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153 Seiten, Note: 95.0
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Body Image and Body image Dissatisfaction:
1.2 Controlling Media Effects:
1.3 Role of Social Factors:
1.4 Pakistan Media Industry and Body-image dissatisfaction:
1.5 Statement of the Problem:
1.6 Significance of the Study:
1.7 Overview of the Study:
CHAPTER 2.LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The History:
2.2 Body Image Perception among Pakistani Females:
2.3 The Successful, Thin Female:
2.4 The Powerful Effects of Media:
2.5.1 Television Advertisement:
2.6.1 Magazine Advertisements:
2.7 Social Media:
2.8 Negative Effects of Media:
2.9 Sociocultural Influences and Pressure:
2.9.1 Pressure from males/romantic partners:
2.10 Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance - SATA
2.10.1 Risk Factors - Awareness, Internalization, and Perceived Pressures
2.11 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.11.1 Media Imperialism Theory:
2.11.2 The Cultivation Theory:
2.11.3 The Social Cognitive Theory:
2.11.4 The Social Comparison Theory:
2.11.4(a)Social Influences – Parents, Peers & Culture:
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY
4.1 Sample and Sampling Technique:
4.2 Research Design:
4.5 Operationalization of Variables- Study Design:
4.6 Hypothesis w.r.t. their variables:
4.8 Data Analysis:
CHAPTER-5: RESULTS & INTERPRETATION
5.1 Participant Profile:
5.2 University Frequency:
5.3 Media Exposure:
5.4 Reliability Analysis-SATAQ Analysis and Pakistani Expectations for Thinness:
5.5 Hypothesis Testing
5.5.1 Hypothesis 1:
5.5.2 (i) Hypothesis 2(A)
5.5.2(ii) Hypothesis 2(B):
5.5.2(iii) Hypothesis 2(C)
5.5.3(i) Hypothesis 3(A)
5.5.3(ii) Hypothesis 3(B)
5.5.3(iii) Hypothesis 3(C)
5.5.4 Hypothesis 4:
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION
6.1 Media Exposure and Body Image Satisfaction:
6.2 Three Risk Factors and Body Image Satisfaction:
6.3 Social Pressure and Body Image Satisfaction:
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.2 Limitations of the Study:
7.3 Suggestions for Future Research:
Appendix 1: SURVEY
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics: Participant Profile
Table 3.2 Model Summary : Media Exposure & Female Body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.3 ANOVA Results: Media Exposure & Female Body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.4 Regression Coefficients: Media Exposure & Female Body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.5 Correlation Matrix: Media Exposure & Awareness
Table 3.6 Model Summary : Media Exposure & Awareness
Table 3.7 ANOVA Results: Media Exposure & Awareness
Table 3.8 Regression Coefficients: Media Exposure & Awareness
Table 3.9 Correlation Matrix: Media Exposure & Internalization
Table 3.10 Model Summary : Media Exposure & Internalization
Table 3.11 ANOVA Results: Media Exposure & Internalization
Table 3.12 Regression Coefficients: Media Exposure & Internalization
Table 3.13 Correlation Matrix: Media Exposure & Media Pressure
Table 3.14 Model Summary : Media Exposure & Media Pressure
Table 3.15 ANOVA Results: Media Exposure & Media Pressure
Table 3.16 Regression Coefficients: Media Exposure & Media Pressure
Table 3.17 Correlational Matrix: Awareness & Female body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.18 Correlational Matrix: Internalization & Female body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.19 Correlational Matrix: Media Pressure & Female body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.20 Correlational Matrix: Social Pressure & Female body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.21 Model Summary : Awareness, Internalization, Media Pressure, Social Pressure & Female Body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.22 ANOVA Results : Awareness, Internalization, Media Pressure, Social Pressure & Female Body Image Satisfaction
Table 3.23 Regression Coefficients: Awareness, Internalization, Media Pressure, Social Pressure & Female Body Image Satisfaction
Figure 1: Hypothesis Model
Several studies have inspected the body image development among people, especially in young women and adolescent girls. Many factors have been related to the growth of body image dissatisfaction. Especially significant are mass media exposure and its relation with theoretical constructs: Awareness, internalization of a thin ideal, and pressures perceived to be thin. Extending present research, the study inspected the relationships between media content exposure and the awareness and internalization of the Pakistani cultural expectations and standards for thinness, media and social pressures to adopt these standards, and level of body image satisfaction among Pakistani young females. Based on prior findings, the current study hypothesized that the three theoretical constructs or risk factors in the development of body image dissatisfaction i.e. awareness, internalization and pressures have facilitated the relationship between media exposure and body image disturbance among Pakistani young females. The perceived pressures are the pressures from media content and society (family and peers). The results identified that Media exposure; the three risk factors and social pressure had statistically important relationships with body image dissatisfaction of Pakistani young females. The more hours Pakistani young females spent using Media, the less are they satisfied with their body image. The higher media exposure has resulted in higher awareness and internalization of the Pakistani expectations and standards for thinness, also the high media and social pressures enable to embrace those expectations and standards. Results also indicated that in the development of body image dissatisfaction, the three risk factors were negatively correlated with body image satisfaction among Pakistan young females. The study, taken as a whole, has reinforced the sociocultural model for body image dissatisfaction growth.
In today’s media, thin models have served as a benchmark, represented in magazines, television, movies, and also to the Internet sites. Young women are under attack of advertisements, portraying thin and attractive models in desired settings with motive to sell items such as accessories, clothing and other services or products. The culture nowadays has treated values of body image and it is categorized to be the extremely thin body (Burgoon & Hendriks, 2003). These values are presented in mainstream media which serves as information source to women, to answer the queries about their looks (Hendriks, 2002). Subsequently, women with heavy viewing of ideal thin media images may tend to ripen an approach that thin body is desired by society, they undergo low body satisfaction, and employ themselves in body changing behaviors such as cosmetic surgery and weight loss exercises with an intention to matchup with the observed standards (Leavy, Hesse-Biber, Quinn, & Zoino, 2006).
Moreover, Triplett (2007) reported that, our society has followed by weight prejudgment trend that is strengthened by media and also by society. Society reinforces these trends in form of social interactions with family and friends. The term “thinness” has a very positive association repeatedly that one individual signifies with social appeal and success (Leavy, Quinn, Hesse-Biber &Zoino, 2006). Our society has eye-catching people that has achieved more in their lives and are observed to be more contented and prosperous comparatively (Burgoon & Hendriks, 2003). Hence, the body weight and shape of those people, is often observed by some women, as a kind of an evaluating stick for measuring the social norms (Leavy, Quinn, Hesse-Biber &Zoino, 2006).
