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Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 2012
200 Seiten, Note: Awarded
CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION
1.1 Meaning of Information and Communication Technology
1.2 The Historical Scenario of ICT Development
1.3 Beginning of Information and Communication Technology and study of ICT-Choupal
1.4 Need of research
1.5 Problems in ICT Initiative and their Challenges
1.6 Various Project of ICT
1.7 Farmer's Economy
1.8 Farmers Economy in India
1.9 Farmer's Economy in Madhya Pradesh
1.10 Characteristics of Farmers Economy
1.11 Agricultural development in Madhya Pradesh
CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction of Review of Literature
2.2. Conclusion of Review Literature
CHAPTER THREE - INTRODUCTION OF RESEARCH AREA
3.1 Introduction about area of study
3.2 Dhar District
3.2.1 Physical division
3.3 Introduction of Indore block
3.3.3 Civic Administration
3.3.5 Information about transportation
3.3.6 Economy of Indore
3.4 Information about South West Madya Pradesh
3.4.1 Geographical condition and expansion
3.4.2 Agricultural Introduction of South West Madhya Pradesh
CHAPTER FOUR - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 Objectives of the study
4.2 Hypothesis of the study
4.3 Study of the framework
4.3.1The preliminary Phase
4.3.2 Secondary Data Collection Phase
4.3.3 Primary data collection phase
4.4 Rationale of the Study
4.5 Sampling Design
4.6 Selection of Blocks
4.6.1Selection of Villages
4.6.2Selection of the Households
4.7 Data Collection
4.8 Tools and Technique
4.9 Questionnaire descriptions
4.10 Limitation of the Study
CHAPTER FIVE -ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
5.1 Composition of the Sample
5.2 Farmer satisfaction by ICT based services
5.2.1 Types of seeds and crops
5.2.2 Fertilizers and manure prices
5.2.3 Water irrigation suggestion
5.2.4 ICT service experience and ICT service expected.
5.2.6 Storage Facility
5.2.7 Kisan credit Card facility provided by ICT-Choupal
5.2.8 The prices of Crops given by ICT-Choupal
5.2.9 Availability of Agriculture Equipment at ICT Choupal
5.2.10 Availability of Agriculture Loan at ICT- Choupal
CHAPTER SIX - CONCLUSION AND SUGESTIONS
6.1 Perceived benefits of ICT by Farmers
6.2. Explaination of constraints faced by the farmers
6.3 Satisfaction level by the farmer
6.4 Required Agriculture information by the Farmer
6.6 Mass Media Exposure
6.7 Challenges of ICT
DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE (Para 12b)
I declare that the thesis entitled “Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Farmer's Economy a study of ICT- Choupal'' is my own work conducted under the supervision of Dr. C.K. Goyal and approved by Research Degree Committee. I have put in more than 200 days of attendance with the supervisor for research work.
I further declare that to the best of my knowledge the thesis does not contain any part of any work which has been submitted for the award of any degree either in this university or in any other University without proper citation.
Signature of the Supervisor Head Signature of the Research Scholar
Dr. C.K. Goyal Dr.V.B Gupta Reva Prasad Mishra
Associate. Prof & Head Asst. Professor (MCA)
IPS Academy, Indore MITM, Indore
CERTIFICATE OF THE SUPERVISOR (Para 12c) CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work entitled “Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Farmer's Economy a study of ICT- Choupal'' a piece of research work done by Reva Prasad Mishra under my guidance and supervision for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (M.P.) ,India. That the candidate has put in an attendance of more than 200 days with me.
To the best of my knowledge and belief, the thesis:
i. Embodies the work of the candidate himself.
ii. Has dully been completed
iii. Fulfill the requirement of the ordinance relating to the Ph.D. degree of the University and.
iv. Is upto the standard both in respect of contents and language for being referred to the examiner.
Head of Research Center Dr. V.B.Gupta Dr. C.K. Goyal (Supervisor)
Associate Prof & Head Institute of Business Management and Research, IPS Academy, Indore (M.P.)
This thesis arose in part out of years of research. I have worked with a great number of people whose contribution in assorted ways to the research and the making of the thesis deserves special mention. It is a pleasure to convey my gratitude to them all in my humble acknowledgement.
Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my guide Dr. Chandra Kant Goyal for the continuous support of my Ph.D study and research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me all the time in research work and also writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my Ph.D study. His research intuition has made him constant oasis of ideas and passion in research, which inspired and enriched my growth as a student.
I wish to acknowledge the support given by Dr. Shamsheringh, Chief Executive Director, Medi-Caps Group of Institutions, Dr.S.K.Somani, Director, Medi- Caps Institute of Technology and Management, in the form of professional encouragement.
