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71 Seiten, Note: Graduate Studies
I THE PROBLEM
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Delimitation
Operational Definition of Terms
The Research Design
Population and Sample
Data Gathering Instruments
Data Gathering Procedures
Statistical Treatment of Data
II PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Profile of the Respondents
Supervisory Assistance from Parents
Level of the Academic Performance of the Respondents..
Significant Difference between the Supervisory Assistance and Nutrition of 4Ps recipients and non-4Ps recipients
Significant Relationship between Academic Performance and Personal-Related Factors of the Respondents
Significant Difference between the Academic Performance of 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients
III SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This piece of work is wholeheartedly dedicated to my parents, Dionisio and Paloma my sisters, Jomma, Jenny & Jessica my brother, Aristotel my relatives, professors, classmates and friends Above all to Almighty God, who make my dreams come true and for giving me wisdom, blessings, strength, and guidance to face the challenges that come my way.
The researcher wishes to express her sincerest appreciation and deepest gratitude to all those who shared their expertise and contributed to the successful completion of this undertaking. Special mention is given to:
Dr. Gilbert R. Arce, President of the University of Northern Philippines for inspiring and boosting the researcher’s morale to undertake the study;
Dr. Adelina R. Rapanut, Asst. Dean of the Graduate Studies for Education, and the panel chairman, for her motherly pieces of advice and encouragement;
Prof. Wilberto P. Tabutol, adviser, for the guidance, immeasurable patience, suggestions, and recommendations that immensely improved the study;
Prof. Nolito Ragunnan, critic, for his patience and time in constructing ideas that fine-tuned the study;
Prof. Baby Sophia S. Alaibilla, statistician, for her assistance to the researcher and for her untiring service in the statistical treatment of data;
Dr. Christopher Bueno and Dr. Fatima Rocamora, for sharing their time, constructive criticisms, and valuable suggestions;
Mr. Jorge M. Reinante, Schools Division Superintendent, Schools Division of Ilocos Sur for allowing the researcher to conduct her study in the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur;
Mrs. Marites R. Castro, Principal I of the clustered schools of Cabcaburao Elementary School, Lubing Elementary School and Mambug Primary School, Mr. Loreto P. Almazan, Head Teacher III of Padayao Elementary School, Dr. Solon P. Ponsoy, Head Teacher III of Luna Community School, Mrs. Darwin E. Almazan, Principal II of Burgos Central School, Mr. Robert C. Rosales, Head Teacher III of Bessang Elementary School, Mrs. Edna C. Castillo, Head Teacher III of Macaoayan Community School and Mrs. Mila B. Olivar, Head Teacher III of Patac Elementary School for granting the researcher’s request to conduct the study in their respective schools;
The Grade V advisers in the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur, for their unconditional support during the conduct of the study;
The Grade V pupils of the schools concerned, SY 2015-2016, for their cooperation during the conduct of the study, for without them, this endeavour would not have been a success.
The Bessang Elementary School teaching staff, for their encouragement and moral support and assistance;
Her parents, brother and sisters, for their boundless love and for giving inspiration, assistance, and understanding while accomplishing this study;
Her circle of friends, Medelyn, Errol, Ricky, Herald, Randy, Irene, Redentor, Melvin, Janice, Analyn and Clifford, for the moral support and assistance they extended to the researcher;
Her professors and classmates, for their support and for inspiring the researcher to finish the study, and Above all, to the Father Almighty, who make all things beautiful and possible for the wisdom and healthy attitude that sustained the researcher until the completion of this humble piece of work.
A MILLION THANKS!!!
This study aimed to compare the academic performance of 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients in the elementary schools of Burgos, Division of Ilocos Sur. It further determined the level of academic performance of the 4Ps recipients and the non-4Ps recipients of Burgos. It addresses to answer the following specific questions:1) What is the profile of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur in terms of the following personal-related factors such as age, sex, family size, number of siblings covered by 4Ps, occupation of parents, presence of parents at home, daily allowance, and parent’s educational attainment? 2) What is the status of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in terms of supervisory assistance from parents and nutrition? 3) What is the level of the academic performance of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in terms of their grades on the four major subjects such as English, Filipino, Science and Mathematics? 4) Is there a significant difference between the status along supervisory assistance and nutrition of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients? 5) Is there a significant relationship between the personal-related factors of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients and their academic performance? 6) Is there a significant relationship between the status of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients and their academic performance? 7) Is there a significant difference between the academic performance of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients?
