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59 Seiten, Note: 1,8
III. Table of contents:
IV. List of Tables:
V. List of Appendices
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Study Rational
1.2 Research Aim
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Methodology Overview
1.5 Chapter overview
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.3 Soft Power
2.4 Nation Branding
2.5 The Importance of the Media
2.6 The 2012 London Olympic Games
2.7 Concluding remarks
Chapter 3: Research Methodology and Methods
3.4 Data quality
3.5 Ethical Considerations
Chapter 4: Research results
4.1 Germans perception of Britain's image
4.2 Governments influence to improve the countries image
4.3 Media sources informing German people's image of Britain
4.4 Opening Ceremony
4.5 German people's awareness of 2012 Olympic Games in London
4.6 Germans people's perception of Britain's as a welcoming destination
4.7 People's perception after the 2012 London Olympic Games
Chapter 5: Conclusion
Cities all over the world compete to promote their countries' image or brand to increase international prestige through hosting mega-events such as the Olympic Games. Mega-events are commonly utilized to attract tourists, stimulating investment, booting exports, boosting the currency's stability, raising political influence and strengthening international relationships.
This dissertation aims to examine the methods and theories created to guide the concept of nation reputation through the host of the 2012 Olympic Games. To further to explore the German people's awareness of the UK after the 2012 Olympic Games and whether or not the Game has changed the perception by interviewing six sport and Olympic interested German people. It is identified that German people already had an overall positive view of the United Kingdom. The opening ceremony has been the most watched part of the Games and the atmosphere combined the perception about the Britain's and the 'Queen' and 'James Bond' was the most associated attraction with the Olympic Games. The most relevant source to inform the German people was identified as Newspaper, Television and Social Media. Nevertheless, a glimpse expressed negative images of Britain. The majority if the Interviewees were not able to identify whether the Olympic Games worked well. At least half of the interviewees expressed a general disagreement with a possible alternation of their perception of Britain due to positive media coverage during the 2012 London Olympic Games.
I am deeply grateful to my supervisor, Udo Merkel, for his guidance, patience and support. I consider myself very fortunate for being able to work with a very considerate and encouraging professor like him.
In addition, I am grateful to each of the participants involved within my research, for contributing their expertise and opinions, in order to complete my study.
At least I would like to thank my mum and my dad for never giving up on me and also for the support throughout my life. My parents are inspirational figures in my life and I am thankful for having them.
Table 1 Interview questions and their relationship to study's objectives and the literature review
Table 2 Participants
Appendix A. Dissertation Proposal
Appendix B. Interview Questions
Appendix C. Dissertation Interview Consent Form
Appendix D. Dissertation Interview: Interviewee A
Appendix E. Dissertation Interview: Interviewee B
Appendix F. Dissertation Interview: Interviewee C
Appendix G. Dissertation Interview: Interviewee D
Appendix H. Dissertation Interview: Interviewee E
Appendix I. Dissertation Interview: Interviewee F
Thank you. London, for "happy and glorious" Olympic Games! (Olympic.org, n.d)
In the last decades, the event industry has been growing significantly (Mossberg, 2002; Home, 2007; Li, Hsu and Lawton, 2015). Therefore, hosting the Olympic Games of course guarantees the world's attention (Grix and Lee, 2013), but this is more than simply being in the global spotlight. However, in the 21st century, sports events such as the Olympic Games and their outcomes have become most meaningful and powerful (Rowe, 2003). Host cities such as London in 2012 used the opportunity to create a positive and lasting legacy abroad. In this case, cities all over the world compete to promote their countries' image or 'brand' to increase international prestige (Grix, 2012) to attract the world's population (Grix and Lee, 2013).