Media’s interpretations of female beauty often portray women who are skinnier than the average woman, while men are presented in unattainable muscular appearance (Greenwood & Dal Cin, 2012; Eyal & Te’eni-Harari, 2013; Comer, 2011; Parent, 2013). Mass media is undertaking an exceptional job of making us feel bad about ourselves. The more we internalize ideals of appearance and cultural values, we become more dissatisfied with ourselves (Cafri, Yamamiya, Brannick, & Thompson, 2005; Warren, Schoen, & Schafer, 2010). You are scrutinized and evaluated on the basis of culturally imposed characteristics of physical appearance (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2004).
Several Researchers have associated eating disordered behaviors and body image disturbance with women (Heinberg &Thompson, 1999; Smolak, Murnen, Good & Mills, 2003; Lavine, Wagner & Sweeney, 1999). Studies reveal that 60% of high school and 80% of college age females are not happy with their body image (Spitzer, Zivian & Henderson, 1999).
Adolescent age group is at the maximum risk for fetching in unhealthy eating behaviors and practices (Silberstein, Striegel-Moore, Rodin & Grunberg, 1990). For young women, these astonishing statistics put them at a higher risk in development of severe mental, emotional and physical complications . Body image dissatisfaction has a role in overall development of women’s self-esteem, attitude and behaviors as well as in daily lives of women. Body image is a crucial factor in self-image and among women, research associates negative body image with low self-esteem ( Pruzinsky & Cash, 2002; Thomas, 1989). Body image worries and sociocultural factors perform a life-threatening role in the disordered eating development. When the thin beauty ideal represented on television is internalized by women, there is an inconsistency between their actual self and the beauty ideal. Since the ideal body shape become hard to obtain, this fallouts in body dissatisfaction among most women. Weight dissatisfaction, consecutively, motivates severe behavioral efforts to prevent weight gain or lose weight (Pruzinsky & Cash, 2002; Spitzer, Zivian & Henderson, 1999).
By considering exposure of media in general, the conceptual definition of body image has been altered significantly. Primarily, body image was measured as a picture which is designed in the mind of an individual regarding his/her body (Cash, 2004). Relatively others had the estimation that body image of an individual is not only constrained to individual body’s pictorial impact but it is comprehensive of combined feelings and attitudes linked to the body image of an individual (Miche, Allan & Mayo, 1993).Consequently, the definition of body image has offered multiple dimensions due to addition of attitude towards self, affecting the body image in aesthetic, size and shape (Cash, 2004; Pruzinsky & Cash, 2004). Other add-ons to the body image definition are cognitive behaviors and perception (Deagle III & Cash, 1997). Banfield and MacCabe (2002) found four aspects of body image ; Perceptual (how you see your body), cognitive (how you think of your body), affective (how you feel about your body) and behavioral (how you behave about your body).
People are conscious about their body image and psychical attributes (looks, appearance etc). Body image is not developed all on its own and is defined as perception a person has of his physical self, the thoughts and feelings; positive or negative or both that result from that perception. These Feelings are influenced by both individual and environmental factors. According to Slade,P. (1994), Body image is viewed as a loose mental representation of the body's shape, size and form, which is influenced by a variety of social and cultural, historical, biological and individual factors, which operate over changing timespans. Positive body image occurs when person accepts, appreciates and respects his own body image. Positive body image leads to higher self-esteem, self-acceptance and healthy outlook and behaviors. However, body image consciousness is an internal process that is developing mostly during adolescent age, among females, people with low self-esteem and high perfection approach. There is significantly a negative correlation between body-image and self-consciousness and between body-image and social anxiety. (Wilhelmina H. Theron, Elizabeth M. Nel, Andria J. Lubbe,1991).
Women from every cultures experience body dissatisfaction, especially the women belonging from countries with high contact with Western nations (Kashubeck & Mintz, 1999; Resnick, Story, French & Blum, 1995). As Strelitz (2004) predicted that when the countries develop their industry, the development endure the capacity of high influence of media in terms of its exterior aesthetics upon their own cultural sphere of influence. This leads to the banishment of old norms and values and traditional standards. According to Varis & Nordenstreng in 1974, the last decades have the television programming trend over the globe as being transmitted in one-way or linear flow, majorly to under or less developed to fully developed countries. Lent (1995) stated Television as the most significant medium to carry the popular culture and beliefs of west. Moreover, young individuals from worldwide spend their countless hours in front of the computer screens and television singing pop songs, and insulting the fashion of celebrities belonging to the developed republics (Varis & Nordenstreng,1974).
Strelitz (2004) reported that third world countries have youngsters which have found themselves embedded in their own local values and traditional culture, but in order to understand and tracking down their living, they still seek messages from media that are produced globally. Durinf (1991); LaRose & Atkin, conducted a research study and have found that television viewing trend is higher among young and dark-skinned families. Another researcher, Chaudhry A. W. has viewed the television watching trend in Pakistan and critiqued that Pakistani children already are under grip of television. Starting from more innocent observing channel the Cartoon Network, youngsters have a wide choice to select Indian Movies from channels such as Star Plus, Star Movies, ZEE Cinema and Sony. This emerging trend rate has made parents worried about their children as they have become totally gripped with Television viewing rather than employing their precious time to studies or engaging it in the playground. This study has followed with description of the two main predictors of Body image dissatisfaction; Media and Society
The mass media content is immense and confusing. Mothers and media are very strong influencers of girl’s self-image and body image (EMP Communications, 2006, p.1). Media is the most common external contributors to body image consciousness. Mass media has audience of all ages, they experience continuous bombardment of images through, magazines, TV, advertising and internet. These images often contain unrealistic, photoshoped, unobtainable, high profile and very stylized appearance of ideals, fabricated by designers, art teams, stylists and various digital manipulations which is very hard to be achieved in real life. For those who feel they don’t stand in comparison to these images, experience anxiety and intense body dissatisfaction. Such an effect is damaging to both physical and psychological wellbeing. Media has fed information about who we should be in our culture in movies, advertisements and on TV (Warren, 2014).