I express my gratitude to the Dr.V.B Gupta Head of Future Studies and planning, D.A.V.V. Indore for extending all kind of facilities for this research works.
I would also like to acknowledge Prof. Ritu Sodhi for his valuable advice in research. Using his precious time to read this thesis and gave his critical comments about it, discussing and answering my question and his willingness to share his thoughts with me, which were very fruitful for shaping my ideas and research.
I would also like to thank to Dr.Haldhar Sharma for his forthcoming support in facilitating me in review of the literature.Above all I owe it really to God's abundant grace and peace, which were indispensable ingredients for my Ph.D journey.
To my parents deserve special mention for their inseparable support and who raised me with care and motivated me for pursing Ph.D.
Words fail me to express my appreciation to my wife Jaya whose dedication, love and persistent confidence in me, has taken the load off my shoulder and my daughter Anshika support. Lastly, I offer my regards and thanks to all those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the thesis.
Reva Prasad Mishra
The present study entitled “Role of Information and Communication Technology in the farmer's economy and study of ICT-Choupal” was carried out with the main objective is to find out what is the role of Information and Communication Technology in the development of farmer's economy and study of ICT-Choupal. It is concerned with looking at the role of Information and Communication Technology as a medium for farmers economy for performing their production, growth, farming techniques, productivity more accurately and professionally. This research will investigate whether and to what extent Role of Information and Communication Technology increased productively. This will be examined by farmer's view with primary data analysis. The report is comprised of six chapters beside references and appendix. The first chapter is “Introductory” in nature and has presented the conceptual frame work of the study. The second chapter is on the “Review of literature” based on earlier research on Role of ICT in the agriculture sector. The third chapter has outlined “Introduction of Research Area “under this geographical, economical, technological and agricultural introduction of research area i.e. south-west Madhya Pradesh are covered and the fourth chapter has outlined “Research Methodology” along with the objectives, hypothesis and rationale of the study. Under this method of the research, sampling design, tools for data collection, statistical tools and techniques for data analysis are covered and hypothesis development which is required to fulfill our objective is taken up .The fifth chapter is entitled as “Analysis and Interpretation of data” in which the response rate, presentation of data, interpretation and data analysis of primary data are covered. Chapter Six is entitled as “Conclusion and Suggestions” under this discussion on result of the study, conclusion of the study and limitations of the study with further suggestions for research are covered.
Reva Prasad Mishra
Table 3.2.2 Population of Dhar
Table 3.3.2 Climate
Table 3.3.3 Administrative Unit of South West Madhya Pradesh (2008-2010)
Table 184.108.40.206 The total area of crops in south-western state density
Table 220.127.116.11 Area under food and non food crops
Table 5.1 On the basis of age
Table 5.2 ICT use by age group
Table 5.3 Educational level of the farmers
Table 5.4 Use of ICT by the farmers
Table 5.5 Innovativeness by the farmers
Table 5.6 Mass media exposure by the farmers
Table 5.7 Size of land holding by the farmers
Table 5.8 Economic states of farmers
Table 5.9 Selling Farm goods preferences adopted by farmers on the basis of their land size.
Table 5.10 Selling Farm goods preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of their education level
Table 5.11 Buying preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of their land size
Table 5.12 Buying preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of education
Table 5.13 Loan taken by farmer on the basis of education
Table 5.14 Loan taken by farmer on the basis of size of land
Table 5.15 Zero order correlation matrix between the satisfaction level of farmer by ICT
Table 5.16 Zero order correlation matrix between the agriculture information by farmers
Table 5.17 Information need of farmers
Table 5.18 Perceived benefits of ICT
Table 5.19 Stepwise regression of agricultural products marketing
Table 5.20 Constraints experienced by the farmers
Table 5.21 Factor conducive for ICT services
Figure 1.1.1 Model of ICT-agriculture system
Figure 1.1.2 ICT capabilities
Figure 1.2 Innovativeness in ICT
Figure 1.4.1 Need of ICT for farmers
Figure 1.4.2 Digital divide for farmers
Figure 1.5 Problems in use of ICT Initiative
Figure 1.7 Conceptual framework of ICT
Figure 3.1 Area of Dhar Madhya Pradesh
Figure 3.2 Agriculture Area of Madhya Pradesh
Figure 3.3 Agri-Warehousing Madhya Pradesh
Figure 5.1 On the basis of age
Figure 5.2 ICT use by age group
Figure 5.3 Educational level of the farmer
Figure 5.4 Use of ICT
Figure 5.5 Innovativeness
Figure 5.6 Mass media exposure
Figure 5.7 Size of land holding
Figure 5.8 Economic states of farmer
Figure 5.9 Selling Farm goods preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of their land size.