Brief details of current debates
Image building through event marketing has become an important process throughout the world. According to Home (2007), Schrag (2009) and Compton (2016), sport events are the most watched events in history. Therefore, globalized nations, countries and cities have to compete with each other. The 2012 Olympic Games in London were the perfect platform to showcase the nation and change their image to develop the way other countries perceive them. In 2012, the UK hosted this mega sports event for the third time after the 1908 and 1948 Olympic Games (Wallenfeldt, 2014). In this century, the media is a necessary key stakeholder and sends a powerful message to the world and presents what the city has to offer (Foley et al., 2012; Compton 2016). The London 2012 Olympics used this knowledge and focused on five promises; however, the most important promise for this research will be the fifth promise, which focused on the reputation of Britain abroad.
Concerns that have fuelled your interest
Little research has been dedicated to the Olympics in London being a happy and successful event. Linked to the fifth promise, this research is concerned with exploring whether the London 2012 Olympic Games has had an impact on German peoples' perception of Britain, with a focus on the main idea of mega events, soft power strategies, image building, the media, and the methods to improve international reputations through hosting the Olympic Games. The Authors is fuelled with the interest what German people feel about Britain after the Olympic Games and whether people are more attracted to Britain after 2012. To guide the information gathering process, the following aim and objectives were established to form the basis for the research.
To critically evaluate whether the London 2012 Olympic Games has changed the German perception of Britain.
Objective One: To critically examine the academic literature and relevant theories concerning the hosting of international mega sporting events and image building.
Objective Two: To explain the methods which Britain used to improve its international reputation through hosting the London 2012 Olympics.
Objective Three: To identify the role of the German media in changing Germany's perception of Britain with a particular reference to the hosting of mega events.
Objective Four: To analyse whether the London 2012 Olympic Games has changed the German perception of Britain being able to stage international sport events.
Objective Five: To critique the use of sport mega events as part of Britain's 'soft power' strategies.
Objective Six: To conclude whether German people are more attracted to Britain after the 2012 Olympic Games.
Here, briefly, the author reveals the method by which the objectives of the study were achieved. To draw a conclusion about people's feelings about Britain after the Olympic Games 2012, an in-depth analysis through qualitative data collection is required. The first, second and fifth objectives are incorporated by an extensive review of the existing literature analysing mega sport event theories. The primary research, acquired through semi-structured interviews, addresses objectives three, four and six to gain a sample of sport interested German opinions on the Olympics 2012. To analyse the role of mass media in Germany, national newspaper coverage focusing on event management issues is explored. Lastly, conclusions and recommendations will be developed by reflection on the primary and secondary research to conclude whether German people are more attracted to Britain after the 2012 Olympic Games.
Each chapter is outlined in its respective introduction. However, for easy reference, their content can be summarised as follows:
Chapter Two: Literature Review - This examines and critically evaluates the various literature related to the subject explaining the concept of the event industry, thus creating the context for the study
Chapter Three: Research Methodology and Methods - This outlines the research methods used to conduct the primary data research. Any problems with these methods will be discussed.
Chapter Four: Primary Research Findings - This chapter analyses the primary research results in comparison to the secondary research. It highlights the differences between the opinions of interviewees.
Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations -This offers the conclusions drawn from the findings of the primary and secondary research, to achieve objective six.
Recommendations will also be made for any further research that might be undertaken. The following chapter is the Literature review.
The literature review gives the reader an insight into the event industry. Furthermore, the secondary research findings are divided into five subheadings: government; soft power; nation branding; the importance of the media; and the case study of the 2012 London Olympic Games. This is to show how methods and theories can promote the nation's image. In addition to primary research, the researcher has also used secondary literature to collect a rich amount of information to give the reader first insights into the topic. The data collection is mainly from journals, books and reports that have been gathered in the University of Brighton library.
