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93 Seiten, Note: B
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope/Delimitation of the Study
Limitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Concepts of Wastes
Types of waste
Environmental costs of wastes
Social costs of waste
Economic costs of wastes
Resource recovery from wastes
Energy recovery from wastes
Education and awareness
Existing waste management processes and practices in Nigeria
General methods of wastes management
Waste Conversion Technologies
Summary of Related Literature
Waste conversion education curriculum
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF THE STUDY
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Procedure
Validity of the Research Instrument
Reliability of the Research Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This project work is dedicated to God Almighty for his protective arms toward me throughout the period of my academic work and also is dedicated to my family for their support, patience and encouragement.
May all praise, honor and glory be to God Almighty for his protection, power and wisdom given to me to accomplish this academic goal.
My sincere gratitude goes to my supervisor, Dr E. I. Osayande for his patience and feeling to me during the course of this project work. He was constantly available to put me through at every stage of the work.
I want to also appreciate the effort of all lecturers in the department of health, safety and environmental education for their contribution toward my academic achievement.
I am particularly grateful to my parent Mr. Oloye Rotimi and Mrs. Remilekun Rotimi for their parentally affections and incessant prayer for me. I also wish to acknowledge the role of my Uncle, Ajifuwa Taye for support and understanding role.
With an increasingly population and urbanization, the solid waste management has become a major challenge for local authorities in developing countries all over the world. The need to improve on waste management in order to minimize the negative effects of solid waste and to avoid future land use conflicts is on increase. At the same time the admission vacancies into the university are also limited and solid waste management puts already today a significant pressure on the local economies. There is a need for a sustainable waste management which offers solutions to issues of social, economical and environmental aspects through educational system. This research studies the opinion of university students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian University.
A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The sample for this study consisted of six hundred and eighty six (686) students randomly selected from University of Benin, Benin city, Edo State using multistage random sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was constructed by the researcher. It has a reliability coefficient of 0.739 using test retest method. The data was analysed using means of scores, standard deviation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the hypothesis, alpha level was set to 0.05.
Findings revealed that; opinion of university students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian University is positive. Also, waste conversion education should be a course of study in Nigerian University. It was concluded that waste conversion education should be introduce to Nigerian University curriculum. It was also noted that the proportion for introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study is significance difference from the proportion against introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian University and that gender has significant influence on the opinion of university students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian University. Lastly, faculty of the students has significant influence on the opinion of university students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian University.
Therefore these recommendations, among others, were made; that ‘waste conversion education’ should be introduce as a course of study in Nigerian University, waste conversion education’ should be part of Nigerian University curriculum. It also suggested that gender and faculty should be considered when planning and designing waste conversion education curriculum.
The problem of waste disposal is one of the most serious environmental problems facing many countries including Nigeria. Waste management plays an important role in human endeavour. Various ways of managing waste include disposal by either burying or burning, reduce or reusing and energy generation. Waste management differs in developing countries; such as Nigeria and in other industrialized countries of the world like Germany. Omotoso and Jegede (2009), noted that in recent years, solid waste generation in metropolitan cities has increase prodigiously. They also claim that major high ways have suddenly become dunghill for many citizens in Nigeria.
Solid wastes constitute a growing problem and have gained increased awareness over the years. The amount of solid waste generated in the country is increasing and government is also currently focusing on methods to approach the challenges posed by waste (Schwarz, Omran & Rapp. 2008). The increase in the population as a result of industrial revolution in major towns and cities of the world have necessitated rapid growth or high rate of urbanization and development. For instance, Nigeria cities in recent times have witnessed rapid population growth resulting from influx of migration from rural areas to cities (Adejobi & Olorunimbe 2012). This brings about the concentration of industrial, commercial, infrastructural, administrative and governmental activities in urban cities. Thus, leading to rapid growth of population in cities, it leads to burning of refuse and high rate of air pollution which in turn increases concentration of green house gasses that cause global warming and subsequent climate change. The volume of waste generated in any city is often a reflection of the intensity of human activities such as population growth, urbanization and social development, resources exploitation and unchecked technological advancement (Adejobi&Olorunimbe 2012).
The continuous generation of waste as a result of human activities is sure while the effective use of waste is at stake. The effective use of waste is beneficial in several ways which include reduction of environmental problem caused by waste such as pollution and it can also serve as source of income. Many researchers have worked on several areas of waste in Nigeria and other countries; Such works includes: “mitigating the impact of solid waste in Nigeria” Momodu and Diamuna (2011), “Private sector participation and municipal waste management in Benin city” Ogu(2000), “challenges of waste management and climate change in Nigeria” Adejobi and Olorunimbe (2012), and many more, yet Nigeria is still faced with problem of waste management. If there is going to be an effective solution to waste management problem in Nigeria, it should be done through educational system.
Quality education is a means for development. It is an essential asset to any country or individual that is aspiring to develop, this is because education raises people’s aspirations to increase social, economic and cultural performance, it raises people, individual level of awareness of their environment and equips them with necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to solve problems they encounter.
Education is a factory where human beings are refined and sent out into the labour market. An individual is not born blank as John Locke expressed. Rather he is born raw. This means that he is born with certain hidden talents. These talents are also called inborn potentialities. They are blunt not blank and require corresponding instruments to sharpen them. It is on this basis, that great philosophers and educationists from the classical period have stressed the importance of education. Over these years and ages education has ranked as the best legacy any conscientious leader, government or parent could leave for her/his people. This is increasingly important because the quality of education given to a people determines the standard of growth that can achieved. This anchors the federal government's statement that education has been adopted as an instrument par excellence for effective national development (FRN 1981:5).
However, solid waste can be managed through waste conversion method. Though waste conversion method might require long planning, large capital and expertise but, it is beneficial in all ramifications. The best way to achieve effective waste management is to introduce waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
The global concern for environmental health, climate change, global warming and others is on the increase as a result of improper management of waste from domestic to industrial/institutional centres (Akor, Ayotamuno, Aman, &Enokela. 2013). Materials identified to have no more value to man otherwise known as waste are gathered together and disposed off in non-environmentally friendly and unacceptable manners. The effects have become harmful to human, plants, animals and other natural resources over the years. In recent times, there have been concerns for sustainability of environment through environmental program as a result of environmental deterioration. Despite the efforts of the various organizations spearheading political activism and campaigns for change in policies, law, technologies and development to enhance environmental health qualities, the achievements recorded, remain minimal.
The best approach to waste management in Nigeria is an important concern; therefore, it is necessary to look for another effective means through formal education system. Hence, this study will investigate the opinions of students toward introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
1. What are the opinions of students toward introduction waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities?
2. What are the opinions of students toward introduction waste conversion education as a means of solving waste management problem in Nigeria?
3. Are there differences between the male and female students’ opinions toward introduction waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities?
4. Are there differences among the faculties in student’s attitudes toward waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide questions 1, 3 and 4 while questions 2 were answered directly.
1. The proportion for is not significantly difference from the proportion against the introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
2. There is no significant differences between males and females students opinion toward introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities
3. There is no significant differences among faculties in students opinions toward introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University
The purpose of this study is to find out the opinions of students toward waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
Specifically, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives;
1. To investigate the opinions of students toward waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
2. To determine the opinion of students toward waste conversion education as a means of solving the problems of waste management in Nigeria.
3. To investigate if there are differences between males and females students opinions toward introduction waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigeria University.