Figure 5.10 Selling Farm goods preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of their education level
Figure 5.11 Buying preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of their land size
Figure 5.12 Buying Preferences adopted by farmer on the basis of education
Figure 5.13 Loan taken by farmer on the basis of education
Figure 5.14 Loan taken by farmer on the basis of size of land
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In the 21st Century in the global move towards knowledge-based economies powered by the ICT revolution, communication of research output to inform public debate and policy deliberations is a prerequisite in empowering communities to participate in the global knowledge economy. Application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) has been seen as contributing to socio-economic, political, cultural and technological revolution and change in the development of the information society. In today scenario Information and Communication Technology is one of the most demanding area of developing countries and it is playing crucial role in the development of the nation's economy.
By the application of Information and Communication Technology various sector like E-government, E-learning, E-health services, ECommerce, Business to Business , Customer to Customer, Customer to Business, E-retail, E-Insurance, Online education, various E -services, Eticketing, online booking . E-agribusiness and much more Electronic systems were found to be possible of great success as well as the strength of social networks and boosting of Social security in rural economy. In India there are many such projects developed for the Indian farmers , one of the most effective is the E-Choupal started in the year 2000 with a concept of developing the traditional rural Choupal and the electronic world in parallel. Information and Communication Technology is considered as one of the most important tool for economical, social and cultural development of the rural society and Farmer's Economy.
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Figure1.1 Model of ICT-Agriculture System
The ICT embodied satellite broadcasting network television, video, digital radio, Internet (email Ecommerce, conferencing extranet wireless communication devices like mobile phone digital video, you tube, email, messaging and video voice mail. Thus Information Technology and its providing Center Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are the right place for getting right decision in implementing various agricultural strategies. Information and Communication Technology is very useful at Rural market and it consists of various collections of resources and technical tools that are used for connecting, spreading, storing and managing information as we can say ICT represents the collection of hardware and software that is used for producing preparing transferring and storing data via devices such as Computers, Radios, Televisions, Internet which are easily accessible at e- Choupal. The success of the above policies on technologically-informed communication of research outputs hinges on the availability of Information and Communication Technology, especially the Internet, broadband services and its adoption to the research communication process. Indian govt approaching to develop a nation economy with the help of ICT or their tools with the help of Indian Research and development center. However, the inaccessibility and invisibility of Indian research Committee center for providing various output nationally as well as internationally may be an indicator that the adoption of Information and Communication Technology. From research point of view Information and Communication Technology has been slow or negligible, and that there may be contextual issues underlying this situation. Now days the ICT become the social need of every individual further that there has never been a framework for adoption of Information and Communication Technology-enabled research communication specific to the Indian and Asian countries point of view context, despite the global move towards Information and Communication Technology-enabled services accepted by every human being.
Now there is a lot of opportunity to develop a nation with the help of Information and Communication Technology. In research found that there have been no barriers to develop Information and Communication Technology in root level of Indian economy development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) mediated research communication in India or possible model frameworks for this process. A principal purpose of this study is to develop a contextual framework for Information and Communication Technology enabled research dissemination in Farmer's e-economy for Madhya Pradesh this research based in specific fields related to the rural market. To be able to do this, the study identified the communication needs and priorities of Farmers economy and the socio-cultural. Information and Communication Technology causes fast accessibility to the market in rising selection power, improving communication, identifying markets, saving in time and energy, reducing the transactional cost, improving marketing and business cost reduction. In Rural sector point of view different scenario found in that various surveys related rural economy and various services related Information and Communication Technology works both way firstly as producers center from where the farmer get the consumable goods the second one is at the starting time of production which include produce design, crop products and harvest ,packing ,transport processing ,distribution, sale and transferring data from the product area to market area and vice versa. This research suggests that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have positive impact on the development of any nation. The application of Information and Communication Technology offers excellent possibilities for strength research-extension system beyond the urban focus.
Thus for effectiveness and efficiency, extension service needs to be appropriately supported with the use of Information and Communication Technology ICT. According to some reviewer and researcher it is found that connectivity and communication is major issue found the connectivity is still much less than derived and it is still less than the level at which significant impact can be expected. Chandel and Chouskey (2001) made a study on the role of information technology in rural development. They focused in Gyandoot project of Dhar district which based on rural empowerment and development more knowledge and definition found that ICT can play crucial role in farmer's economy and rural development. After getting definition and overview of Information and Communication Technology we found that Information and Communication Technology is most demanding area of developing countries like India, Bangladesh, Srilanka, South Africa, Kenya and many more countries like that where it is found from various research that Information and Communication Technology are playing crucial Role in developing of the Nation Economy.