In the last decades, the event industry has been growing significantly for various reasons (Mossberg, 2002; Home, 2007; Li, Hsu and Lawton, 2015). Jordan (2006) argues that the three main reasons are: firstly, new developments in the technologies of mass communication; secondly, corporate sponsorship money; and thirdly, events are seen as useful tools for promoting commercial products and to attract tourism. Mega events are motivational tools and opportunities for cities to promote tourism and to "redevelop themselves as places of spectacle, entertainment and consumption" (Jennings, 2013, p. X), creating jobs and infrastructure, generating government revenues from commercial activities and taxation, and connecting the state to multinational corporations, either as sponsors or contractors (Jennings, 2013).
The first section of this review focuses on the relationship between governments and the event industry. It is followed by a discussion of soft power; then the next section outlines nation branding through mega events, followed by a discussion of the role of media and its importance for the nation, before presenting the 2012 London Olympic Games and some concluding remarks.
Firstly, it is important to understand that governments have become dominant stakeholders as hosts of sports mega events (Mules and Faulkner, 1997; Mossberg, 2002; Grix and Lee, 2013), since the top levels of government are attracted to the representative qualities that governments have seen in the economic, social and urban changes within a city or region (Walters, 2011; Jennings, 2013). Governments hosting such mega events hope that the events will lead to a legacy and benefits for the nation as well as improvements in social and cultural profits, and community identity (Home, 2007; Walters, 2011), and also the level of participation, meaning that the numbers "who can watch it and be part of it" should be maximised (Perryman, 2013, p. 19).
One question that needs to be asked, however, is whether the government gains or loses from hosting such a mega event. Much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature, stating that it is not clear "who gains and who loses in organising major events such as the Olympic Games" (Jennings, 2013, p. 13). The government is the most important key stakeholder in mega sport events, which brings direct or indirect political support for the success of the events (Walters, 2011; Jennings, 2013). Political support is seen as complex, diverse and multib layered (Walters, 2011; Jennings, 2013; Merkel, 2014).
As Bowdin (2011), and Luscombe (2014) found, all levels of government (national, regional and local) use mega sport events as tools to train staff, develop networks and also to communicate with the public. Governments expect positive legacies, and events show opportunities for the government to influence projects that are of strategic importance, signalling their economic power, technological innovations or global status (Jennings, 2013). Another reason for hosting a global sports event is that events can be vehicles for stimulating the local economy. The catalytic role of the 1992 Barcelona Olympics is the most famous example of a mega sporting event. The Catalan government widely believed that the use of a global sporting event would function as a transformative instrument of public policy. The government transformed the urban environment and infrastructure in the city to promote a better image and create new employment opportunities (Munoz, 2006; Bowdin, 2011; Walters, 2011; Jennings, 2013).
It can be speculated that the most serious disadvantage of this relationship between the government and hosting a global event is that it can bring negative impacts to the nation when there is a lack of strategic thinking (Walters, 2011). Therefore, the decision makers at the highest levels of government try to bring success; however, all the studies reviewed so far suffer from mega events highlighting high political risks "in view of the reputation of policy-making elites for supporting risky, expensive controversial projects" (Jennings, 2013, p. 3). With this in mind, the government has to be careful because the forecast of the desired goals is not always viable (Home, 2007).
The concept of soft power is linked to Joseph Nye (1994, 2002), since he first coined this term in his writings and Nye's concept is known as the nature of power. Many writers find it challenging to see soft power capabilities as the most important factor (Singer, 1969). Other authors see it as behavioural outcomes (Nye, 2002, 2004, 2011). A "relational power concept" is what Nye (2011, p. 11) called his soft power concept, but he also says of his theory in the past is "the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payment" (Nye, 2004, p. 34). Nye's concept covered "culture, values and foreign policies" (2004, p. 11). Seven years later, Nye described soft power as "the ability to affect others through the co-optive means of framing the agenda, persuading, and eliciting positive attraction in order to obtain preferred outcomes" (2011, pp. 20-21).