Personal-related factors of the respondents (age, sex, family size, number of siblings covered by 4Ps, occupation of parents, presence of parents at home, daily allowance, and parent’s educational attainment) were considered as the independent variables while academic performance were the dependent variables. Academic performance was measured in terms of the respondents’ average grades in English, Filipino, Science and Mathematics for the second quarter, school year 2015-2016. Nutritional Status and supervisory assistance from parents were also assessed in this study.
Relationships of the personal-related factors of the respondents and their academic performance were explored. Likewise, the study also aimed to compare the status of respondents in terms of nutrition and supervisory assistance from parents.
Descriptive correlational method was used in the study. The study also utilized a constructed questionnaire that was validated by experts. It made use of frequency, percentage, mean, simple correlational analysis and t-test for independent samples to analyze and treat the data gathered.
Findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents are 10 years old and females. In terms of family size, most of them belong to small families with one to three children. It was also found out that most respondents’ parents are high school graduates and are engaged in non-professional occupations. Most of the respondents’ daily allowance ranges from eleven to twenty pesos. Further, findings reveal that both father and mother are living with their children.
Results showed that the level of parents’ supervision of the respondents is “Satisfactory” and it was also revealed that most respondents are “Normal” based on their Body Mass Index (BMI). The level of academic performance in English, Filipino, Science and Mathematics for the first and second quarter of the two groups of respondents is “Satisfactory” leading to the overall academic performance of the respondents as “Satisfactory.”
Moreover, sex and nutritional status were found to have significant relationships with the academic performance of the respondents. On the contrary, other variables such as age, family size, number of siblings covered by 4Ps, occupation of parents, presence of parents at home, daily allowance, educational attainment of parents and supervisory assistance were found to have no significant relationships with the respondents’ academic performance.
There was no significant difference between the academic performance of 4Ps and non-4Ps respondents. Also, the status of both respondents in terms of supervisory assistance and nutrition was found to have no significant difference.
In the light of the findings of this study, the researcher offers the following recommendations: 1) The pupils, especially those 4Ps recipients should learn the process of acceptance and be able to focus on their studies despite on the difficulties of life they face. This recommendation runs parallel to the recommendations forwarded by Alata (2014), who encouraged her respondents to give more importance to education which can lead them to a better future, 2) The parents and guardians on the other hand, should find time to offer guidance/ supervision to their children for the improvement of their academic performance, 3) The respondents should be provided with school supplies and other necessities when they needed, 4) They should also be particular with the food they give to their children to improve their nutritional status since nutrition was found to be significantly related with the respondents’ academic performance, 5) The DSWD as a partner agency of DepEd should continue to implement the program and conduct continuous assessment to come up with a better solution in contributing to the effective and efficient education of the learners who belong to the marginalized sector of society, 6) Researchers on the other hand, should continue conducting studies related to this study and consider additional variables and a bigger number of respondents to come up with the more concrete bases, useful insights that can be utilized to modify or enhance existing programs related to the 4Ps.
Education is perceived as a primary tool for development. It is much valued by Filipinos. For ages, myriad studies and researches have been conducted in search for the continuous improvement of the quality of education in the country. Numerous factors affecting academic performances of the pupils have been enumerated and one of these is poverty.
Researches affirmed that poverty decreases a pupil’s performance in school through aspects of health, home life, schooling and neighbourhoods. A child’s home has a particularly strong impact on his or her performance. Children from low-income families often do not receive the stimulation and do not learn the social skills required to prepare them for school. Typical problems are parental inconsistency (with regard to daily routines and parenting), frequent changes of primary caregivers, lack of supervision and poor role modelling. Very often, the parents of these children also lack support.
Several studies have also demonstrated the association between low-income households and decreased child’s performance. A report by Thomas concluded that children from lower income households score significantly lower on measures of vocabulary and communication skills, knowledge of numbers, copying and symbol use, ability to concentrate and cooperative play with other children than children from higher income households. Janus et al.(1998) found that schools with the largest proportion of children with low school readiness were from neighbourhoods of high social risk, including poverty. Willms ( 2000) established that children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) households scored lower on a receptive vocabulary test than higher SES children. Thus, the evidence is clear and unanimous that poor children arrive at school at a cognitive and behavioural disadvantage.
In the Philippines, 27.9 Million Filipinos or one-third (l/3) of the entire population are poor (According to 2006 Annual Poverty Statistics of the National Statistical Coordination Board). To address this, the government implemented a poverty reduction program popularly known as the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps).