4. To investigate if there are differences among the faculties in students’ opinions toward introduction waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
5. To determine if there are significant differences between males and females students’ opinion toward introduction waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigeria University.
6. To determine if there are significant differences among the faculties in students opinions toward introduction waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
This study will be of great help to environmentalist, planners, researchers and educational policy makers. It is will be of use to the Nigeria University Commission (NUC) in policy and decision making.
This study examines the opinion of students toward introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigeria University and it is delimited to University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.
The researcher envisage non co-operation from the respondents in answering the question honestly because they might show references for their own courses of study. As a result, the researcher will first address the students, by telling them the aims of the study.
Wastes: waste are all things we consider as unfit, unwanted and discarded due to economic reasons or ignorance of alternative technologies to re-use them.
Waste conversion: waste conversion is a process by which waste materials are changed and treated, for the purpose of re-using and generating power from them.
This chapter reviews relevant literatures related to the study under the following heading;
- Theoretical framework
- Concepts of Wastes, Types of waste, Environmental cost of waste, Social cost of waste, Economic cost of waste, Resource recovery from waste, Energy recovery from waste, Education and awareness
- Waste management, Existing waste management process and practice in Nigeria, General methods of waste management
- Waste conversion, Waste converter
- Summary of reviewed literature
This study hinged on social theory. The theory was propounded by Sherif in 1961. Social judgment theory focuses on how people's prior attitudes distort their perceptions of the positions advocated in persuasive messages, and how such perceptions mediate persuasion. In general terms, the theory assumes that a person's own attitudes serve as a judgmental standard and anchor that influences where along a continuum a persuader's advocated position is perceived to lie (Sherif &Hovland, 1961). Social judgment theory is an attempt to apply the principles of judgment to the study of attitude change.
According to Sherif, Sherif, and Nebergall (1965), an individual's initial attitude serves as an anchor for the judgment of related attitude communications. Opinions are evaluated against this point of reference and are placed on an attitudinal continuum. Opinions that most characterized the individual's own opinion are in the latitude of acceptance. Those opinions found most objectionable are placed in the latitude of rejection. The latitude of non commitment consists of those opinions that are neither accepted nor rejected.
Communication that falls within the latitude of acceptance is assimilated, and if judged to be fair and unbiased will result in a change in attitude, within the limits of the latitude of acceptance, the greater the difference between the initial opinion and the communicated opinion, the greater the attitude change. Though some change is possible when Opinions fall within the latitude of rejection, the greater the discrepancy the less the change in attitude (Himmelfarb &Eagly, 1974; Kiesler et al., 1.969; Insko, 1.967).
Social judgment theory's core propositions can be summarized as follows (Eagly&Chaiken, 1993):
1. A person's current attitude serves as a judgmental anchor for new attitude positions.
2. Latitude widths determine whether a message's position will be assimilated or contrasted (e.g., accepted or rejected). Positions falling within the latitude of acceptance will be assimilated toward a person's current attitude. Positions falling within the latitude of rejection will be contrasted away from the person's own attitude.
3. Ego involvement of a person broadens the latitude of rejection and narrows the latitude of non-commitment.
4. Both assimilation and contrast effects increase as a positive function of a message's position and the recipient's attitude,
5. Ego involvement increases the anchoring property of initial attitudes.
6. Greater assimilation produces more positive evaluation of message content, which produces greater amounts of attitude change. Conversely, greater contrast produces more negative evaluations of message content, which produces lesser amounts of attitude change.
7. Ambiguity enhances the likelihood of judgmental distortions. Therefore, other effects are greater when recipients are exposed to persuasive messages whose content positions are ambiguous.
In summary, social judgment theory predictions for attitude change are largely home out by the research literature and by practice. Social judgment theory is important because it demonstrates the importance of people's prior attitudes.
The study is based on this theory because the theory demonstrates why the respondents’ attitude toward waste conversion education as a cause of study can be positive or negative. It shows the reasons behind their judgment.
According to the Basel Convention, "'Wastes’ are substance or objects, which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law” (Basel Convention 1989).
“Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the initial user has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded (United Nation Statistics Division, 1997).”Under the Waste Framework Directive, the European Union defines waste as “an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard.”
There are many waste types defined by modern systems of waste management, notably including: Municipal waste includes household waste, commercial waste, and demolition waste, Hazardous waste includes industrial waste, biomedical waste includes; clinical waste and Special hazardous waste includes radioactive waste, explosive waste, and electronic waste (e-waste)
Types of Solid Waste
Solid wastes are classified into different types depending on their sources namely, household generated waste, known as municipal waste. Industrial waste is described as hazardous waste, while waste generated in the hospital is termed infectious waste. Oreyomi (2005) classified solid waste as combustible items such as cartons, boxes, plastic, clothing etc. And non combustible articles such as cans, ashes, glass, metals, furniture and bathtubs etc. Oreyomi (2005) further observed that garbage denotes waste resulting from growing, handling, preparation and consumption of food. It attracts and breeds flies and other insects, tats and it emits odour. Rubwish comprises of combustible and non-combustible items such as papers, plastic, cans and glass, while industrial wastes are sawdust, paper and iron.
Agricultural wastes are wastes originating from agricultural products such as corncob, banana stub, skin and leaves and others.
Inappropriately managed waste can attract rodents and insects, which can harbour gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms, the plague and other conditions for humans, and exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers. Toxic waste materials can contaminate surface water, groundwater, soil, and air which causes more problems for humans, other species, and ecosystems (Daiz et al 2006). Waste treatment and disposal produces significant Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, notably methane, which are contributing significantly to global Warming (Environmental Protection Agency, 2009).
Waste management is a significant environmental justice issue. Many of the environmental burdens cited above are more often borne by marginalized groups, such as racial minorities, women, and residents of developing nations.
NIMBY (not in my back yard) is the opposition of residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them (Wolsink, 1994). However, the need for expansion and siting of waste treatment and disposal facilities is increasing worldwide. There is now a growing market in the transboundary movement of waste, and although most waste that flows between countries goes between developed nations, a significant amount of waste is moved from developed to developing nations (Ray, 2008).
The economic costs of managing waste are high, and are often paid for by municipal governments; money can often be saved with more efficiently designed collection routes, modifying vehicles, and with public education.
Environmental policies such as pay as you throw can reduce the cost of management and reduce waste quantities.
Waste recovery (that is, recycling, reuse) can curb economic costs because it avoids extracting raw materials and often cuts transportation costs. “Economic assessment of municipal waste management systems – case studies using a combination of life-cycle assessment (LCA) and life-cycle costing (LCC)".The location of waste treatment and disposal facilities often has an impact on property values due to noise, dust, pollution, unsightliness, and negative stigma. The informal waste sector consists mostly of waste pickers who scavenge for metals, glass, plastic, textiles, and other materials and then trade them for a profit. This sector can significantly alter or reduce waste in a particular system, but other negative economic effects come with the disease, poverty, exploitation, and abuse of its workers (Wilson 2006).
Resource recovery is the retrieval of recyclable waste, which was intended for disposal, for a specific next use. It is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources, or convert to energy. This process is carried out at a resource recovery facility.
Resource recovery is not only important to the environment, but it can be cost effective by decreasing the amount of waste sent to the disposal stream, reduce the amount of space needed for landfills, and protect limited natural resources.