Soft power as a broad organising principle helps to understand the variety of state motives for hosting such mega events as the Olympic Games (Grix, 2013, p. 530). It is the ability of the government to attract and increase its agency on the international stage (Grix, 2013; Merkel, 2014), and with the exercise of soft power, the host nation will perceive economic benefits, which is the prime motive for hosting an mega event (Grix, 2013; Li, 2013). Soft power is the opposite of hard power, which is influenced by military intervention; this is seen as one of the obvious exercises of hard power (Nye, 2004; Merkel, 2014). Its characteristics, as Merkel explained, "arise from a country's attractiveness, reputation and the popularity of its culture, norms and values, political ideals and policies" (2014, p. 6). Other scholars argue that the devaluation of soft power can undermine the concept of hard power and sometimes interfere with hard power, but soft power never depends on hard power (Nye, 2004). Yet, on the other hand, some authors claim that hard power is nevertheless the most effective foreign policy tool (Ferguson 2004; Gray, 2011), as soft power is unsuitable for policy directions and control, as it relies too much on foreign countries' perceptions (Gray, 2011)
Nye argues that "success comes not from hard power or soft power, but their effective combination" (2004, p. 15), leading to smart power (Nye, 2004). Grix and Lee (2013) strongly believed that soft power, exercised through the hosting of sporting events, can backfire and fail.
Several authors state that spectacles such as the Olympic Games offer various opportunities to demonstrate the soft power of the host country (Grix and Lee, 2013; Merkel, 2014). The most important organisations that strengthen their soft power are states, local authorities, regional development agencies and international institutes (Walters, 2011; Merkel, 2014). This is illustrated by the most popular example, the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which displayed soft power as a tool that could show the world the potently opposite of the country's past identity (Chen, 2011; Kaplanidou, 2013). After all, events are really powerful, as they can create long-term benefits (Mossberg, 2002).
This section examines the motivations concerning the hosting of international mega sporting events and the process that is named 'nation branding'. Firstly, to clarify the definition of nation branding, the brand is a nation, state or country, and 'branding' will be defined as "the unique, multi-dimensional blend of elements that provide the nation with culturally grounded differentiation and relevance for all of its target audiences" (Bureau, 1998, cited in Dinnie, 2008, p. 15).
A brand will be used to represent an identity for its producer and an image to the consumer (Macrae et al., 1995; Dinnie, 2008, 2015; Pike, 2008;). Branding or rebranding a nation requires a long-term commitment over a period of several years; a short-term commitment will only provide a small pay off (Dinnie, 2008, p. 19). Before branding a nation, the key stakeholders need to acknowledge the reality and develop a long-term strategic view rather than aiming for a short-term advertising campaign (Dinnie, 2008, 2015). Furthermore, to create a nation's brand, it is necessary to identify the nation's interested key stakeholders, which might be the government, commerce, not-for-profit organisations, tourism and the media (De Chernatony, 2008; Dinnie, 2008; Morrison, 2013). "These key stakeholders set objectives to enable their group to work towards the nation's brand vision" (De Chernatony, 2008, p. 17). The current globalization produces competition among countries. Countries compete to attract higher attention and to receive trust from "investors, tourists, consumers, donors, immigrants, media and the governments of other nations" (ZAD Group, 2008, p. 37). The success of branding a nation is shown as attracting tourists, stimulating investment, boosting exports, boosting the currency's stability, raising political influence and strengthening international relationships (Dinnie, 2008).
It has also been argued that successful branding can bring advantages over other nations (Dinnie, 2008). Nevertheless, it is difficult to change consumers' minds when pre-existing national stereotypes are fixed (Dinnie, 2008). In addition, other key issues arise when studies are reviewed, according to Kotler and Gertner (2002), in as far as nation branding has many critics. They raised the question of whether it is right to treat a nation as a brand, and whether or not it is possible for a brand to bring success to a country. In the same way, policymakers should be sceptical about branding a nation to prevent the term from heading in the wrong direction. Dinnie (2008, p. 48) critiqued that there is a challenge in nation branding, a "dilemma of encapsulation".