Berg (2001) found that the inclination of individuals towards body image by the pressure of media has grown considerably; these has resulted in an increasing number and regularity of diet related advertisements in magazines and television and are presented globally. Therefore, both mediums are not just the causes of thin body internalization but also have a potential to transform the cultural ideals completely (Stice & Thompson, 2001; Berg, 2001). Tiggemann (2003) reported that in current years, the magazine readership and circulation have found to get increased as its readers, specifically the female readers intent to keep themselves up to date on the topics related to female beauty, products for grooming and physical fitness. Mason (2012) found that the images presented by media are prominently thinner as compared to most of the people in the world and thus has become one of the main causes of building body dissatisfaction. For many people in society, the pretty images presented on media have served as a benchmark for evaluating attractiveness or prettiness and have become a reason of increased body dissatisfaction events. Ideal thin body internalization, awareness, and perceived pressure are the risk factors that have important relationship with body image (Yamamiya, Cafri, Thompson & Brannick, 2005).
Heinberg &Thompson (1999) predicted that not only women but both the women and men are vulnerable to ideal images of media, although as participants, only women are focused in this current study as they are found to be more at risk of the body image portrayal by media. Furthermore, last few researches has constantly revealed that women are fond to be more worried about the weight of their body (Mills, Smolak, Murnen & Good, 2003), as compared to men, women observe themselves to be as overweight and struggle hard to be thinner (Sweeney, Wagner & Lavine, 1999). The current study further limits the focus to young females attending Universities in Pakistan aged from 18 - 30 years. The number of reasons this age slot is selected are at first that, the youngsters undergo a phases of physical changes, these changes are related to the body image changes. It found to be difficult for young females to conclude these pubescent changes into positivity regarding their body image, as being beautiful is the severe concern among them (Austin, Ramberan, & Nichols, 2006), at second, several researches have predicted that young children and teenage girls are more open to the images portrayed by media (Tiggemann & Hargreaves, 2003; McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001; Smolak, Levine & Hayden, 1994).
Tiggemann & Hargreaves (2003) have predicted not only media, but the feedbacks from society have the high influence over youngsters. Socialization has emerged various new trends of comparisons. Culture, media, community and gender roles have set benchmarks and standards of comparisons. Society has offered the perfect body standard as zero sized/ thin body. Mass media continuously has portrayed successful celebrities having thin bodies with beautiful airbrushed features and has made beauty and thin body as standard to achieve successful life. People compare themselves with others regarding various aspects of self, including weight, appearance and eating habits (Morrison & Kalin, 2004;Miyake &Wheeler,1992). Every society has its own beauty standards and its media reinforce it. For example, in Pakistan pencil nose, thin body is said to be beauty standards where as in Africa broad nose, heavy thighs and full hips is to be considered most attractive. Tubule (2000), stated that women and girls have often found themselves comparing their body continuously with portrayed ideal thin body.
Third to concentrate on youngsters that, social factors like pressures from academics, fascinating significant others, forming and sustaining friendships have potential to create influential pressures on youngsters to imitate media presented ideal body structure (Grassi, 2001). The fourth and an important reason is that very limited number of research studies are performed to examine and investigate the issues regarding body image dissatisfaction among youngsters of Pakistan. This study will examine how media exposure, risk constructs and social pressure have effects over the perception of body image of Pakistani young females.
By the end of 1980s, in Pakistan, a limited numbers of magazines and TV channels were available. The next few years offered the exponential growth of media. As a result, now hundreds of local and foreign magazines and televisions channels are accessible for the local population (Hassan, 2011; "Media Pakistan," 2009). Exposure to media has not only transformed the culture but has also revolutionized the perception of the local population regarding body image, purchasing behavior, dressing habits and styles of living.(Kamran, 2008). Despite its importance there is insufficient literature available on body and exposure to media over Pakistani, Indian and Sri Lankan consumers (Kapadia, 2009).Thus, it has arisen a need to develop an understanding regarding body image satisfaction of Pakistani youngsters from a quantitative and theoretical and purpose. There is a scarceness of research which concerned the impact of Media on body image dissatisfaction among young women in the Pakistan. This study searches to fill up the literature gap within the discipline of mass communication regarding the way Pakistani young women, (university students mainly) respond to body image satisfaction, the sociocultural factors and other social impacts may have on them.
Media industry has been revolutionized, involving almost every second person as its user. Media Models has set standards of an ideal body image. People are more conscious about their looks, physical appearance and their body image rather than other characteristics like nature, attitude, behavior etc. We live in a society where beauty and thinness are highly valued, moreover, success and wealth are considered to go hand in hand with a slim figure. According to Hesse-Biber, Leavy, Quinn, & Zoino (2006), Thinness often is a positive suggestion that one denotes social desirability and success .
Almost every film, ad, drama, clothing catalog, fashion magazines, newspaper, internet and pop culture TV shows comes up with lot of thin female leads. This practice has highlighted an idea that thinness is desirable thing to be, even though it is at a level that is potentially destructive or damaging to a person’s health. People with Thin body are considered to be attractive, beautiful, satisfied and successful.
Not only media, but social interactions with parents and friends reinforce weight prejudice in society (Triplett, 2007). People who are attractive achieve more in our society; those are viewed as happier and more successful in their lives. (Hendriks & Burgoon, 2003). This may lead the perception that body shape and weight is a sort of measuring stick for social value. People with poor body image fall prey of body focused anxiety, depression, problems in relationships, abuse problems, and various health related problems.
The current study further paves the mass communication research under the topic of media effects on body image perception of youngsters. The premise will include different opinions in the same region of discussion and compare its findings with the original topic of interest. There are a limited studies refer to the inspection of Pakistani female adolescents’ perception related with media and its effects. This topic earns consideration since female adolescents have reported the body weight and physical appearance on top of their list of stresses and worries (Brownell, 1991). In most countries, appearance and body weight concerns have become very common in women that several researchers describe such concerns as normative behavior (Brownell, 1991). The norm of thinness is reproduced culturally and sustained by a variety of body image influences. Appearance has become implanted in the minds of female adolescents to such an extent that females are spending more time in enhancing their looks and paying less time on social life and school work (Tiggemann, 2002).
The chapter-wise discussion helped to have a deep understanding about the topic. Chapter two highlight the literature that is most relevant to research topic, that includes the history of ideal body image of women, body image perception of Pakistani females, the powerful and influential effects of media, disseminating ideal body standards and building body image consciousness among young women, social factors like parents, family or peer pressures to develop and adopt thin ideal standards and expectations and factors that facilitates the relation between body image dissatisfaction and the media.
Though several theories deal with the body self –image phenomena, the researcher in this study has applied cultivation, the media imperialism, and social cognitive theory. Chapter three remarks the hypotheses and chapter four reports about the methodology used to identify the problem and the research design. Chapter five identified the results, chapter six further discussed the results and findings. Finally, the researches followed by conclusion in chapter seven alongwith several recommendations and suggestions for the future research.