This is the using non-recyclable waste materials and extracting from it heat, electricity, or energy through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, and anaerobic digestion. This process is referred to as waste-to-energy. There are several ways to recover energy from waste. Anaerobic digestion is a naturally occurring process of decomposition where organic matter is reduced to a simpler chemical component in the absence of oxygen.
This involves incineration or direct controlled burning of municipal solid waste to reduce waste and make energy. Secondary recovered fuel is the energy recovery from waste that cannot be reused or recycled from mechanical and biological treatment activities. Pyrolysis involves heating of waste, with the absence of oxygen, to high temperatures to break down any carbon content into a mixture of gaseous and liquid fuels and solid residue. Gasification is the conversion of carbon rich material through high temperature with partial oxidation into a gas stream. Plasma arc heating is the very high heating of municipal solid waste to temperatures ranging from 3,000-10,000 °C, where energy is released by an electrical discharge in an inert atmosphere. Using waste as fuel can offer important environmental benefits. It can provide a safe and cost-effective option for wastes that would normally have to be dealt with through disposal. It can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions by diverting energy use from fossil fuels, while also generating energy and using waste as fuel can reduce the methane emissions generated in landfills by averting waste from landfills (Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD), 2007).
There is some debate in the classification of certain biomass feedstock as wastes. Crude Tall Oil (CTO), a co-product of the pulp and papermaking process, is defined as a waste or residue in some European countries when in fact it is produced “on purpose” and has significant value add potential in industrial applications. Several companies use CTO to produce fuel, while the pine chemicals industry maximizes it as a feedstock “producing low-carbon, bio-based chemicals” through cascading use (Moran and Kelvin, 2014).
Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of “green house” gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations.
Several universities have implemented the Talloires Declaration by establishing environmental management and waste management programs, e.g. the waste management University project. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations, e.g. WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management.
Waste management is all those activities and action required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc. The term usually relates to all kinds of waste, whether generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, or other human activities, including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and special (health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge) (Waste Management, 2013).Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural area), and sectors (residential and industrial) (Davison, 2011).
Solid waste management, in terms of domestic, industrial and commercial wastes, traditionally consists of collection and disposal methods, depending on the type of waste, the area and level of processing required. Municipal waste management is the collective process of sorting, storage, collection, transportation, processing, resource recovering, recycling and disposal of waste. In Nigeria, wastes are usually dumped on roadsides, available open pits, flowing gully water and drainage channels (Babayemi and Dauda, 2009, Onwughara et al, 2010). The indiscriminate disposal of municipal waste is increasingly a prominent habit in most urban cities of Nigeria.
Unlike urban cities, in rural communities municipal solid waste quantity are less and managed in household backyards by burning, composting, as feeds to animals and occasionally disposed at dump sites. In Nigeria the processes involved in the management of waste are, storage, collection, transportation and disposal at dumpsites.
West Africa Health Examination Board (1991) viewed waste management as the systematic administration of activities, which provide for the collection transportation and processing of waste: It is the handling process of solid waste materials from sources of generation to their final disposal.
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(Source: Abila and Kantola (2013)
The above figure shows existing municipal solid waste management flowchart for Nigeria.
There are different techniques of municipal solid waste disposal but the common techniques are landfill, incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion and recycling (Igbinomwanhia, 2011). Although presently in Nigeria the prominently practiced municipal waste management technique is open dumping, land fill, followed by open burning while incineration method is seldom put to practice. Incineration is a cost effective municipal waste disposal option which is seldom applied in Nigeria hospitals where medical waste are incinerated at a minimal scale (Ogwueleka, 2009). The cheapest and simplest method of waste disposal is landfill. The resulting environmental impact of landfills is enormous but could be mitigated provided sanitary precautions are undertaken and waste reduction is advocated. Landfills were responsible for 49% of England’s methane emissions in 2007 (Burney, Phillips, Coleman & Rampling 2011). Moreover, recycling which is an environmentally friendly option is not fully adopted. There are no formal recycling sectors in Nigeria. Waste are recycled informally by scavengers who buy un-use valuables from people and also go to legal and illegal dumpsites in search of materials that than can be re-use and recycled.
Municipal solid waste generation
25 million tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated annually in Nigeria and the waste generation rates ranged from 0.66kg/cap/d in urban areas to 0.44kg/cap/d in rural areas as opposed to 0.7-1.8kg/cap/day in developed countries (Ogwueleka, 2009). There is a continuous increase of municipal solid waste production by households, educational institutions, commercial institutions, and among others. In Nigeria, municipal waste generators include household, commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional establishments and among others. The quantity and composition of waste generated vary from urban areas to rural areas and likewise from state to state. Waste generated is directly proportional to population, socio-economic status and level of urbanization, hence the quantity of waste generated varies (Adeboye et al, 2011).
However, solid wastes can be managed by open dumping, which requires little planning and involves a land that is designated formally for the purpose. But this method attracts flies, vermin and scavengers; the site is characterized by offensive odours and other health hazards. In a way, the site decreases the aesthetic value of the environment. Another technique is the regular sanitary landfill, which is usually a depressed land area that accommodates wastes and thereafter covered up with soil or other materials by bulldozers or other heavy vehicles. Incineration is the techniques of waste management which involves the combustion of waste at high temperature, that is, the destruction of waste materials by burning (friends of the earth, 2006).
Methods of Managing Waste
The four common methods of managing waste according to Seo (2004) are land filing, incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. Incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion are volume reducing technologies. Ultimately, residue from these methods must be land filled.
Ayodele (2007) viewed waste management as source reduction, refuse recycling, controlled combustion and controlled landfill. Furthermore, value can be recovered by generating energy from waste (energy recovery) and lastly, solid waste should only be disposed, if the aforementioned do not offer appropriate solution.
- Source Reduction: Involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other materials by modifying industrial production. This method includes change in manufacturing technology, raw material input and change in product formulation. RE-USE is using an object or material again, either for its original purpose or for a similar purpose, without significantly altering the physical form of the object or material.
- Recycling offers one means of reducing the impacts of waste disposal on the atmosphere. It involves using waste as material to manufacture a new product. Recycling involves altering the physical form of an object or material and making a new object from the altered material.
- Energy Recovery modern incinerators can use waste to generate electricity, thus preventing the energy in waste from being wasted.
Nordstrom and Enochsson (2009) see waste disposal as a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change by large emissions of greenhouse gases. By using waste material as a resource instead of land filling, the greenhouse emissions from landfills would be reduced.
Open dumping occurs when large quantities or piles of waste are deposited in areas, not designed to handle such materials. Improper disposal of waste is not only unsightly; it may affect the public health and the environment.
A sanitary landfill is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste management. Land filling involves pitching refuse into a depression or closed mining sites.
Waste decomposes in an enclosed chamber due to activities of bacteria, using the oxygen that combined chemically with waste. Composting is a process of biological decomposition of waste under aerobic and hemophilic conditions, which breakdown organic materials leaving a humus rich residue.
Incineration is a process of destroying waste material by burning. It is the most practical method of disposing hazardous waste. Incineration is the high temperature, combustion of solid waste after separating the non-combustibles.