In addition, Aldersey-Williams (1998) investigated that branding, or rebranding, is a politicized activity, and O'Shaughnessy and Jackson (2000) noticed that nation branding is complex, as many different parts of the nation's identity come together at different times and will be affected by political events. Debates on branding can degenerate into unproductive "navel-gazing" and there needs to be an awareness of the external perceptions of identity, particularly in the context of nation branding, as the audience of the nation-brand is not limited to the domestic population. It extends to whichever international arenas the nation wishes to be present in (Dinnie, 2008, p. 41). However globalized nations, countries, and cities have to compete with each other for several reasons (Dinnie, 2008). Scotland is one of many examples in which a nation was branded by an event/promotion plan between 2002 and 2004 at both internal and external levels. Scotland focused on major events and calendar dates, such as Saint Andrew's Day, and on regional and sporting events. The visual aspect of Scotland's brand identity was to identify the country with a logo known as the 'Scotland mark', which shows Scottishness (strong positive Scottish values and imagery) (Dinnie, 2008). A successful brand provides the nation with competitive advantages. Therefore, is it necessary for the hosting countries to recognize how other publics around the world see the nation, whether the nation has successes or failures or both, and also how their wealth, people and products are reflected in their brand identity (Dinnie, 2008).
To avoid confusion, it is important to clarify the difference between identity and image. "Identity refers to what something truly is - image refers to how something is perceived" (Dinnie, 2008, p. 42). The gap between identity and image is seen as a negative factor, and leads to many nations struggling with the frustration of "not being perceived by the rest of the world for what they truly are" (Dinnie, 2008, p. 42). As a result, they point out that the image of a destination plays a role in the decision-making process of the future consumer of the location. Many nations use events, especially mega events such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup which are created by destination marketers to improve the destination's image (Richtie, 1984; Essex and Chalkey, 1998; Emery, 2002; Chalip et al., 2003; Hill, 2003; Kim and Chalip, 2004; Hede, 2005; Smith, 2005; Cornelissen and Swart, 2006; Kim et al., 2006; Xing and Chalip, 2006; Kaplandiou and Voght, 2007; Sing and Hu, 2008; Allmers and Maennig, 2009; Lepp and Gibson, 2011; Moon et al., 2011).
To further the research, the literature review will also link to a small overview about the perception because this will also help to understand the later primary research. Positive perceptions have a direct or indirect influence on the event as useful, beneficial or desirable. On the other hand, negative perceptions influence events in the opposite direction (Jaffe and Nebenzahl, 2001; Pike, 2008). However, images can be influenced by stereotypes, which could be identified as cliches and outright racism that can dominate perceptions of certain nations. These stereotypes might hold back a nation's economic development and how the world sees the nation (Dinnie, 2008, p. 42).
Media coverage of a mega event can have a global reach, influencing people around the world (Getz and Fairley, 2004; Compton, 2016), as well as constructing cultural performances and commodities for global audiences (Compton, 2016). Some writers have been able to point out that mega sporting events are seen as the "most watched events in history" (Home, 2007; Schrag, 2009; Compton, 2016). The "social representation theory" (Pearce et al., 1996) suggests that the perceptions that the communities or societies build of an event are created through experiences, social interaction, and through the influence of information and the media. The question that is likely to always be asked by the host nation is to what extent the media will support the image and the perception of the success of the event. According to numerous authors, the media is a necessary key stakeholder, used in the overall success of a sporting event to improve the brand of the destination (Avraham, 2000; Whitelegg, 2000; Chalip et al., 2003; Hede, 2005; Mercille, 2005; Kaplandiou and Voght, 2007; Swart et al., 2010; Foley et al., 2012; Compton, 2016). Globalised media technologies send powerful messages to the world and show what the city or nation has to offer (Foley et al., 2012; Compton, 2016). There may be a serious weakness with this argument, however. Hall (1992) questioned this hypothesis, and noted that major events with global media coverage can support protests and political demonstrations. Chalip and Costa (2005) have determined that merely the simple presence of a sporting spectacle does not transform the destination's image, or has only a very limited influence on it if the strategic manner of its presentation is not well planned.