The Governments role in eradicating poverty is underscored in Article 2, Section 9 of the 1987 Constitution which states that: The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a program under the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) originally known as the Conditional Cash Transfer Program that was inspired from the successes of similar programs in Latin American countries such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil, Familias en Accion in Colombia and OPORTUNIDADES in Mexico. It is a human development measure of the national government that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor, to improve the health, nutrition, and the education of children aged 0-18.
In 2007, the DSWD pre-pilot tested in municipalities of Sibagat and Esperanza in Agusan del Sur; the municipalities of Lopez Jaena and Bonifacio in Misamis Occidental, the Caraga Region; and the cities of Pasay and Caloocan in a 50 million pesos budget. It was renamed Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) by DB-Mayler G Amolata and Aicris Floren on July 16, 2008 by administrative order number 16, series of 2008 and set implementing guidelines.
The 4Ps helps the Philippine government fulfil its commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—specifically in eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, in achieving universal primary education, in promoting gender equality, in reducing child mortality, and in improving maternal health care.
Every household receives a total of P3,000 per year or P300 per month per child for 10 months a year, to a maximum of 3 children per household. A household with three qualified children receives a subsidy of P1,400/month during the school months or P15,000 for the whole year for as long as they comply with the conditions set by the program. The amount of grants that they would be receiving depends upon their compliance to the conditions. Beneficiaries receive their cash grants through different modes of payment such as Over-the-counter (OTC), Offsite, Cash Card, and G-Cash Remit.
In order to receive the abovementioned subsidies, all the succeeding conditions must be met by the household-beneficiaries:
- Pregnant women must avail pre- and post-natal care, and be attended during childbirth by a trained professional;
- Parents or guardians must attend the family development sessions, which include topics on responsible parenting, health, and nutrition;
- Children aged 0-5 must receive regular preventive health check-ups and vaccines;
- Children aged 6-14 must receive deworming pills twice a year; and
- Children-beneficiaries aged 3-18 must enroll in school, and maintain an attendance of at least 85% of class days every month.
The 4Ps operates in all the 17 regions in the Philippines, covering 79 provinces, 143 cities, and 1,484 municipalities. As of March 26, 2015, the program has enlisted 4,425,845 households, of which 558,609 are indigenous households and 223,344 have at least one person with disability (PWD). The program also covers 11,058,303 schoolchildren aged 0 to 18, from the total registered with an average of two to three children per household. They are selected through the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR), which identifies who and where the poor are in the country.
As of March 2015, a total of P9.2 billion cash grants were paid to eligible and compliant beneficiaries in the first period of 2015 covering January to February disbursements. From this amount, P5.3 billion was paid for education, and the remaining P3.9 billion was disbursed for health.
Several studies have showed the positive impact of the on education, health etc. among the beneficiaries of the program. In spite of these findings, still many questions arise as to what is expected from the most expensive and infamous social program of the government.
In the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur there are 98 Grade V beneficiary pupils. This study looks into the situation of the pupil beneficiaries in terms of their academic performance. It is done through a comparative study of their performances to the performance of the non-beneficiary pupils. Through this study, we can come up with the concrete bases, useful insights that can be utilized to modify or enhance existing program to function in complement to the 4Ps or create new ones, if necessary, to serve the same purpose.
This study aimed to compare the performance of 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients in the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur in terms of the following personal-related factors:
c. family size,
d. number of siblings covered by 4Ps,
e. daily allowance
f. occupation of parents
g. presence of parents at home
h. parent’s educational attainment?
2. What is the status of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in terms of:
a. supervisory assistance from parents and
3. What is the level of the academic performance of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in terms of their grades on the four major subjects such as:
4. Is there a significant difference between the status along supervisory assistance and nutrition of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients?
5. Is there a significant relationship between the personal-related factors of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients and their academic performance?
6. Is there a significant relationship between the status of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients and their academic performance?
7. Is there a significant difference between the academic performance of the 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients?
The main focus of this study was to compare the performance of 4Ps and non-4Ps pupils in the elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur. The 264 Grade V pupils who were enrolled in the elementary schools of Burgos were the respondents of the study.
The average grades of the respondents in English, Filipino, Science and Mathematics for the 2nd quarter, school year 2015-2016 were considered as the respondents’ academic performance.
The personal-related factors of the respondents included age, sex, family size, number of siblings covered by 4Ps, parents’ occupation, presence of parents at home, daily allowance and parent’s educational attainment. The status of the pupils considered the supervisory assistance from parents and nutrition.