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There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include:
The waste hierarchy refers to the “3 Rs” reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimisation. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. The waste hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the basic premise is for policy to take action first and prevent the generation of waste. The next step or preferred action is to reduce the generation of waste i.e. by re-use. The next is recycling which would include composting. Energy can be recovered from processes i.e. landfill and combustion, at this level of the hierarchy. This last step is the final resort for waste which has not been prevented, diverted or recovered. The waste hierarchy represents the progression of a product or material through the sequential stages of the pyramid of waste management. The hierarchy represents the latter parts of the life-cycle for each product (United Nations Environmental Programme, 2013)
The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds through manufacture, distribution, use and then follows through the waste hierarchy’s stages of reuse, recovery, recycling and disposal. Each of the above stages of the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its use (United Nations Environmental Programme, 2013).The key behind the life-cycle of a product is to optimize the use of the world’s limited resources by avoiding the unnecessary generation of waste.
Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that current, global, economic growth and development cannot be sustained with the current production and consumption patterns. Globally, we are extracting more resources to produce goods than the planet can replenish. Resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods, from final raw material extraction to last use and disposal. This process of resource efficiency can address sustainability.
The Polluter pays principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material.
Disposal methods: Disposal methods includes the following; Incineration, recycling, re-use, energy recovery, Landfill and many more.
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks.
Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organic compounds such as dioxins, furans, and PAHs, which may be created and which may have serious environmental consequences.
Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure called kerb side collection. In some communities the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into different bins (e.g. for paper, plastics, metals) prior to its collection. In other communities, all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a central facility. The latter method is known as "single-stream recycling.”The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverages cans, copper such as wire, steel from food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, rubber tyres, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes. PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS are also recyclable. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required. The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. Each city and country has different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials. However, certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed.
Composting, Home composting, Anaerobic digestion and Microbial fuel cell Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such An active compost heap. as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non- Anaerobic digestion component of Lubeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery. This process is often called waste-to-energy. Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills (United State Environmental Protection Agency, 2014). Globally, waste to energy accounts for 16% of waste management (New Energy Corporation, 2014).
The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products (chemical refinery). The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. An alternative to pyrolysis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition (hydrothermal monophasic oxidation).
Pyrolysis is a process of thermo-chemically decomposition of organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen which produces various hydrocarbon gases. During pyrolysis, the molecules of object are subjected to very high temperatures leading to very high vibrations. Therefore, every molecule in the object is stretched and shaken to an extent that molecules starts breaking down. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature. In industrial applications, temperatures are above 430 °C (800 °F). Fast pyrolysis produces liquid fuel for feed stocks like wood. Slow pyrolysis produces gases and solid charcoal. Pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of waste biomass into useful liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of waste plastics can produce millions of litres of fuel. Solid products of this process contain metals, glass, sand and pyrolysis coke which cannot be converted to gas in the process (Britannica Encyclopedia).
Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste, which was intended for disposal, for a specific next use. It is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources, or convert to energy. These activities are performed at a resource recovery facility. Resource recovery is not only environmentally important, but it is also cost effective. It decreases the amount of waste for disposal, saves space in landfills, and conserves natural resources (Grand Tranverse Country, 2006).
Resource recovery (as opposed to waste management) uses LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer alternatives to waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that administration, source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic material via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path. As an example of how resource recycling can be beneficial, many of the items thrown away contain precious metals which can be recycled to create a profit, such as the components in circuit boards. Other industries can also benefit from resource recycling with the wood chippings in pallets and other packaging materials being passed onto sectors such as the horticultural profession.
In this instance, workers can use the recycled chips to create paths, walkways, or arena surfaces.
The management of waste is a key component in a business’ ability to maintaining accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices, which are sustainability related activities. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste management to resource recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles and metal.
An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans and packaging, and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, light weighting of beverage cans) (Schneider, 2012).
While waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations, trans-boundary movement of waste is often subject to international treaties. A major concern of many countries in the world has been on hazardous waste. The Basel Convention, ratified by 172 countries, deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. The provisions of the Basel convention have been integrated into the EU waste shipment regulation. Nuclear waste, although considered hazardous, does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Basel Convention.
Waste is not something that should be discarded or disposed of with no regard for future use. It can be a valuable resource if addressed correctly, through policy and practice. With rational and consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits.
Those benefits include:
1. Economic - Improving economic efficiency through the means of resource use, treatment and disposal and creating markets for recycles can lead to efficient practices in the production and consumption of products and materials resulting in valuable materials being recovered for reuse and the potential for new jobs and new business opportunities.
2. Social - By reducing adverse impacts on health by proper waste management practices, the resulting consequences are more appealing settlements. Better social advantages can lead to new sources of employment and potentially lifting communities out of poverty especially in some of the developing poorer countries and cities.
3. Environmental - Reducing or eliminating adverse impacts on the environmental through reducing, reusing and recycling, and minimizing resource extraction can provide improved air and water quality and help in the reduction of greenhouse emissions.
4. Inter-generational Equity - Following effective waste management practices can provide subsequent generations a more robust economy, a fairer and more inclusive society and a cleaner environment (United State Environmental Protection Agency, 2013).
Waste management in cities with developing economies and economies in transition experience exhausted waste collection services, inadequately managed and uncontrolled dumpsites and the problems are worsening.Problems with governance also complicate the situation. Waste management, in these countries and cities, is an ongoing challenge and many struggle due to weak institutions, chronic under-resourcing and rapid urbanization. All of these challenges along with the lack of understanding of different factors that contribute to the hierarchy of waste management, affect the treatment of waste (Science Direct, 2013).
Traditionally the waste management industry has been a late adopter of new technologies such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry (Claire 2015).
Definition of waste conversion
Waste conversion is the rearrangement of majority of carbon atoms to a valuable product. It is a process that converts waste to, energy (heat, electricity), fuel (methane, gasoline) and chemical products (alcohols, ammonia (Brayan 2013)).
Pyrolysis as a chemical process has been around since ancient times (ex. conversion of wood to charcoal). It Achieved by covering burning wood with leaves and dirt and resulting product was used as a soil amendment. Coal was gasified in the mid 19th century to produce coal gas or “town gas” used to light street lamps. Anaerobic digestion first utilized to produce biogas around the same time. First US plant began operation in 1939. Pyrolysis and gasification first seriously considered as a commercial waste treatment methods in the 1970s oil crisis.
A waste converter is a machine used for the treatment and recycling of solid and liquid refuse material. A converter is a self-contained system capable of performing the following functions: pasteurization of organic waste; sterilization of pathogenic or biohazard waste; grinding and pulverization of refuse into unrecognizable output; trash compaction; dehydration. Because of the wide variety of functions available on converters, this technology has found application in diverse waste-producing industrial segments. Hospitals, clinics, municipal waste facilities, farms, slaughterhouses, supermarkets, ports, sea vessels, and airports are the primary beneficiaries of on-site waste conversion.
The converter is an evolution of the autoclave, invented by Sir Charles Chamber land in 1879, but differs from a waste autoclave in several key characteristics. While the autoclave relies on high temperature and pressure to achieve moist heat sterilization of waste, a converter operates in the atmospheric pressure range. Superheating conditions and steam generation are achieved by variable pressure control, which cycles between ambient and negative pressure within the sterilization cell. The advantage of this updated approach is a safer and less complicated operation that does not require a pressure vessel. Additionally, while autoclaves require external water input, modern converters utilize the moisture content already present in the conversion cell to generate steam sterilization conditions. Any water that is introduced into the process can be recycled in a closed-loop system as opposed to being dumped as run-off sewage. In general, the converter is a simplified, cleaner, and more efficient update to Sir Charles’s invention.
Converter technology is an environmentally friendly alternative to other traditional means of waste disposal that include incineration, plasma arc, and landfill dumping in that waste conversion results in a small carbon footprint, avoids polluting emissions into the atmosphere, and results in a usable end product such as biofuel, soil compost, or building material.