Compton (2016) pointed out that further examples created by influencing the media improve and create a new image, such as the 2008 Beijing Olympics, in which China presented itself as "a modern economic giant with venerable ancient traditions" (p. 50). The opening ceremony in London 2012 served as a backdrop to re-boot the image of 'Cool Britain' (Grix 2014 ). The 2014 Sochi Games were declared by President Vladimir Putin to be "an international validation of post-Soviet Russia" (Compton, 2016, p. 51). Compton (2016) challenges the widely held view that the use of the Internet and of mobile devices has created both threats and hopes for the nation, as "fans increasingly reach for their 'second screen' for scores and digital videos in a 360-degree mega sporting event experience" (p. 51). Compton (2016) also introduced the notion that the world, in the age of "Facebook, Google, Twitter and other forms of social media" (p. 60), pushes for "image promotion, branding and capital accumulation on a global scale" (p. 60). This push creates business-oriented international non-governmental organisations (BINGOs) (for example, FIFA and the International Olympic Committee) and relationships of collective interest, which follows that states are critics themselves this integration has become part of the spectacle (Compton, 2016). Compton's (2016) critical conclusion is that "contradiction has become an omnipresent feature of a world of globalized spectacles" (p. 60).
Events are "a perfect platform to showcase the hosting nation" (Lin et al., 2008, p. 28; Potter, 2009, p. 92; Grix, 2014, p. 578). London, the capital of England, was the first city to have hosted the Olympic Games three times (Merkel, 2014). As Abrams and Parker-Starbuck (2013) and Grix (2014) state, the history of Great Britain includes many contrasts, and has presented hard power, with "British soldiers being involved in combat in almost every year since 1945 in some part of the world" (Grix, 2014, p. 583), and the country has been seen as arrogant, stuffy, old- fashioned and cold (p. 583). Therefore, the British government (the Foreign and Commonwealth Office [FCO]) used the Olympic Games as a major opportunity to refine the image of the country and attract inward investment and attractive business partners (Grix, 2014). The goal of the FCO was to present a "modern Britain" which is welcoming and connected politically in terms of trade and travel and also creative and dynamic (House of Commons, 2005b 06; House of Commons, 2010b 11; Grix, 2014, p. 583). To achieve this goal, the British government created an 18b month strategy which involved the Olympic Games promoting the "British culture at home and abroad" (Grix, 2014, p. 583).
Moreover, by using this strategy, the Olympic legacy provided more space for interaction between the state, the market and the society of Britain (Girginou, 2012, p. 553). The most-viewed parts of the Olympic Games are usually the Opening and the Closing ceremonies (Grix, 2014; Burchell et al. 2015), which is "a perfect platform to showcase the nation" (Li, et al., 2008, p. 28; Potter, 2009, p. 92; Grix, 2014, p. 578). "Statecraft has become stagecraft" (Rivenburgh, 2010, p. 187 cited in Burchell et al., 2015, p. 414) and the ceremony was used in 2012 as a prime opportunity to promote "the Great Britain brand" (Grix, 2014). Moreover, the "Isle of Wonder", the theme of the ceremony in 2012, showed the world the history of the UK from a "bucolic countryside to the Industrial Revolution leading toward a very contemporary storyline of young love through a memorable score of British music" (Abrams and Parker-Starbuck, 2013, p. 20), while the British humour reminded us of the conflicted history of the monarchy when "the Queen parachuted into the stadium from a helicopter alongside Daniel Craig's James Bond" (Abrams and Parker-Starbuck, 2013, p. 20). In the opening ceremony, the UK celebrated itself, not only for its culture and as the home and birthplace of sport, but also for defining the role of politics in the twenty-first century and shaping the national identity (Abrams and Parker-Starbuck, 2013). The ceremony showed the world the cultural traditions and social landscape of the country and demonstrated that the country is a more society-oriented nation (Li, 2013, p. 1723). Nowadays, as Abrams and Parker-Starbuck (2013) and Grix (2014) state, Britain is seen as a fair, diverse and innovative country which has an overall positive global image. Furthermore, on the political front, London reflects a "more 'pluralistic' pursuit of a liberal democracy that values diversity, openness and the participation of a wide range of actors" (Li, 2013, p. 1724).