The chapter reviews previous articles, papers and books written about the Media Impact on women. The stated evidence and arguments will look at overall body image issues associated with the impact of images and messages transmitted by media.
In previous decades, the custom of idealism of a slender and skinny body has not been practiced; the position was totally opposite years before. (Sweeney, Lavine & Wagner,1999). From Middle Ages (1600s to 1800s), plumpness was considered very idyllic for women and designated with good health and high socio-economic status (Lavine, Wagner, & Sweeney,1999; Fraser, 1998). In 1800s, women who had a heavy body or a body with layer of fats were considered more attractive and sexy, this illustrates that they had much money to eat well and also the ability of conceiving children. Women belonging to an upper class intended to have more body weights with a specific end goal to demonstrate women’s class, wellbeing and their health. Weight on a woman demonstrated the success of her husband and their well being.
(Fraser, 1998). Lowe (2003) reported that Women started wearing tight-bound corsets in order to prominent the body, to create a deception of thrilling curved figure. The tight-bound corsets emphasized their buttocks and hips with an illusion of unnaturally tiny waist (Lowe, 2003).
By the end of 1800s, the idea of thin-body became very popular. It was thought not difficult to acquire food and the plumpness remained no longer a sign of prestige, well-being and good health (Fraser, 1998). During 1900s, the concept of controlled intake of food, calories counting and ideal-weight calculations came into existence that engaged woman in destructive and unhealthy behaviors to attain unrealistic thin ideal body (Austin, 1999).
Early 1900s came up with a new trend of ideal body image named as, “flapper” that was actually a woman wearing an extreme straight and sleek dress, making her of not showing her hips or even breasts. This new fashion trend, took women into new way of controlling their bodies and they began to diet and replace corsets with dieting or weight controlling behaviors (Fraser, 1998).
Fraser( 1998) has found that; By 1920s, the women tend to hunt for ways to keep their body weight in control through less feasting of food and an increase in exercise. Simultaneously, advertisers started manipulating women to think that their products could bless them new freedom, liberation and could change their lives. Women were taught that they could have a possibility to alter the way they look by the help of cosmetics, clothes, exercise or diet, and were indulging into this new perception both economically and emotionally. In 1967, Dwyer, Mayer & Feldman conducted a study after World War II, that reported percentage of 62 girls from high-school was on regular diet, and percentage of 37 were on diet presently, whereas, percentage of 15 were on diet pills and percentage of 9 girls followed fasting. Zimmerman (1997) reported that between 1930s, the term “flapper” lost its popularity and more stronger ideals started to rise. After World War II, women magazines began to promote very delicate and small waistline that could be attained by wearing abdominal cinches, corsets or by severe diets.
During 1950s, Media had made the thin model as ruling image in all media forms that happened to increase the extent of exercising and amount of dieting undertaken to lose weight. Media portrayed thin, voluptuous women and curvy models that started to became ‘beauty ideal’ for all women.
In 1959, the concept of Barbie Doll was introduced that has set very irrational ideals of beauty for females (Shaw, Frith & Cheng, 2005). The concept of Barbie Doll had a female’s body with bulky breasts, with a small waist, lengthy blond hair, long limbs and narrow hips. The Barbie Doll would have 38-18-34 body measurements if she was said to be a real woman and would be harder to standup straight on her legs, thus as per Barbie Doll concept, such type of body can occur only 1 among 1 lakh women. Though, women and adolescents were firm to look like the Barbie Doll. (Shaw, Frith & Cheng, 2005; Norton, 1996). From 1970 till 1990, a complete emphasis over thinness and losing body weight was existed and these practices was constantly promoted in magazines and also in Miss Beauty Pageant shows depicted body shape as ideal. (Caballero & Rubinstein, 2000; Barber, 1998).
In 1980s, however, thin shaped body was highlighted in the media; an ideal-body shape demanded an extra athletic, also toned appearance. This body ideal has turned to become too much extreme and unnatural, that without integrating extreme dieting, severe exercising habits, surgeries, and unhealthy actions, women felt difficulty in reaching these standards of an ideal body (Cantor & Harrison, 1997). Consequently, desire of having thin and muscular body started to employ excessive quantities of energy, time and cash (Brumberg, 1997). Women keep on spending excessive quantities of energy and time in reaching the faultless standards of beauty that has formulated by society. (Ricciardelli & McCabe, 2005).
In 1990s, the ideal shape of women’s body was a thin figure with large breast. Studies have revealed that the bulky breasts were linked with amount of good/positive features like confidence and popularity of women (Thompson & Tantleff, 1992). At beginning of 21st century, thin body norm existed; even such norm calls for adapting non-natural means like plastic surgery in order to attain thin body shape. The norm of thin body has still been highlighted and stressed in media forms (Ricciardelli & McCabe, 2005).
In early 90s, in India, the body image concern and eating disorder was not a question (Saxena , Sharan & Khandelwal, 1995). The comparative study between Asian girls and Caucasian found that the females from Asia were found more contented and satisfied with their body then the British Caucasians (Haase, Wardle, & Steptoe, 2005). Another study held in UK found a higher level of calories concern and body dissatisfaction among white females then to the families from India and Pakistan, that are residing in the same country and exposing to the same media (Elder & Ogden, 1998). Contrarily, another study revealed that both female migrants from Pakistan and India in the UK were seen highly displeased with their own body shapes and body images. (Choudhry & Mumford 2000).
In culture of West, snowy and thin body has become the standard in describing characteristic of the attractiveness. In West, on the basis of the definition of beauty, what represents acceptable beauty by society flops to identify gender and race of subaltern residents, thus keep restricted the bodily characteristics such as fatness and blackness from being considered beautiful (Shaw, 2006).
A comparative study between Pakistani and Australian females found that Pakistani females (belonging to Urdu medium & English medium) schools experience considerably high body self-esteem and high body image satisfaction than the females from Australia (Crittenden & Mahmud, 2007). Generally it was seen that that Urdu Medium School has students of lower status whereas for English Medium School, the situation was reversed, their students belonged to the upper status. The body image perception can be ascribed to the variance in social or cultural and religious bringingup of Pakistani and Australian participants (Nasser, 1988 ; Dolan, 1991). However, both respondents have an opinion that their actual body sizes were larger than their ideal body size. (Mahmud & Crittenden, 2007).
The research regarding American Media found that presentation of thin women on media have often been related with affirmative abilities including beauty, popularity or success. (Hendriks, 2002; Tiggemann & Hargreaves, 2003). Such portrayal gave average women an impression that in order to be successful she must look this way. (Forbes et al, 2001).