Application of the converter is common in centralized waste conversion centers, where large machines process waste on an industrial scale. MSW (Municipal solid waste) or infectious waste, depending on the type of plant, is sterilized and converted into a sterilized organic and inorganic, innocuous end-product. Machines used in such large-scale applications process between 1,000 and 4,000 kg of waste per hour. At the end of each cycle, lasting as little as half-hour in Converters (that are capable of grinding), they pulverized, sanitized, and dehydrated product is off-loaded and segregated for other uses. Some of the product is routed for use in pulp production, composting, or refuse-derived fuel.
Applications outside of waste treatment centers are increasingly common due to the portability and simplicity of modern converters. Hospitals are a large beneficiary of converter technology, which allows for the immediate treatment of potentially infected hazardous waste at its source. Hospitals and clinics equipped to have a zero hazardous waste footprint operate by having a converter placed on every floor where single use sanitary items such as needles, scalpels, bandages, and blood bags are immediately converted into innocuous product. In addition to the marked improvement in sanitation, on-site treatment of hazardous waste allows operational cost savings for these facilities. The government of Tuscany, Italy for example calculated an annual figure of 8 Million Euro that was saved by turning to on-site treatment of medical hospital waste.
Supermarkets and food producers (who dump unused food waste in municipal landfills at a rate that is alarming many conservationists) have found a use for converter technology. By processing unused and decomposing food matter together with packaging and other refuse on site, supermarkets have achieved improvements in terms of waste disposal costs. This is in addition to improvements in public perception, which had been seriously critical of the amount of waste sent to landfills by food stores. In the UK alone 6.7 million metric tons of food waste goes into landfills each year, resulting in 8 million metric tons of CO2 being emitted. Farms, slaughterhouses, and other food producers are likewise becoming more involved in on-site waste conversion. Larger installations especially, where garbage hauling is a major and expensive operation, currently have economic and legislative incentives to move towards operating own converters. Recent drives toward environmentally conscious or “green” technologies have even provided government budgets for such installations. Naval vessels, cruise liners, and off-shore installations such as gas-drilling rigs and oil platforms are another logical application of converter technology. Due to the extended isolation periods of sea-going vessels and offshore platforms there is an issue of how to store and dispose of refuse in an efficient and sanitary way. Worldwide legislation on sea dumping is strict and does not allow, under stringent penalties, any ships or sea vessels to dump waste, gray water, or even ballast water that has been collected in a remote geographic location due to the danger of biological contamination. Ship-generated waste is either held and disposed of in port waste disposal facilities or can be converted directly on the vessel for easier storage and at times (depending on waste composition) for additional fuel.
The converter is one of the “green technologies” available today for waste treatment. There is a clear and definite positive environmental impact stemming from the use of waste conversion into biofuel, building material, and soil compost. In 2009 ever-increasing numbers of waste exporters around the world are finding it difficult to find buyers for their cargo. Increasing numbers of local and national governments are also turning to recycling and conversion technology to relieve the pressure on already-full or overfilled landfills. Waste conversion, augmented by traditional recycling methods, now allows nearly 99% of all MSW to be reused in some way, thus sharply reducing the demand on landfills.
In 1980 only about 10% on municipal solid waste was recycled, and the product consisted largely of paper and glass recycled material. With the widespread use of autoclaves, that percentage climbed to a significant 45% by the year 2000, when composting and energy recovery became more common. With the evolution of the autoclave and the arrival of converters new uses of converted product are emerging on an ongoing basis. Some applications only recently implemented are: Composting and combining with farm fertilizer, building material such as concrete additive, gasification fuel, and furnace/boiler pellet additive.
The latter two are energy recovery options that only became acceptable on a large scale once the product was demonstrated to burn cleanly and within EPA emission regulations. A notable fact about energy recovery is that even though some waste was already reused in this way as early as 1980, the current generation of converters produces Biomass Fuel that burns exponentially cleaner than the incinerated waste of those times.
There are environmentally conscious improvements that have been built into the design of converters based on the lessons learned from older technologies. The new machines run on much less power than the large pressure vessel type autoclaves, and can be plugged into 400V power supplies or run off of a small motor as stand-alone units.
As a result of this, a new degree of portability became possible, and now facilities such as hospitals are placing dish-washer sized units in every department. One important advent that allowed for a leaner, green technology is the ability of modern converters to transfer mechanical energy and friction force on the waste mass into heat energy that is used in the pasteurization and sterilization processes.
A typical treatment cycle will begin with the loading of unsorted waste material and end in the offload of a dry powder (product), which now possesses new characteristics and that the input material did not. The garbage is loaded into a chamber, also the conversion cell, by hand or through the use of a loading elevator or conveyor belt, depending on the application and toxicity/danger level associated with handling the waste. The previous batch of post-treatment product is removed and a new cycle is started through an electronic control panel. Modern converters are fully automatic and will finish the computer controlled cycle autonomously, unless a failure occurs. The precise conditions needed to achieve pasteurization and sterilization is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) in millisecond intervals. This level of control in modern units has allowed for the simplification of autoclave technology to the point where heavy and potentially dangerous pressure vessels are not needed, and sterilization conditions are reached by depressing the conversion cell and continuing to evaporate moisture from the product under negative pressure. The result is a statistically safer and more reliable machine, which is also smaller and lighter than older autoclaves.
The conversion cycle consists of several sequential steps or phases. The waste is first ground and pulverized to an unrecognizable mixture by a combination of fixed and actuated hardened steel blades. The mixture is then heated through the injection of steam and also by the heat generated by frictional forces of the grinding phase. The exact temperature required pasteurizing, and in the subsequent phase to sterilize the waste, is maintained for a time that allows for an 18 log 10 reductions in microorganisms.
In order to eliminate the required amount of microorganisms required by government regulations, a complete saturation of waste matter with superheated steam is required for a minimum amount of time, also regulated by environmental agencies. The modern converter achieves saturation within 10–15 minutes due to the high degree of pulverization preceding the sterilization phase, whereas older models required up to several hours to saturate and sterilize the same load. The cycle ends in a cooling phase, during which product continues to be dehydrated. Upon reaching temperature at which product is safe to handle, near ambient temperature, the cycle automatically shuts down. The end product is expelled into a tray that can then be hauled off for storage. The entire process and statistics are recorded and stored in computer memory for record keeping.
Waste Conversion Technologies (Bryan Staley 2013)
Bryan discus waste conversion technology under the following sub heading;
- Diversion and conversion hierarchy
- Waste composition and diversion/conversion
- Types of waste conversion technologies
- Anaerobic digestion
- Pyrolysis and Gasification
- Hydrothermal Carbonization
The related literature review of the attitude of University of Benin Students toward waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigeria University could be conclusively summarized as follows:
Obviously, waste is unavoidable materials generated as a result of human activities. According to the Basel convention (1989), waste are substances or objects, which are disposed off or are intended to be disposed off or are require to be disposed off by the provision of national law. It is an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is require to be discarded. Waste can be classified into Municipal waste such as; (household waste, commercial waste, and demolition waste), Hazardous waste (industrial waste), biomedical waste (clinical waste), and special hazardous waste; (radioactive waste, explosive waste and electronic waste (e-waste)). The improper disposal of waste has both social, environmental and economic cost. Among these cost are significant to Green House Gas (GHG) emission, notably methane which are contributing significantly to global warming.