The questionnaire that was utilized in the study was constructed by the researcher and it was validated by experts. It utilized descriptive-correlational method of research.
This study also used frequency, percentage, mean, simple correlation analysis and t-test for independent samples as statistical tools in treating the gathered data.
This study presents readings and literature in connection with the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). The researcher reviewed relevant literatures taken from the books, professional magazines, unpublished theses and dissertations in order to have a broader background to understand the investigation.
The 4Ps is a social program that entails monetary and non-monetary transfers to the poor or poorest families who have school-aged children on the condition that they meet the program’s terms that are aimed at improving their capacities (Cecchini and Madariaga 2011). Brazil and Mexico were the first countries that implemented that 4Ps program. The main objective was to provide cash to families who are in extreme poverty in exchange for some education and health care commitments. Since then, many countries, including the Philippines, have attempted to replicate their examples.
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, or 4Ps, is the Philippines’ version of the conditional cash transfer. Based on the Department of Social Welfare and Development Studies (DSWD) primer, the 4Ps is a poverty reduction and social development strategy of the national government. It provides cash transfers to extremely poor households to help improve their health, nutrition and education. The program specifically targeted poor families with children aged 0-14. The two main objectives of the program are social assistance and social development. The former aims to alleviate the poor’s immediate needs, hence it can be termed as a short-term poverty alleviation measure. The latter, however, aims to break the by investing in human capital.
The 4Ps has two components, namely: health and education. Under the health component, the program provides PhP6,000 annually (PhP500 per month) to each family-beneficiary for their health and nutrition expenses. Under the education component, it provides PhP3,000 per child for one school year (i.e., 10 months) for meeting educational expenses. Each family beneficiary shall receive for up to a maximum of 3 children under the educational grant.
In return, the family-beneficiaries have to commit themselves to the following conditionalities: (1) pregnant women must avail of the pre- and post-natal care and be attended during childbirth by a trained medical professional; (2) parents must attend family development seminars; (3) children aged 0-5 must undergo regular preventive health checks and receive vaccines; (4) children aged 3-5 must attend day care or preschool classes at least 85 percent of the time; (5) children aged 6-14 must enroll in elementary or high school and attend at least 85 percent of the time; and, (6) children aged 6-14 must receive de-worming pills twice a year. The family-beneficiaries will receive the grant for at most five years, provided that they comply with the conditionalities.
The eligible beneficiaries of the 4Ps are families: (1) from the poorest municipalities; (2) whose condition is equal to or below the provincial poverty threshold; (3) with children aged 0-14 and/or a pregnant woman at the time of assessment; and, (4) that agree to meet the program's conditionalities. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) has chosen the poorest municipalities based on the results of the 2003 Small Area Estimates (SAE) generated by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). For municipalities with poverty incidence higher than 50%, all barangays are assessed. But for those with poverty rate lower than 50%, the criteria for selecting barangays are the “pockets of poverty” based on the available socioeconomic profile of the municipality.
To identify the poorest households within the selected municipalities, the DSWD uses the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR). The system employs a Proxy Means Test (PMT) model to identify the poor families. The PMT model was estimated using data from the 2006 FIES and the 2006 Labor Force Survey (LFS). The assessment is conducted by using certain proxy variables like ownership of assets, type of housing, education and employment of household head, and access to water and sanitation facilities to predict income. To verify compliance, the DSWD coordinates with the program’s multi-sectoral Advisory Committee to conduct monthly verification through the Compliance Verification System (CVS) developed for the program.
In the study of Chaudhury and Okamura (2012) it was found out that there was an almost 9 percent increase in the enrolment among the younger cohort aged 9-11 (as of 2011) who were eligible for grants under the program throughout the 2008 and 2011. However, no statistically significant impact was impact was found for the older cohort of children aged 13-17 ( as of 2011), most of whom were no longer eligible for grants due to the age limit(14 years) set by the program.
Relationships between nutrition and brain function have been the focus of much research. Studies have shown the impact of dietary foundations on normal brain functions. Chemical messengers within the brain called neurotransmitters have been studied in conjunction with nutrition.
Growden and Wurtman (1980) suggested that the brain can no longer be viewed as an autonomous organ, free from other metabolic processes in the body; instead, the brain needs to be seen as being affected by nutrition, the concentration of amino acids and choline (in the blood) which let the brain create and use many of its neurotransmitters such as serotonin, acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Food consumption is vital to the brain being able to make the right amount of amino acids and choline. These are two precursor molecules obtained from the blood that are needed for the brain to function normally. It is no surprise that what we eat directly influences the brain (Colby-Morley, 1981).