When world over young females have an approach to popular TV programs such as ‘Sex and the City, Grey‟s Anatomy, The Big Bang Theory, Friends, etc. which portray females with Thin body as more successful and well educated individuals, then this will emancipate females to associate ‘thin’ with ‘successful or intellectual.’ (Botta & Nathanson, 2003).
According to Hendricks (2002), almost every prime-time comedy shows of America underrepresent an occurrence of overweight women. When shows present heavyweight models, they are teased relentlessly, and are stressed to lose their body weight on the show. Once the models have lost their weight, the teasing stops and they immediately become popular. This has supported the stereotype that “The better is thinner, and females may begin to belief its validity.
Irving (2008) defined media as a tool to transmit ideas, messages or information, images to the public. Phua J. et al., (2017) observed the use of social networking sites: Twitter, Snapshot, Facebook or Instagram in consumers, and their affects on brand community. The findings of his research indicated that the users of Facebook gained highest score for following fashion, demonstrating sociability, and showing affection, while the users of Snapchat gained highest score for sharing problems, improving social knowledge, and passing time. The users of Twitter scored highest membership intention and identification of brand community, while the users of Instagram scored highest in commitment and engagement of brand community.
Media to promote service or product most often uses television and magazines. Media has become the most significant and influential factor of our culture. Media has an ability to shape ideas, formulate trends and serve as a tool by activists, politicians and advertisers. Typically, people ‘trust the media’ when constructing a controlled organization in a world that needs equilibrium (Strasburger, 1995, p. 82).
In order to get right information and to set our societal guidelines we trust our magazines and televisions. The reason, Media has become a famous subject with researchers is because the teenagers are open to “8 to 10 hours of different media per day” (Irving, 2008). Such long exposure to any media type can influence to have some form of effect on those that are exposed to it. Question to argue is; If media is the real reason of causing body dissatisfaction among females? Extensive research on television and magazine exposure depicts that those female who had thin body as an ideal physique developed high body image dissatisfaction and poor self-esteem (Irving, 2008, p. 7). Our media creates images but the point to focus is does it creates the real meaning hidden behind those images?
In Pakistan, media explosion has unpleasantly affected the trend of media consumption by the local population. On average, people spent 3 to 4 hours on media and resulted in distorting the cultural norms and values(Zia, 2007). Furthermore, there is an increased significant prevalence of low self-esteem and depression in young women in Pakistan. (Ishaque ,Qidwai, Shah, & Rahim, 2010). Similarly, In Karachi, eating disorder incidents have also been seen significantly frequent among medical female students (Memon et al., 2012). Daily News Paper (2007) has reported that the native females are obsessed to internalize descriptions shown by media to a level that females have become overly dissatisfied with their body depictions and they have started starving and are affected from severe eating disordered behavior.
By tradition in Pakistan, females were much worried to build a relationship with society and their families with least or null concern about their body appearance. This practice is, however, not followed any longer. Now they have an inspirational association with reference groups and celebrities and they are implementing grooming practices and dressing and are not allied to social context of Pakistan (Latif, Khan, Abideen & Farooq, 2011). The discussions mentioned above denies the conventional opinion about the Asian female body image that it is effected by several body size ideal (Hsu, Lee & Wing, 1992).However, the preference for thin body image has now developed as an international concept that is low or highly constant through all the cultures (Herzberger & Molloy, 1998; Ford, Evans & Dolan, 1990)
Morrison (2004); Thomas (1989) et al, stated that women have seen dependent on media forms such as fashion magazines and television in defining and determining beauty and the importance which media and fashion magazines consistently grants on to be slim is a crucial factor that has encouraged women to have less body image satisfaction. DiDomenico & Anderson (1992) reported that rather than cultural values, the mass media are chief funders to social norms and expectations that have served as a measure to identify what is normal.
According to Villani (2001), researchers continue to focus on how the television impacts youth because of the fact that teenagers spend much of their time with television and this medium has reached the youngest ages. A study revealed that those females feel higher body dissatisfaction who spent eight hours or more per week watching television as compared to females that spent fewer time on television watching (Thompson & Heinberg, 1999). Other research revealed that the television exposure amount or time spent on television was not an issue, but the fact that “what” the females were watching leads to body dissatisfaction. For instance, television soap operas depicted a person as ideally beautiful in their real lives which skews the perception of reality and how people should act or look (Thompson & Heinberg, 1999). Strasburger, (1995) predicted that, If television is an actual factor to induce negative effects is hard to find as several other external factors exist that can affect the findings of study. However, a survey study on young girls of Pacific island of Fiji was conducted three years after the television was firstly introduced in their culture and found that after television introduction to their culture, bulimia reports has amplified by 12 percent and test scores of girls with eating disorder risk was double the usual score. After three years, 50 percent of girls that has spent most time watching television reported feeling of “fat or so big” and identified that either girls were on dieting or they had tried dieting.
While considering the all the television, it has turned difficult to overlook the bodies and faces of females that have blessed beauty and poise to televisions on regular basis. The most of the women on television are blessed with an idealized body shape and size, perfect flawless skin, and the well-developed breasts. (Groesz, Murnen & Levine, 2002, p. 2). To study the impact of Television shows on young females, several studies have been directed to demonstrate how a young female may feel dissatisfied with her body (after viewing television show). Kristen Harrison (2006) has mentioned one such content analysis study of humors on television and revealed that female characters who were overweight received highly negative weight and body related comments from male characters as compared to thin female characters that implies the fact that television portrayed overweight characters in a less flattering way than thinner characters” (p. 119). Over the past 50 years, the media portrayal of women on television has increasingly grown thinner. In 1990, media personalities have met criteria for anorexia (Harrison, 2006). In view of the quantity of slender, lean television characters, celebrities and actresses, added with the total of time devoted for watching such images; this can be expected that these women have composed to presented image to be a body type that is an ideal. However, this slender type of body contradicts the hate/affection relationship between media and television with diet. Louis Kaufman was quoted by Strasburger (1995), saying, “There are two set of contradictory messages presented by television. One; the viewer gathers that we eat in such ways that almost guaranty to make us fat; the second states that we struggle to remain slim” (p. 79). We live in a “media-saturated, appreance-obsessed, poisoning girl culture, the media is on fault for supporting beauty ideals and thinness that for most women are unachievable (Pipher 1994).