In accordance with West Africa Health Examination Board (1991) waste management is the systematic administration of activities, which provide for collection, transportation and processing of waste. It is the handling process of solid waste materials from sources of generation to their final disposal. Methods of managing waste include; source reduction, recycling, energy recovery, wastes disposal, land filling, composting and incineration. Although, presently in Nigeria, the prominent practiced municipal waste management techniques is open dumping, land fill, followed by open burning while incineration method is seldom put into practice.
Waste conversion is the rearrangement of majority of carbon atoms to valuable products. It is a process that converts waste to energy (heat and electricity), fuel (methane and gasoline) and chemical products (alcohols and ammonia). Waste conversion technology includes: biological methods (anaerobic digestion and fermentation) and thermal methods (WTE, Pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization). A waste converter is a machine used for the treatment and recycling of solid and liquid refuse materials. A converter is a self-contained system capable of performing the following functions; pasteurization of organic waste, sterilization of pathogenic or biohazard waste, grinding and pulverization of refuse into unrecognizable output, trash compaction and dehydration.
100 Level courses for waste conversion education
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100 Level courses for waste conversion education
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200 Level courses for waste conversion education
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200 Level courses for waste conversion education
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300 Level courses for waste conversion education
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300 Level courses for waste conversion education
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400 Level courses for waste conversion education
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400 Level courses for waste conversion education
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WCE101- Introduction to concepts of waste
This course outline the concept of wastes from different authors; definition of wastes, classes of waste and sources of wastes
WCE 102 – Introduction to environmental sanitation
This course analyse measures to protect public health through proper solid waste disposal, sewage disposal, and cleanliness during food processing and preparation. The course will also discuss legal protection from dangerous foods and drugs.
WCE 103 - Introduction to Basic Geology
Classification of rocks; Geology of southern India: tectonic concepts; The earth structures and its significance; Shear/suture zones-identification, interpretation and implications, Fluid influence in shear zones; Petrological, geochemical and geo-chronological: methods, approaches and inferences, origin-exhumation-weathering: the rock cycle, landforms, element mobility and interactions; Linking rocks/mineral chemistry to tectonics with Indian examples. Laboratory component: Sample preparation of rock specimens, Petrological observation of rock and mineral thin sections.
WCE 1O4: Introduction to Earth Systems
Earth Surface features, concept of Geomorphology, Weathering phenomena, Physics and chemistry of Earth's interior, Internal processes, tectonics through time, Geological time scale, Bio-stratigraphy, Early Earth, Rock formation, Rock classification, mineralogy, Basics of crystal symmetry, Composition of Atmosphere and origin of atmosphere, Earth like planetary bodies, Evidence of life in other planet, basics of hydrosphere and its component, physical property of water, Elementary Oceanography, chemical composition of ocean, Evolution of life and its diversification.
WCE 111: Foundation of waste management
The course gives the student an overview of waste management including collection, transfer, transport, and disposal. It also peruse the history of waste management.
WCE 112: introduction to environmental education
The course reviews the historical development of environmental education, focus of environmental education objectives UNESCO and UNEP as body for its declaration, environmental problems and measures to control them, principles of environmental education environmental health and sound sanitation would be discussed. Actions detrimental to the environment will be analyzed
WCE 1113: Experimental Methods in Solid Waste Management
Solid waste characterization - Water leach test, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure, Pollutant sorption capacity characterization, Kinetics & adsorption isotherms, Distribution coefficients Pollutant transport Column experiments to evaluate transport and partitioning in vadose and saturated zones, Diffusion coefficients Laboratory determination of soil permeability for contaminant flow Chemical solidification of contaminated wastes Lime and cement stabilization, Leaching and compressive strength measurements
WCE 114: Fundamentals of Climate Science
Atmospheric structure and composition, Observations and theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere, Global energy balance, Radiative processes in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, natural and anthropogenic climate change, waves in the atmosphere, clouds, weather systems, tropical dynamics and monsoons, ocean circulation.
WCE 201: Introduction to wastes conversion
The course reviews the historical development of waste conversion, focus of wastes conversion and various wastes conversion method will be discussed. Actions detrimental to the waste conversion will be analyzed
WCE 202: Waste management system in Nigeria
The course on Waste Management in Nigeria gives the student an overview of municipal solid waste management including collection, transfer, transport, and disposal Nigeria. Methods of processing, basic disposal facilities, disposal options, and the environmental issues of solid waste management will be covered in this course. In addition, this course provides the student with relevant information about municipal solid waste reduction and on hazardous waste management.
WCE203: Introduction to Solid Earth
History of the Earth: Introduction to Earth history, origin of the Earth and solar system; origin andevolutionoflife,massextinctions,interpretationofthegeological record of Earth history; measurement of geological time, historical development of concepts.
WCE204: Water and sanitation
The Course is water and sanitation focus on getting the basics right with the aim of providing the participants with information and tools on how to manage water and sanitation challenges in rural and urban areas.
WCE211: waste management education
The course emphasize on the role of teaching and learning in reducing the challenges of wastes management system. It includes; pedagogy and andragogy of teaching attitudes toward individual roles in waste management’s.
WCE 212: waste conversion education
The course emphasize on the role of educationist in waste conversion. It includes; pedagogy of teaching toward achievement of waste conversion objectives.
WCE213: Career Opportunities in waste conversion education
This course survey broad scope of occupation and career mobility, professional identity and values, health professional partnership. Planning and directing curriculum value. Health programs, health interview and strategies. Career assessment, counseling, job opportunities and job Security
WCE 214: Teaching methods in waste conversion education
This course emphasized on the various methods of teaching that can be adopted in wastes conversion education.
WCE 301: First Aid and Safety Education
This course addresses the need to prepare the lay public for immediate assistance to an injured person. The course also prepares the students for disaster preparedness using simple, practical, sensible techniques. The course will look at various techniques and the principles behind them. Among others, it would cover open wounds special wounds, dressing and bandaging open and close fractures, etc
WCE 302: Need for waste conversion education
The course analyzed the various reasons and the need for waste conversion education
WCE 303: Occupational Safety in waste management
The course will develop workers and the environment, workplace hazards, occupational hygiene, workplace stress, occupational safety and health management system. The course will also outline national safety protocol laid down for workplace. Roles and responsibilities of occupational health and safety professionals. It defined, hazard, risk and safety gadgets PPEs or and their usage, hazard assessment, risk assessment, fire accident control and occupational health services.
WCE 304: Field experience in waste conversion or waste management system
This course enables students to have practical and field experience in waste management’s organization.
WCE 311: Sources and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste
The course focuses on Municipal solid waste Sources and describe the advantages of determining the composition of Municipal solid waste. It also Explain types of solid waste and State types of materials recovered from MSW
WCE 312: Processing of Solid Waste
This curse explain solid waste processing methods and describe processing steps of residential, commercial and industrial site MSW from various sources with clean flow Chart.
WCE 313: Waste water treatment
Waste water generation patterns/sources quantification and quality issues, Pathogens and microbiological risks from wastewater. Pollution Indicators - physical, chemical, biological and microbiological. Water Testing - Physico-chemical properties, Biological and microbiological characteristics. Microbial Metabolism with respect to waste water remediation and water treatment, Organic Matter Removal-Anaerobic and Aerobic methods, Modeling activated sludge processes. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Pathogen removal from wastewater, Aquatic and water Toxicity and toxicology, Physico-chemical basis and processes for aeration, mixing, settling, microbial killing processes. Sludge physical properties, settling properties, characterization, remediation, treatmentand disposal. Membrane Bio-reactors, Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment reactor designs, Hybrid reactors, Biofilm Reactors, Anaerobic biofilm reactors. Micro-biological and Phyto-remediation techniques. Grey and black water recycling, needs, Ground water pollution, sources and mechanisms, sustainability issues, in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation.