Wood cited Kretsch et al. (2001) showed further possibilities that our nutrition has a role with affecting our cognitive functioning. Studies have been done with school-aged children and point to a direct correlation between poor nutrition and lowered school performance. Iron has also been shown to play an important role in brain function as well.
Kretsch et al. cited details from a study done with men aged 27 to 47 that looked at iron and its effect on concentration. Low scores on a concentration test corresponded with lowered levels of iron in the bodies of the subjects. A connection was made between low iron levels in children with attention span; children with iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have short attention spans. Kretsch et al. also found that zinc was another nutrient that had a role with cognition, specifically with Nutrition and Academic Performance 10 memory. In a test of mental function called verbal memory, scientists found that volunteers’ abilities to remember everyday words slowed significantly only after three weeks of a low-zinc diet (Wood, 2001).
Erickson (2006) pointed out five key components, based on research, required to keep the brain functioning correctly. The substances, all found in food, are important to brain development and function. Proteins are found in foods such as meat, fish, milk, and cheese. They are used to make most of the body’s tissues, including neurotransmitters, earlier identified as chemical messengers that carry information from brain cells to other brain cells. A lack of protein, also known as Protein Energy Malnutrition, led to poor school performance by children and caused young children to be lethargic, withdrawn, and passive, all of which help affect social and emotional development.
Academic achievement refers to standardized test scores, grades, and overall academic ability and performance outcomes. Academic performance can also be measured in specific subject areas such as English, Filipino, Science and Mathematics as it revolves a description and an evaluation of one’s perceived academic abilities (Byrne, 1996).
Factors of socioeconomic status include family income, parental educational level, parental occupation, and other components of social status affect the academic performance. Families with higher socioeconomic status have access to educational and social resources to assist their children with preparation for school. These parents are able to dedicate time and energy to invest in their children’s education through assistance with homework, providing tutors, and active involvement in schools (http://ir.uiaowa.edu.).
Soriano’s study (1965) as cited by Antiporada (1988) dealt on the academic achievement of the grade six pupils among public elementary schools in Cebu City. Her findings revealed that pupils who were weak in reading were also weak in arithmetic; that the pupils whose ages were normal had a substandard achievement in both arithmetic and reading; that average pupils were also found to be very weak in dictation and deficient in language; that boys were better in arithmetic.
From the same source, Matugas (1979) conducted a study on the achievement of seleted 220 grade four pupils in Communication Arts (Pilipino & English) in ninety-two elementary schools of Zamboanga del Sur. Her findings were: 1) The 220 grade four pupils representing the forty-four model sections of the 44 city central schools in the division of Zamboanga del Sur achieved satisfactorily in both communication skills, 2) Comparatively, however, they obtained a better average rating of 82.25% in English and 81.75% in Pilipino, 3) The difference of this rating in favour of English is significant enough that points to the fact that teachers had better ability to express ideas in English and in Pilipino.
Reyes (2001) focused her study on the academic achievement of pupils in English, Mathematics and Science. She disclosed that the performance of the pupils from grades one to six in the three subjects is “Satisfactory”. It varies significantly in the following grade levels: (a) English Performance-grades one, two, four, six; (b) Mathematics Performance –grades one and four; (c) Science and Health Performance –grades one and four; (d) Overall Academic Performance- grades one, two, four and six.
It came out from the study of Espejo (2000) that the Grade six pupil-respondents have a generally “Very satisfactory” academic performance, having received learning experiences which are in the focus of discussion and demonstration but never on the use of radio programs, overhead projector, or computers, from their teachers who are mostly at the proficient level of instructional competence.
On Sex. Several researches proved that sex is one of the important variables in academic achievement of pupils. Vasantha Ramkumar (1969) came out with the finding that sex and academic achievement are significantly related with each other. Roach (1979) conducted a study on 206 boys and 212 girls from 5 urban elementary schools in Jamaica and found that the girls scored significantly higher than the boys on the Mathematics Achievement test.
On Parents Education Attainment
Research on parenting has shown that parent education is related to a . Klebanov et al (1994) as cited by Russel Anne Alata (2014), found that both parents’ education and family income were important predictors of the physical environment and learning experiences in the home but that mothers’ education alone was predictive of parental warmth. Likewise, Smith et al. (1997) found that association of family income and parents’ education with children’s academic achievement was mediated Thus, these authors posited that education might be linked to specific achievement behaviours in home( e.g.,reading, playing). Corwyn and Bradley (2002) also found that parents’ education had the most consistent direct influence through cognitive and behavioural outcomes with some direct influence through a cognitively stimulating home environment.