According to Almond (2000), although there are many factors that might lead to body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders in women and the blameworthiness should be majorly over the media. Botta (1999) has stated that media definitely has dual (direct and indirect) impact on body image satisfaction; Direct through processing of body image, whereas the indirect impact prevails through young girl’s encouragement to approve a thin body image and developing a faith that those media portrayed distorted images are actual in real. Numerous researches have revealed that women, on regular basis, are inclined to make a comparison between their bodies and the idealized images portrayed in media. Ritchins (1991) have found that 50 percent (half) of women make comparisons by half of the time or even more between themselves and the advertising models and the advertisements influenced them to hate their body shape.
Botta R. A. (1999), conducted research on body images and television images. He reported that media images impact on body image of adolescents and thin-ideal endorsement had been continuously included in the literature of body image, but remained insufficiently tested. He critically viewed the theory of social comparison with the sample of high school girls numbered 214 to calculate thin-ideal endorsement and body image satisfaction level of adolescents. Variables of media reported 15 percent of the discrepancy for drive for thin body, 17 percent for body-dissatisfaction, 16 percent of behaviors of bulimic, and 33 percent of girls for endorsing thin-ideal. Irving (1990) stated that research proposes the body satisfaction may to decrease among women who have internalized the stereotype of thin-ideal. He also found that women reported more body dissatisfaction when exposed to slides of thin media models as compare to those who have an exposure to slides of oversized and average models.
A study held by Stice and Shaw (1994) revealed that exposure of media has induced less bodily satisfaction and proposed that ideal thin models exposure has created bodily dissatisfaction that has significantly promoted eating disturbance. Herman & Polivy (1985) claimed that women, to ease their body related dissatisfaction may participate in controlled eating for losing their weight. Though, dietary limitation seems to raise the risk of binge eating. Amanda J. Holmstrom (2004) studied the effects of media on body image. He focused on effect size and its trends with influencing moderating variables. The study reported that depiction of women with thin body (may have) null to little impact on viewers moreover depiction of heavyweight women have optimistic impact on body image. However, this study has offered platform for future research.
Emma Halliwell and Helga Dittmar (2004) studied effects of thin and attractive media advertising models. The study reported that disclosure to the thin advertising models have led to higher body anxiety in women who have assumed thin body as ideal body type rather than no or ordinary sized models. Regardless of model size, advertisement are equally effective. Richins (1991) examined that consumers use to compare themselves with idealized advertising images. Through experimental research, he investigated that physical attractiveness in ads targets young women. Idealized images in advertisements raise their standards of making comparisons and lower their satisfaction of self-attractiveness. Halliwell, E. et al., (2007) examined the impacts of revelation to the muscular male-body ideal/model on body focused negative impact between non-exercisers and user’s of men’s gym. As assumed, the effects of media revelation depended on male status of exercise.
Dittmar H. et al., (2009), stated that earlier experimental studies verified exposure to extra-thin models of media had negative impacts on body-image of many women's, but isolated underlying processes of psychology. He developed and tested a modest intervention model, also the internalization of slim attractive ideal to be as mediator, and foundation of self-differences by weight as mediated instrument and had found that exposure of both resulted to high body negative impacts. He demonstrated after revelation to advertisements featured skinny models have high negative impact and were completely mediated an activation of self-discrepancy related to weight. The results replicated in a big sample of females and grasp despite if or not the body size of skinny model was highlighted during exposure.
Magazines, similar to the television are a dominant media form to which young females have exposure to every type of media content. Statistically, a percentage of 59 young females devote quite a lot of minutes in reading a magazine on daily basis and 77% of young females were with magazine subscription (O’Dea, 2004).O’Dea (2004) explained that 3 in every 4 young female on average read a fashion or beauty magazine as their daily habit and this has made magazines an effective media format to disseminate and fund preference of society for body skinniness.
Research additionally associated negative self-assessments with the reading process of fashion magazines (Ritchins, 1991).Tiggemann M. et al., (2004) conduct a research intended to observe the part of social comparison procedure in female’s reaction to of thin-ideal women beauty images in magazines. To accomplish the goal, he sampled 126 females who sighted magazine advertisements having full body parts or products pictures. Body dissatisfaction and Mood were immediately calculated before and after viewed the advertisement, while weight-anxiety and engaged quantity of appearance assessment to measure after the advertisements. The findings revealed that the disclosure to full body or body part pictures led to body dissatisfaction and negative mood. Analysis concluded that the effects of image-type on body dissatisfaction and mood were decided by the quantity of social-comparison. Furthermore the procedures in which females engaged in answer to media images was a significant supplier of negative effects Marika Tiggemann (2009) investigated women response processing to thin idealized beauty images. It was found that women response of making social comparison with thin beauty images lead to high negative moods and body dissatisfaction while instructional set/fantasy comparison lead to positive moods and body satisfaction.
For young females or adolescents there are number of magazines, though the most subscribed range for adolescent age are “women, teen and fashion magazines” (O’Dea, 2004, p. 12). Strasburger (1995) have found that the magazines regularly comprise of the articles that constitutes just of beauty, eating less carbs, and exercise. These articles are providing messages, the pictures of anorexic glamor and model’s presentation can prompt to less body image satisfaction. He also found that, recent study has showed 69 percent girls out of 600 from 5th to 12th grades informed that the body shape which they had considered ideal was affected just by reading the fashion magazines” (p. 83). He has mentioned a 15 year young girl speaking her opinion regarding magazines: Everyone has a feeling about themselves that they are not pretty, good and thin enough. When to read a magazine, you always watch beautiful people whenever you open it. In order to be a good person, you have to look good (Strasburger, 1995, p. 83).Such mentality predicts that media have the ability to create negative effects on young females relative to self-perception.
As adolescents are on journey on maturation into young adults, they get matured and developed regularly, this has led to expectation that more young they are, the more self-esteem of them varies on daily basis. However, as adolescents are very open to outside images, impacts, pictures and communications, these perform a central role in self-esteem intensities. For example, magazine advertisement focusing adolescents to sell products or service such as products for beauty, diet and exercise (p. 92), that has repeated the product messages mentioned in articles of magazine by every time you open a magazine (Morris & Steinberg, 2001)
Magazines often include articles headed as how to get toned body, what diet to eat to for 5kg/week fat loss, the tactics to get a guy or the lists of diet that one should stay faraway in order to look best. Young females are expected with an exposure of hundreds of images, also the articles on daily purposes that adore the ideal body-type in order to attract the opposite sex and get accepted by our society. Strasburger (1995) revealed that in current meta-analysis, out of 20 experimental studies showed the higher exposure of thin models has increased negative feelings among young woman regarding her body. Why other female’s images presented in magazines have such an influence on young females?