WCE 314: Waste conversion technologies
This course explains various wastes conversion technology. It also discuss the health benefits and implication of each one of them.
WCE 401: Surface and Groundwater Quality
Hydrologic Cycle, Water and chemical budgets; Sources and types of water pollution, Water quality standards, Fate and transport in aquatic systems, Rivers and streams, Lakes & Reservoirs, Wetlands, Estuaries. Groundwater flow and geologic controls on flow, Vadose zone hydrology, Contaminant transport in groundwater, Modeling environment.
WCE 402 Solid Waste Generations and Collection
The course describe the functional Elements of solid waste management program, Discuss in detail the methods of MSW collection and its generation State the assumptions for quantities of solid and factors affecting solid waste generation rate and State the quantities of Waste generated materials recovered from MSW
WCE 403: Waste management and Community Health
This course will review the basic concepts of community health and environmental education and its implication on improving health in our community
WCE 404: Epidemiology and Public Health
The aim of this course is to provide the student with an appreciation for the role of epidemiology in education practice. Upon completion of the course, the student should be able to calculate and interpret basic epidemiology measures, recognize the strength and limitation of various study designs, understand the scope of epidemiology in health education. The guiding principle in this course is the presentation of epidemiology in a manner that is both unthreatening and interesting. However, the scope of the topic is limited to core principles and concepts
WCE 411: Handling, Separation and Storage of Solid Waste
This course discusses the importance of site handling of solid waste. It also Explain onsite solid waste handling and separation at commercial and industrial facilities. The course State the storage of solid waste at the sources
WCE 412: Nature of man and his Environment
The course will emphasize the natural environment, components of environment ecosystem and factors affecting balance of the ecosystem, climatic changes and the health implications. Also bodies protecting environmental environment such as EPA UNEP. Earth components and its sustenance, environmental laws and policy, environmental issues such as climatic change pollution, land degradation, resource depletion and erosion will be look at and their health implication and an introduction on biodiversity
WCE 413: Introduction to Geography environment
This course is a systematic survey of the inter-related component of the physical system. The role and interrelationship of geography, climatic, pedagogies and human activities in forming the physical landscape are emphasis. Topics covered in this course include the following structure of the process and their manners effects manner land-forming effects geomorphology/wave action the atmospheric system and elements of climate, types of soils, soil formation processes, soil fertility and degradation, soil erosion and conservation, distribution of world vegetation and factors or anthropogenic control of the physical landscape, structure of the atmosphere and hydrosphere and energy ecosystem
WCE 414: Wastes and diseases
This course focus on diseases that are related to wastes, poor sanitation and their preventive measures.
(Sources; Rao, 2003; Ethekwini 2014; Natural Resource, 2004; Dougll, White, Franke & Hindle, 2001, Health Education Prospectus, 2014)
This chapter deals with the methods and procedures that were used in carrying out the study. They include:
- Research Design
- Population Of the Study
- Sample And Sampling Technique
- Research Instrument
- Validity Of the Research Instrument
- Reliability Of The Research Instrument
- Method Of Data Collection
- Method of Data Analysis.
Descriptive research design was used for this study. This is appropriate because descriptive survey research design enable the investigator to describe certain variable in relation to a certain population (Omorogiuwa, 2006). This design also allows for variety of data gathering techniques such as Questionnaire, Observation, Interview, Test and others and a combination of instruments.
The population of this study comprises of 32,425 undergraduate students of University Benin.
A total of one thousand five hundred and ninety students constitute the sample for the study representing 10% of the entire population (Owie, 2013). A multi-stage sampling technique will be used to select the students. This involve randomly selection of seven faculties/schools from the entire fourteen faculties/school to represent the entire population as clusters with population of fifteen thousand eight hundred and ninety six in the first stage. The second stage involves the selection of a representative from the entire cluster to form a sample through random sampling technique. A total of one thousand five hundred and ninety students were selected to constitute the sample for the study representing 10%.The selection of students to represent the sample was based on the students on ground on the day of administration of the questionnaire.
The instrument for data collection was questionnaire, which was title “Opinions of Students Toward Waste Conversion Education”. The researcher developed the questionnaire based on the information from the literature review and personal experience. The questionnaire was divided into two sections, A and B.
Section A contains information on the demographic data such as, name of Faculty, level, sex and department.
Section B consists 0f items eliciting responses on opinions students toward waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
The items are structured in Likert modified four points scale with response pattern as detailed below;
Strongly Agree - 4 points
Agree - 3 points
Disagree - 2 points
Strongly Disagree – 1 point.
The instrument was validated by two experts from the Department Of Health, Safety and Environmental Education, Faculty of Education. The experts were given copies of the research questions and hypotheses alongside the purpose of study. They examined the instrument to ascertain whether the items measure the issues raised in the study. Issues raised in the study included; opinions of students toward waste conversion as a course of study in Nigeria University. The experts vet the items in the questionnaire in terms of clarity of expression and appropriateness of the items to the content of the work. Their recommendations help the researcher to re-organize and modify some of the items in the questionnaire.
To ascertain the reliability of the instrument, test-retest reliability method was used. This will be done by an initial administration of the instrument of twenty (30) respondents drawn from the same population. After two weeks, the same instrument will be re-administered to the same respondents. The scores from first and second administration were subjected to Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and yield r-value of 0.739
The researcher used two persons as research assistants. He explained to them the importance of the research and how they could be of assistance to him. After the short enlightenment exercise, the assistants collaborated with the researcher and administer the questionnaire to the students. The assistants worked simultaneously with each other under the supervision of the researcher.
In all the faculties they visited, the researcher and the assistants presented themselves to the students. Thereafter, the researcher and his research assistants administered the questionnaire to the selected students who responded immediately and submit their responses to the researcher and his assistants. This procedure was adopted to minimize potential loss in the course of administering the questionnaire.
The data analysis was carried out as follows; research questions 1 and 2 was analyzed using aggregate scores (mean and standard deviation).
The research hypotheses were tested using ANOVA. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 Alpha level.
This chapter deals with the presentation of data and their analysis, interpretation and discussion of findings by the researcher based on the opinions of opinion of University of Benin students toward the introduction of Waste Conversion Education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities that were extracted from the research instrument as well as the analysis of hypotheses that were presented for the study.
ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENT CHARACTER
TABLE 4.1.1 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS
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Table 4.1.1 shows that the minority which is 275 (40.1%) of the respondents are female, while majority which is 411 (59.9%) are male
TABLE 4.1.1 FACULTY OF RESPONDENTS
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Table 4.1.1 shows that 225 (32.8%) of the respondents are from the faculty of education, 90 (13.1%) of the respondents are from faculty of agricultural science, while 141 (20.6%) of the respondents are from faculty of life science. Also 11 (1.6%) of the respondents are from faculty of environmental science as 139 (20.3%) of the respondents are from faculty of physical science. In addition 30(4.4%) of the respondents are from faculty of medicine and 50 (7.3%) of the respondents are from faculty of business studies.
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
RESEARCH QUESTION 1
What is the opinion of students toward the introduction of Waste Conversion Education as a course of study in Nigerian Universities?