Parents have a role to play in promoting academic performance of their children in any public school. It has been established that parents who abandon their children at their early ages force them to take parental roles which they are not fully prepared for. Such children do not do well at school. Such behaviours are common to parents who abuse alcohol in UK (Dennis, 2011). It is recommended that parents should take their responsibilities in order to promote academic standards of their children. It is the role of the parents to ensure that children join school at the required time. They should also get involved in school activities that promote learning of their children. Academic success is achieved through parental support. Children will put a lot of effort in education as long as their parents encourage them. Parents should also ensure that children attend school on regular basis. However, some parents do not take it as their responsibility (UNICEF, 2007).Learning extends beyond the classroom and it includes home and community encouragement. It is a parental role to ensure that the surrounding of a child at home promotes learning. Parents need to have a positive 14 attitude towards education which will in turn encourage a child to learn. Parents have authority over children absenteeism, variety of reading materials at home and excessive television watching. Availability of reading materials promote learning. Some working parents lack enough time for their children leading to their low academic achievement (Caroline & Clauss, 2006). According to Kibera and Kimokoti (2007), responsible parents take their children to school at the right age and such parents are educated. Due to their irresponsible behaviors which involve abuse of alcohol, some parents neither attend school meetings nor follow up academic work of their children at school. Their children are mostly embarrassed with this behavior. Such children decline in academic work (D.N, October 24th, 2011). Many families in the Philippines today face economic hardships which make them suffer increased hostility, lack of family warmth and support. When parents become demoralized, and lose confidence in their parenting ability, children also lack motivation to learn leading to poor academic achievement (Ngwiri, 2008).
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
In order to visualize a clear picture of the study, the conceptual paradigm is designed in Figure 1.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 1. The Paradigm
Operational Definition of Terms
For a better understanding of the study, the following terms are hereby defined based on the context they were used.
Pantawid Pampamilyang Pilipino Program.
Conditional Cash Transfer. It refers to the program originated from other countries where the Pantawid Pampamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) was patterned.
Nutrition. It refers to the health status of the pupils as reflected in the nutritional status of the school.
Academic Performance. This pertains to the scholastic achievement of the respondent expressed in terms of their average grades in English, Filipino, Science and Mathematics for the first and second quarter school year 2015-2016.
Personal-Related Factors. These are the personal attributes of the respondent such as age, sex, family size, number of siblings covered by 4Ps, parents’ occupation, presence of parents at home, daily allowance, and parent’s educational attainment.
Family size. It refers to the number of family members. It is categorized as big (7 and more children), medium (4-6 children) and small (1-3 children).
Parents Occupation. This refers to the economic activity or work of the parents which can be classified as professional or non-professional.
Professional. This is a job or work requiring specialized knowledge and advance skills in an area.
Non-professional. This is a job or work which is manual or repetitive in nature.
Daily allowance. Amount of money given to the respondent daily as he or she enters the school.
Parents educational Attainment. This pertains to the highest level of educational achievement of parents.
This study was premised on the following assumptions:
1. The responses of the respondents were manifestations and reflections of their true and honest assessment/ appraisal concerning the supervisory assistance they are receiving from their parents.
2. The gathering instrument used was valid, objective and reliable.
3. The data gathered through documentary analysis were accurate and reliable.
The following are the hypotheses of the study:
1. There is a significant difference between the status of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of 4Ps in terms of Supervisory assistance from parents and nutrition.
2. There is a significant relationship between the personal-related factors of the respondents and their academic performance.
3. There is a significant difference between the academic performance of 4Ps and non-4Ps recipients.
This section presents the research design, population, data gathering instruments used and procedures of data collection and statistical treatment of data.
Research Design. The researcher utilized the descriptive-correlation method of research, wherein the personal-related factors of the respondents such as age, sex, family size, parents’ occupation, presence of parents at home, daily allowance and parent’s educational attainment were correlated with the academic performance of the pupils.
Population. All 264 Grade V pupils (4Ps beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries) in 9 public elementary schools of Burgos, Ilocos Sur for the S.Y 2015-2016 served as the respondents. The data on the population of respondents were taken from the individual records (SF1) of the school concerned and verified through the records of Municipal Social Welfare and Development (MSWD) of Burgos. This is reflected in table 1.
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Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 86 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 28 Seiten
Diplomarbeit, 102 Seiten
Fachbuch, 186 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 147 Seiten
Studienarbeit, 110 Seiten
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