O’Dea (2004) in a survey provided to the girls aged 11 to 17 and has found that the utmost important thing they wanted was just to “lose weight or keep it off” the body. Not surprisingly 80% of young females say that were on diet by the time they touched their 18th birthday (O’Dea, 2004). Continual dieting and a constant desire to have thin body shape and the idealized size, weight or shape has led to many troubles such as eating disordered behaviors. These females are subjected to the images that are typically fantasy and unrealistic.
Everyday, the advertisers present their models and advertising images selling products as real. Computer software industry has boomed up with technological advancement thus it is not difficult to touch-up or makeup the images or models and edit them. These photos could be edited to such an extent that a model with a 3 waistline size can be edited or cut down to a 0 waistline size. Moreover, heights of models can be heightened and acne can be wiped out and young adolescents believe that such models are the real representations of what they should look like ideally. The perceived perception of attainable beauty is thus truly not attainable without the entire photo-editing program, a stylist, makeup artist’s team and long editing hours and touch-up sessions. This serves as one of the main reasons that why the researchers pay a lot of attention on recent print media? The answer to such query is that print media has begun to “blur and haze the boundaries between reality and a fictionalized ideal.(Thompson & Heinberg, 1999, p. 341). Factually, adolescence is a stage when young females undergo body comparisons to other developing females, also with other women and magazines are served as comparison tool in our society (Levine, Groesz & Murnen, 2002).
After the evaluation of magazine advertisements, Kang (1997) focused women that were presented in ads and predicted that women were exposed as homemakers and were very hardly ever placed in positions of power. Some advertisements have shown women as dependent on men and were merely presented as sex objects. Moreover, the typical advertisements featured women were for cleaning, drug and food products, clothing, home products and for beauty.(Kang, 1997). Magazines are a method to view standardization of social roles, that is the place of women is in the kitchen so she may clean and cook. The argument raised here is that such advertisements present women roles that are subordinate to men and objectifying and can be resulted to produce negative effects on discovering their identity. Such depictions can misrepresent self-esteem and the perception about self of young female by modifying her insight of being viewed as more submissive than men and termed as least important for the society. Media resulted in distorted self-perceptions that can have extremely negative effects on young female’s health.
Del Fresno Garcia et al. (2016) examined social networking medium as, “a media of connection of every medium and media,” and with possible feature to post videos, links, and images or pictures from other media channels. Social media serve as a channel or outlet to all media types and allow all the media types to have further influence on social media users beyond social networking sites. Over many users, social media has a huge influence especially when users are engaged in communication or an activity linked to celebrities, popular media figure or social-network stars. Del Fresno Garcia et al. (2016) has categorized such figure types as opinion leaders that serves as role model and has a strong influence over social media users, users copy their actions. These figures are presented as having substantial influence on users as they select, modify, and transmit the messages and information of their choice to the public and thus controlling both the message and the means” (Del Fresno Garcia et al. 2016). These opinion leaders have the potential to present messages that can be negative or positive. There is a major portion of messages that creates negativity or negative image and is on topics like body dissatisfaction and body image. Social media influencers or opinion leaders highlight their exercise routine, diet and lifestyle to fans, viewers and readers, which can formulate an idea that fans need to have and do these certain things if they want to look like their beloved celebrities and to get the ideal ‘perfect body’.
Klein (2013) has placed the strong emphasis on photo sharing and social networking. He stated that it can only develop on the already present phenomenon of sociology, social psychology and theories of media effects and has helped explaining the behavior of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction.” Mass media with time has established the same idea about how a perfect body must be? And how it should look like?. Since media especially the social media is connected to all media outlets, this has created an ability to reinforce the idea of a thin ideal body. Everything associated from weight, height, measurements of body, and body shape has become part of ideal body. The advertisements and ideal thin body portrayals target women most commonly. Women are taught to aim to be extremely slim. To achieve many of such ideals in healthy and realistic way is impossible for many people. (Cramblitt & Pritchard 2014). Media portrays many individuals with ideal thin body and are basically are actresses and celebrities. US Media presents 15 % of female models majorly that below the average weight and 95% of models are thinner as compared to the average woman (Pritchard & Cramblitt 2014 & Yamamiya et al. 2005). These body type portrayals and advertisements are showing young women that they must strive hard to be thinner and weigh less than woman on average which could be really unhealthy.
Social media has blurred the fine line between reality and virtual world and thus developing concept of women that she should look like the media images they are viewing (Klein 2013). Women are being educated constantly that they should look like women presented in media if they want to be a successful women.
As a result they experience huge pressures and also high body dissatisfaction as compared to males (Helfer & Warschburger 2013).
Klein (2013), found that women participation in social networking turns out to be 74% that serves as a reason of increased exposure to ‘thinspiration images’. Women feel more pressures from social networking sites than other media outlets as is all about interaction (Ridolfi et al. 2011). Media ideals are associated with happiness and success therefore women reported a drive for thinness and desire to lose weight (Pritchard & Cramblitt 2014).
Women with average weight are pressured that they are overweight and need to be thin. This is alarming since 166.2lbs is average weight for today’s women and therefore portrayed larger than what is being presented as ‘perfect’ or ‘ideal’(Coren 2015). The researchers have concern with widened gap between the average woman size and the ideal woman size on media and have taken it as cause of negative body image and higher body dissatisfaction and (Klein 2013).
At the beginning, the presentation of ideal body on social media has greatly emphasized to be thin. Few years before image of ideal body of women has been shifted towards fitness. Women are not only pressured just to have thin body shape but now women are also pressured to have a toned and firmed body (Pritchard & Cramblitt 2014). Pritchard and Cramblitt (2014) explained the way muscularity has become the new ‘ideal body image’ for women and also western culture has started to emphasize the physical exercise as part of daily and ideal lifestyle alongwith an ideal body shape. Since muscularity is frequently related with masculinity therefore with promotion of toned and muscular bodies an ideal body type has been shifted a little towards a masculine look. Fitness being part of an ideal body has made women believe that they should spend their more time and focus on physical fitness and also to join fitness centers or gyms to serve the purpose (Prichard & Tiggemann 2012). The popularity of fitness blogging has raised and also a newer type of social media has introduced as Vlogging, while both were connected to new form of ideal body. Vlogging represented subscription and offered video blogging; numerous creators have started creating their own videos regarding fitness and health, and how to get that perfect body. Videos have developed to be a more and more popular portion of social media (Prichard and Tiggeman 2012). These types of blogs and videos are available throughout the Internet and have become a debate topic by researchers to answer a query if they promote the unachievable ideal body or healthy living.
