service management teachers based on gender. Indicating that gender is not sensitive to the factors motivating them to teach. The test also showed that prior teaching experiences of the pre-service management teachers were also not significant. The one-way ANOVA test also showed that their various ages did not influence their choice of teaching career. Hence, the conclusion reach was that pre-service management teachers’ choice of the teaching career is not sensitive to their gender, age and prior teaching experiences.
This is the last chapter of the study. It summarizes the study highlighting the methodologies adopted in collecting and analysing data so as to come out with the findings in addressing the research questions formulated on pre-service management teachers’ motivation to teach. Based on the findings, conclusions are drawn to permit the provision of appropriate recommendations as well as suggestions for further research.
The study examined the factors that motivate pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career. It determined if gender, age and prior teaching experiences of the preservice management teachers were sensitive to their teaching motivation. The following research question and hypothesis were therefore formulated:
1. What are the factors that motivate pre-service management teachers to take teaching as a career?
2. H0: There is no statistically significant difference in male and female pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers.
3. H0: There is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their age.
4. H0: There is no statistically significant difference in pre-service management teachers’ motivation to become teachers based on their prior teaching experience.
The cross-sectional census survey design was employed to execute the study to address the research problem. Out of the population of 229 pre- service management teachers who were surveyed, 190 of them provided valid responses to the survey items on the questionnaire soliciting the factors influencing their choice of the teaching profession. The questionnaire was adapted from the FIT-choice scale model and pilot tested using 45 3rd year pre-service management teachers. The Cronbach alpha that was obtained was 0.71. After the actual data, the Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87 was obtained which showed that the reliability had not been reduced for the actual study respondents; an indication of a good instrument used for the study. The return rate for the actual administration of the instrument was 83%. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Directorate of Research, Innovation and Consultancy, University of Cape Coast. Again, during the data collection, all ethical protocols were followed to the later. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (two independent samples t-test and One- Way Analysis of Variance-ANOVA).
The following findings emerged from the study.
1. Pre-service management teachers’ were motivated to take the teaching profession on the basis of shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance social equity, expert career, ability and high demand, job security, social status, social contribution, job transferability and expert career factors. However, the three dominant motivating factors were shape the future, prior teaching experiences and enhance social equity factors.
2. Generally, there were no statistically significant differences between male and female pre-service management teachers’ motivation to take teaching as a profession. However, in terms of the job security factor of motivation, the female pre-service management teachers were highly motivated by it to take teaching as a career than their male counterparts.
3. There were no statistically significant differences in preservice management teachers to take teaching as a profession based on their ages.
4. Finally, differences were not found in the pre-service teachers’ motivation to teach based on their prior teaching experiences.
The findings seem to suggest that pre-service management teachers at the University of Cape Coast are highly motivated to take teaching as a career. This level of motivation exhibited seem to have been influenced by a number of factors. These factors are shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance social equity, expert career, ability and high demand, job security, social status, social contribution, job transferability and expert career factors. These factors look crucial to them if the teaching job will be motivating enough for them. Generally, these factors might entice them to the teaching profession. The crucial ones among them are Shape the future, prior teaching experiences, enhance social equity, expert career, ability and high demand. By implication, if these critical factors are not considered in their training as teachers as well as addressed on the actual teaching job they might be demotivated. The likely consequences are that they may reject the profession or where they are found in active service, they might be reluctant to give in their best to develop quality human capital for the country.
Findings from the three hypotheses formulated for the study on the teaching motivational factors and gender characteristics such as age, gender and prior teaching experiences highlighted interesting implications. Emphasised in the findings is that these characteristics were not significant as far as their motivation to teach is concerned. Pointing specifically, gender does not matter as far as teachers’ motivation to teach is concerned. Ages of the teachers also do not matter in the motivation to teach. Finally, whether given prior experiences or not does not contribute to their motivation. By not finding significant difference in prior teaching experience does not in any way communicate that student teachers should not be exposed to teaching practice. This is because it could serve as a hygiene factor keeping them to appreciate the teaching profession due to the exposure to the teaching profession. Recommendations
The findings from this research have several implications for future actions. It is envisaged that the following recommendations based on the findings and conclusions of this study will help in motivating pre-service teachers for the job;
1. Potential teacher employers should couch their advertisement to reflect these motivating factors (e.g. job security, job transfer and salary) in order to attract teachers, especially management teachers.
2. Teacher training institutions should help pre-service teachers through training to be altruistically motivated by directing them to the relevance of the profession and how it can impact the larger community.
3. The government should increase the extrinsic motivation factors (job transferability, salary, general working conditions) to attract incoming teachers’ and sustain them on the job.
4. Sensitization programmes by various stakeholders to enhance teacher motivation should not focus on gender, age and prior teaching experiences. However, concentration should be on sensitizing all without recourse to such demographic characteristics.
Suggestions for Further Research
Taking into consideration the scope and limitations of this study, the researcher suggests that further research be conducted in the following areas:
1. A replication of this study to take into consideration all education students in the University of Cape Coast to provide a more extensive view of preservice teacher motivation for the teaching profession.
2. Attention should be placed on the sample size so that enough participant can be drawn and distributed on the various age group.
3. Mixed methods should be employed to explain why respondents are influenced by specific motivational factors.
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Questionnaire for Pre-service Management Teachers
UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STUDIES
FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
This questionnaire you are about to complete forms part of a research being conducted in partial fulfilment for the award of Master of Philosophy (Management Education). You are kindly requested to read to read through the items and respond to them as frankly and objectively as possible. Your response will be treated as confidential and will be used solely for academic purpose. Thank you
SECTION A: PERSONAL INFORMATION
Please tick ( ) where it is appropriate to your choice concerning each statement below:
1 Gender; male ( ) female ( )
2 Age 15 and below ( ) 16-18 ( ) 19-21( ) 22 and above ( )
SECTION B: Purpose of choosing teaching as a career
Instruction: please indicate your agreement or disagreement with each of the following statement by ticking ( ) the appropriate answer. (Strongly Disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Agree (A) and Strongly Agree (SA)
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
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Masterarbeit, 63 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 83 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 28 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 64 Seiten
Studienarbeit, 46 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 83 Seiten
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