Table 4.2.1: Descriptive Statistics on the opinion of students toward introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
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Table 4.2.1 shows the opinion of students toward introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities. The data revealed that all item 1-20 had mean of 64.6983, the findings on the opinion of students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities is remain positive.
Research Hypothesis 1
Ho1: The proportion for is not significantly difference from the proportion against the introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
Table 4.0 Binomial Test table on the proportion for is not significant different from the proportion against the introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigeria University.
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The table 4.00 above shows that 0.2347 observe proportion against the introduction of Waste Conversion Education as a course of study in Nigerian University while 0.7653observe proportion for the introduction of Waste Conversion Education as a course of study in Nigerian University with P < 0.05. The null hypothesis which states that ‘the proportion for is not significant different from the proportion against introduction of waste conversion education as a proposed course of study in Nigeria University’ therefore rejected. Consequently, the alternative hypothesis which states that the proportion for is significant different from the proportion against the introduction Waste Conversion Education as a proposed course of study in Nigeria University’ is accepted. The data also signify that the need for waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigeria University is high.
Research Hypothesis 2
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the opinions of the male and female students toward the introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
Table 4.0 ANOVA table on if there is significant difference between the opinions of the male and female students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
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The table 4.00 above shows an F value of 24.770 and P < 0.05. The null hypothesis which states that ‘there is no significant difference between the opinion of the male and female students toward the introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities’ is rejected. Consequently, the alternative hypothesis which states that there is significant difference between males and females students opinion toward introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities is accepted.
The finding of the study revealed that gender is a predictor of opinion students toward introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
Research Hypothesis 3
Ho1: There is no significant difference among faculties in student’s opinions toward introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
Table 4.0 ANOVA table on if there is no significant differences among faculties in student’s opinions toward introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
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The table 4.00 above shows an F value of 1.858 and P < 0.05. The null hypothesis which states that ‘ there is no significant difference among faculties in students opinion toward the introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities’ is rejected Consequently, the alternative hypothesis which states that there is significant different among faculties in students opinion toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities is accepted.
The finding of the study revealed that faculty is a predictor of opinion of students toward the introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
The findings made on this study were based on the three research questions and the three hypotheses presented for the study which had its focus on the opinion of students toward introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities.
From research question one, the opinion of students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities is above the average with mean of 64.6983. The findings revealed that there is positive opinion from students toward introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities. This high mean shows the level at which the students want waste to be effective managed through educational system. This support the statement of the Federal Government's that education has been adopted as an instrument par excellence for effective national development (FRN 1981:5). Waste management will reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics (Davison, 2011). This shows that most of the respondents want waste conversion education to be a course of study in a Nigerian university and also believed that Waste Conversion Education as a course would create awareness about waste related diseases. However, this shows the need for expansion and siting of waste treatment and disposal facilities is increasing worldwide. There is now a growing market in the transboundary movement of waste, and although most waste that flows between countries goes between developed nations, a significant amount of waste is moved from developed to developing nations (Ray, 2008).
From research hypothesis one, the data show that the proportion for the introduction of Waste Conversion Education as a course of study in Nigerian University is significant differently from the proportion against the introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University. The finding shows that respondents see waste management as a global problem and that it should be concerns everybody. This findings support Enochsson (2009), who see waste disposal as a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change by large emissions of greenhouse gases. By using waste material as a resource instead of land filling, the greenhouse emissions from landfills would be reduced. Akor, Ayotamuno, Aman, &Enokela (2013) also express the global concern for environmental health, climate change, global warming and others is on the increase as a result of improper management of waste from domestic to industrial/institutional centres.
From research hypothesis two, the data revealed that there is significant different between the opinion of the males and females students toward the introduction of ‘waste conversion education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities. This support the finding of.( Muller and Schienberg 2012) who shows that as men and women participate (or not) in managing waste within the household, their relationship to discarded materials may depend on who they are, as much as or more than on what they do. In particular, the frequently subordinate status of women may affect their general access to and control of resources, so that the “waste materials or waste related activities may be the only one which are available to them
This finding supports Jerie (2011) who stipulated that there are divergent views by men and women operating home industries on priorities for new or improved services, preferences or type of service or the willingness to pay installation costs and operation. This findings support the findings of Poswa (2012) who stated that there are great differences between men and women on the choice of type of waste collection service system they would operate. Women preferred a door-to-door waste collection system unlike men whose choice was a drop off centre.
From research hypothesis three, the data revealed that there is significant difference among faculties and opinions of students toward the introduction of ‘Waste Conversion Education’ as a course of study in Nigerian Universities. This maybe as a result of personal interest in their various courses of faculties. This support the finding of Davison, (2011) who stated that Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural area), and sectors (residential and industrial). Waste generated is directly proportional to population, socio-economic status and level of urbanization, hence the quantity of waste generated varies (Adeboye et al, 2011).
Effort has been made in this research study to find the opinion of students toward the introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
A description survey research design was used for the study. The sample for this study consisted of six hundred and eighty six students randomly selected using multistage random sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was constructed by the researcher. It has a reliability coefficient of 0.739 using test retest method. The data was analyzed with SPSS using means of scores, standard deviation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the hypotheses, alpha level was set to 0.05. Findings reveal that;
1) Waste conversion Education should be a course of study in Nigerian University.
2) Opinion of university students towards the introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study is positive.
3) The proportion for introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian university is higher than the proportion against.
4) Gender has significant influence on the o Opinion of university students towards the introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
5) Lastly, faculty has significant influence on the o Opinion of university students towards the introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
Based on the findings of this study earlier on, it can therefore be concluded that, for the fact that Opinion of university students towards the introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study is positive; the findings revealed that Waste conversion Education should be a course of study in Nigerian University. Also the findings revealed that gender has significant influence on the opinion of students towards introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study. It can also be concluded that the proportion for the introduction of Waste Conversion Education as a course of study in Nigerian University is significantly different from the proportion against the introduction of waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University. Finally, Faculty of the respondents has significant influence on their opinion towards introduction of wastes conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
The following recommendations were made:
1. Wastes Conversion Education should be introduce as a course of study in Nigerian Universities
2. Wastes Conversion Education should be part of Nigerian University curriculum.
3. Gender sensitivity should be put into consideration when planning waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University where necessary.
4. Faculty should be put into consideration when planning waste conversion education as a course of study in Nigerian University.
5. Waste management should be encouraged though educational system.
6. Waste management should be everybody concern.
7. Radio and Television should anchor programme that encourage effective waste management.
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DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, SCHOOL OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY;
OPIONNAIRE ON OPINION OF STUDENTS TOWARD WASTE CONVERSION EDUCATION AS APROPOSED COURSE OF STUDY IN NIGERIA UNIVERSITY
This opinionnaire is design for a postgraduate degree project work on opinion of students toward waste conversion education as a proposed course of study in Nigeria University. Please give your candid response to each question. There is no right or wrong answers, and all information given shall be treated with optimum confidentiality.
PLEASE DO NOT WRITE YOU NAME
Kindly tick (√) one answer for each statement accordingly. I appreciate your maximum cooperation, thanks.
Sex Male ( ) Female ( )
Please tick (√) the appropriate column as applicable to you. The following are the options as shown below: SA (Strongly Agreed), A (Agreed), D (Disagreed), SD (Strongly Disagreed)
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