Hugh Robertson, Minister for Sport and Olympics said that "London 2012 is not the end of The Story, but the start of a new chapter" (Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), 2012, p. 13), as the legacy in the Bid document of the 2012 Olympic Games focussed on these five promises:
1. Make the UK a world-class sporting nation
2. Transform the heart of East London
3. Inspire new generation of young people to take part in local volunteering, cultural and physical activity
4. Make the Olympic Park a blueprint for sustainable living
5. Demonstrating the UK is a creative, inclusive and welcoming place to live in, visit and for Business
(DCMS, 2007, p. 2-7; DCMS, 2008, p. 6-7)
This research focuses on the reputation of Britain abroad especially in Germany, that is the fifth promise, which shows that London's 2012 version is to reach the goal of making the UK more 'GREAT' and welcoming on a global stage by hosting the Olympic Games in 2012 (DCMS, 2008). The 'GREAT' is UK's biggest marketing campaign across the world, the English marketing campaign was also seen in Germany, Berlin. Perryman (2013) gave three examples of how badly London got it wrong and where improvements could be made. Firstly, London moved the route of the marathon to the city centre, resulting in free pavement space being cut down by 75%; secondly, London showed the flag of another country not competing in the Games; and lastly, there was a failure to draw on the experience of similar events in that the UK paraded military hardware for all to see "in the belief that this will somehow act as reassurance" (Perryman, 2013, p. 21). Furthermore, this chapter has addressed the first, second and the fifth objective as it has unveiled the main idea of mega events, soft power strategies, image building, the media and the methods for improving international reputation through hosting the Olympics. This contributes towards answering objectives three, four and six as it addressed the source of the media German people utilize to be informed about the Olympic Games and the reputation of Britain in Germany through hosting the Olympic Games.
The preceding chapter outlined the theoretical background of this study and gave an account of past impacts and relationships of mega events on the host nation's identity, as well as the importance of the media. The chapter concluded that no evidence was obtained regarding a past study examining the German people's perception of Britain and Britain's ability to stage international sport events. This study is an attempt to contribute towards filling this gap and to do so, this chapter outlines the methodology and methods utilized to achieve objectives three, four and six.
The first part identifies the research methodology of this study, followed by the second part, outlining the research method, in which the interviews will be described in detail to give the reader an overview of the questions.
To examine German people's opinions and feelings towards Britain, an in-depth assessment was required (Denscombe, 2007). Thus, this study chose to use sport-interested participants because such interviewees would offer their corresponding knowledge and the structure of the interviews was guided by the predetermined research objectives (Flick, 2009). Therefore, the most efficient method to result in new scientific findings was to use open-ended interviews (Holliday, 2007).
Silverman (2013) explained that undertaking a qualitative methodology is useful when the interviewer explores people's lives, histories or people's everyday behaviour. In addition, as Silverman stated, the researcher "can read sense into answers that respondents give to open-ended interviews" (2013, p.237). The data will describe the respondents' world and the interviewer will access various stories (Riessman, 2008; Gubrium and Holstein, 2009; Silverman, 2013).