Neil Alperstein (2015) has studied the significance of Pinterest and its visual content known as pins. Pew Research Center reported that famous social networking sites have women about 5 times on the site as compared to men. Previous literature states that idealized images of traditional advertisement has produced negative impact on self-perception among women whereas current study through online survey concluded that idealized images on Pinterest has affected self-esteem and body image among women.
Klein (2013) debates on how young generation experiences an increased availability and accessibility to social media, particularly the social networking sites and the Internet. Youngsters are also fronting the growing desire to belong/have its place in many various social media sites. That increased desire has made their exposure to growing image-heavy environment of social media such as Snapchat and Instagram, while both featured only to post, use and share images.
That formulates such networks that pay primary attention to images and encourage the idea that women are required to look like same as they see in images, specifically in pictures of popular figures and celebrities. Most of the time the presented pictures especially of celebrities or used for commercial purpose are either airbrushed, photoshopped, altered or edited to perfection (Diller 2011). These images are portraying an ideal based side of women that are virtual or do not exist in real life even since their bodies are extremely reformed through Photoshop. Consequently women are targets of receiving and also internalizing the edited and false ideals made of images that do not truthfully represent accurate human bodies.
Dittmar & Bell (2011, p. 478) revealed that, thin body exposure as ‘perfect body’ ideals in the media resulted in a strong relation to negative body image in women and young girls. Body dissatisfaction is often interconnected with the drive for ideal body and thinness (Bell & Dittmar 2011).
The number of studies has confirmed the counter relationship between body image and media exposure (Grabe, Hyde & Ward, 2008; Levine, Groesz & Murnen, 2002). The same relationship was reconfirmed again in an experimental study in which one group has media exposure of thin images and the other group has exposure to only neutral media images. The findings revealed that extra thin model exposed group has comparatively high influence over body image satisfaction than those group with neutral media images exposure (Reeb & Folger, 2010). Dittmar (2009) from University of Sussex has studied relationship between media and body image and predicted that body ideals presented as perfect body in mass media are a risk factor and they develop negative body image in young girls and women. The study allows understanding of identity, self, thin ideal body identification and associated processes.
Rozin and Fallon (1985) evaluated body size preference in 288 women and 230 men aged 10 to 15 years and found that women demonstrated a bias toward skinniness and on the other hand male exposed a bias toward bigger figures. The final bias was connected with youthful enlargement. Halliwell, Dittmar & Orsborn (2007) revealed that Non-exercisers men showed higher negative impact of body after revelation to pictures of muscular-male models than after impartial or common pictures, on the other hand users of gym demonstrated a trend for fewer body focused negative impact after the model pictures than after the common images. Moreover, the degree to which users of gym were provoked to boost muscularity and strength controlled these effects of exposure. Men with stronger-strength and motivation to exercise for muscularity stated a higher extent of self-development after revelation to the muscular-ideal.
The mass media has transferred the messages relating an “ideal form of female” and act as dominant power to affect the social attitudes. The pressures from society and culture both perform a dominant part in influencing the body satisfaction in modern society of the West. In the course of recent eras, events of body disappointment among females have seen coincided with changing in norms of society and culture. At present, media represented tall, thin and lengthy-legged as the “ideal” female that results in giving an impression to average women that it is a must that they should appear this way if they want to be successful in their lives (Forbes et al, 2001).
Lin L. F. et al., (2002) did a research on women’s body satisfaction and social comparison and randomly selected 67 under graduate females for the purpose. He revaluated the photographs of thin ideal females of media members that shown reduced body-satisfaction in female, which affected various eating disorders. The study was intended to verify that how social-comparison with peers influenced self-esteem, anxiety, confidence, and body-satisfaction. With the help of computer software’s the pictures were present to respondents as same female’s face with a thin or oversize shape of body. Study concluded that the condition of comparison didn’t affect self-esteem; moreover disclosure to thin-peer did affect confidence and reduced the body-satisfaction and, has raised anxiety for those who did not have a boyfriend. Oversized peer made no compensatory, inspired the effects on confidence and body-satisfaction. Marika Tiggemann (2010) studied social comparison by women in response to thin idealized images through number of 114 women as sample and were observed under three instructional conditions which were control, comparison of appearance and comparison of intelligence. Analysis revealed that two comparisons processing were related to images from media that has affected their moods and body satisfaction levels. The processing of comparison and intelligence were found to be positively and negatively linked to body dissatisfaction respectively. John C. Turner (1975) reported social comparison process for need to achieve positive group identity. Intergroup comparison and perceived social identity give rise to social competition. Subjects act as self under least intergroup discrimination environment.
According to Clay D. et al., (2005), In the Western culture, women’s self-esteem turned down considerably throughout middle teenage years, with modifications in body picture expected as a probable clarification. The body-image has developed in the perspective of socio-cultural aspect, for instance the idealistic-media images of women’s beauty. In a research of 136 girls of U.K. aged 11 to 16, exposure to ultra-thin or ordinary sized models of magazine has induced higher body dissatisfaction and lower self-esteem consequently. As well as, self-esteem was lowered in older women than younger women. Forbes et.al (2001) found that; among females, alongwith the great levels of body image dissatisfaction and disturbance of eating, several scholars has state “the media” certainly, as a influential contributor in propagating an idea linked to thin body and, also that the thin shape is ideally desirable.
Sociocultural influences apply pressures form society that have unnatural impact over females to lose weight and to diet (Stein, 1991; Silberstein, Rodin & Striegel-Moore, 1986). The influences form society and culture has contributed to several eating disordered behavior, significance of looks in the femininity roles and in society, the high value for appearance for women’s success (Striegel-Moore et al., 1986). Specifically, media messages presenting significance to women’s appearance and portray looks as an important factor in deciding societal success, are proposed as main contributors to encourage nonrealistic exertions to attain a skinny ideal body. A study has revealed the exposure of ideal thin body by media has resulted in high body dissatisfaction, negative feelings and eating disordered behaviors. (Schupak-Neuberg, Stice, Stein & Shaw, 1994; Stice & Shaw, 1994). Stice & Shaw (1994) has found other proofs that have predicted that; the magnitude of internalizing the sociocultural pressures by women is associated to the eating disorder symptomatology. Therefore, the hard work to accomplish an ideal thin body see disappointment and most women are susceptible to growth of disturbed eating patterns. Additionally, since 1960’s the female beauty standards have become increasingly slimmer with which disordered eating behaviors and attitudes are in parallel. (Garfinkle, Garner, Thompson & Schwartz, 1980; Gray, Wiseman, Ahrens & Mosimann, 1992)
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