As Moore (2006) established, qualitative research is the most appropriate technique for that data collection, as it allows the researcher to collect a large scope of data during the interview. In relation to this dissertation, a quantitative method would be inappropriate, as the researcher's desire is to develop new ideas for a future explanation of perception, which is only possible through a detailed qualitative approach. While a qualitative method does not necessarily result in a clear answer (Bouma and Ling, 2004), it may enable the researcher to tease out ideas which can be explored further. It also has the benefit of offering insight and opinion (Husey and Husey, 1997) that would help to achieve objectives three, four and six.
To analyse, evaluate and support the previous researched information on the perception, the author designed ten questions that were directed to six German people interested in sport and the Olympics. Data for the sample were collected in February and March 2016 in the cities: Berlin, Freiburg and Munich in Germany, and London in the UK.
The interviews were on a semi-structured basis. This method gives researchers the possibility to cover a topic of interest to him or her, as well as the relevant questions (Saunders et al., 2015). These questions were used to compare the approach of the secondary research literature review. This method allows the interview to follow a pre-established composition of themes, creating the direction of the discussion, and this method also offers a flow according to how the participant answers (Saunders et al., 2009). Furthermore, this non-standardised interview method was conducted on a one to one basis, either face-to-face or internet-mediated via Skype, depending on each participant's requirements (Saunders et al., 2009). The interview questions (detailed below) were translated into German and English to prevent any misunderstandings. The answers were translated into English for the purpose of this research paper. The findings will be summarised and colour coded in Chapter four for objectives three, four and six as proposed:
- Objective 3 - To identify the role of the German media in changing Germany's perception of Britain with a particular reference to the hosting of mega events.
- Objective 4 - To analyse whether the London 2012 Olympic Games has changed the German perception of Britain being able to stage international sport events.
- Objective 6 - To conclude whether German people are more attracted to Britain after the 2012 Olympic Games
Table 1 - Interview questions and their relationship to stud's objectives and the literature review
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
To concentrate on the interviewees, the researcher recorded the conversations to ensure the results were exact. This method allows the ability to re-listen to the questions and the answers to make direct quotations when it comes to transcribing the interviews (Saunders et al., 2006). The interviewees were made aware of the recording in their consent form (see Appendix C) to avoid ethical issues (Saunders et al., 2009; Denscombe, 2007).
The participants, all of whom were sport-interested and knowledgeable about the Olympic Games, were found through personal contacts or via Facebook (Germans in London). They have each shown interest in the research subject, which led the study to develop new and unexpected results (Grix and Houlihan, 2014). Remaining flexible allows new ideas to be exposed (Bryman, 2012). This is the key to the study as all the participants have a 'subjective theory', indicating that they are highly knowledgeable about the topic (Flick, 2009).
Table 2 -Participants
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Any potential correlations were drawn once each transcript was formulated to analyse any commonalities (Grix and Houlihan, 2004). This is highlighted in Chapter Four.
Six interviews were conducted to assist the reliability of the study. However, each semib structured interview was mainly different and so drawing correlations between them created a small challenge, as the data were not factual and heavily reliant on the opinions of the individuals (Silverman, 2013). During the interviews, the researcher ensured that there was no influence on the participants by prearranging the questions (Barbour, 2008) (see Appendix 2). To ensure that the data collected from the interviewees were reliable and valid, the researcher recorded the interviews with the relevant tools (computer, telephone and voice recorder) needed to carry them out (Kumar, 2005).
As the research was carried out overtly, the participants were made aware of their contribution to the study and the extent to which they would be anonymous throughout the dissertation by them giving their information (Oliver, 2003; Kumar, 2005), through signing a consent form (see Appendix C). They were made aware that the information gained is only for reason of the study. The key questions in the interviews were predetermined (see Appendix B) and recorded to reflect on the research results and help to avoid bias (Oliver, 2003). Each respondent was interviewed individually to avoid the other participants from influencing each other's opinions.
The next chapter seeks to analyse the results of the research to establish new ideas or emphasise the correlations between the primary and secondary results.
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