In India IIT Bombay started new era of computer hardware technology started to develop new Information and Communication Technology tool the new name given by HRD human resource development ministry of India Mr. Kapil Sibel information technology minister of India gave the name ‘ Aakash' Tablet specially designed for the student learning. This was the most demanding approach introduced by Indian researcher in this Tablet new features include like office application, remoting book reading SCI lab and met lab function internet included various function introduced in this world's cheapest computer introduced by Indian government in year 2011-12 in developing countries or far large developed nations in computer use of internet usage. From the research and review of the literature it is found that , on average only 1 in 130 people in India has a computer use while in North America and Europe 1 in every 2 people have access to the Internet.
Ninety percent of students in Africa have never touched a computer. This was the data which found that role of Information and Communication technology may become most important tool to develop a prosperous nation economy. There are so many application available in internet for studying and learning new age of information and communication here few idea given like local networks can provide significant access to software and information even without utilizing an internet connection, for example through use of the Wikipedia, encyclopedia, text, pdf ,extranet, intranet based projects wide area network project ,wi-fi campusing tool disc Selection or the e-Granary Digital Library and some other Example like ACM digital library for research, Adobe, www.w3schools .com.,www.toodoc.com E-commerce, E-banking E mobile Services Business to Business to Customer, Customer to Customer these are all various revolutionary application in world of Information and Communication Technology development various application oriented and given data analysis. The World Bank runs the Information for Development Program (info dev), whose Rural Info Information and Communication Technology (ICT) toolkit analysis the costs and possible profits involved in such a venture and shows that there is more potential in developing areas than many might assume. The potential for profit arises from two sources- resource sharing across large numbers of users specifically, the publication talks about line sharing, but the principle is the same for e.g. telecentres , Just Dial at which computing and Internet services are shared and remittances (specifically the publication talks about carriers making money from incoming calls i.e. from urban to rural areas).
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Figure 1.1.2 ICT Capabilities
Here some good examples and application of Information and Communication Technology which involved in developing rural development with this impact of Information and Communication technology involved in the growth of farmers economy in this facility farmers could get better market price information and thus boosting their income and make better life opportunity increase good production of crops, remove transaction cost and transportation cost as well in global scenario there are many projects developed a website to promote its local products worldwide. For example Hariyali, Choupal Sagar Introduced different Rural Bazar in different places of Madhya Pradesh, Choupal Sagar near to Dewas on Agra Bombay road these were initiative taken in Madhya Pradesh to develop rural market with greater impact of ICT- Choupal, Warna project and many more others.
The history of Information and Communication Technology ICT for development can be defined into three periods. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Development mid-1950s to late-1990s. During this period (before the creation of the term ICT E-Choupal) the focus was on computing data processing for back-office applications in large government and private sector organizations in developing countries. Information and Communication technology (ICT) for Development late-1990s to late-2000s. The combined advent of the Millennium Development Goals and mainstream usage of the Internet in industrialized countries led to a rapid rise in investment in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure and Information and Communication Technology ICT programmes projects in developing countries. The most typical application was the telecentres, Kisan Call center used to bring information on development issues such as health education and agricultural extension into poor communities specially target in rural sector. More latterly telecentres might also deliver online or partly online government services. ICT for development late-2000s onwards. There is no clear boundary more interest in the impact of ICTs on development and more focus on the poor as producers and innovators with ICTs (as opposed to just consumers of ICT-based information).Analysis of ICT development initiatives and projects may be designed and implemented by international institutions, information and communication development or virtual organizations approaches to develop a state to provide a facility to access information with the help of computer. Tamilnadu state started this scenario One Laptop per Child in school that was student based project. The projects can typically be evaluation based for learning in school level.
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Figure1.2 Innovativeness in ICT
A 2010 research report from the governance and social development resource centre found very few ICT for development activities have proved sustainable. Recent research has stressed the need to shift from a technology approach where the emphasis is on technical innovation towards an approach that emphasizes innovative use of already established technology (mobiles, radio, and television, Internet). However, applications of ICTs for development, E-government, E-learning and E-health were found to be possible of great success, as well as the strengthening of social networks and boosting of security (particularly of women). ICT has been changed the face of Indian economy and the development of Farmer's Economy ICT is rapidly changing the face of Indian Economy. There are many example regarding.
ICT and their development in rural sector specially like The village of Baseri, near the Indian city of Agra (famous for the Taj Mahal) seems hardly the setting for a technological revolution. Inhabited by generations of farmers, Baseri has seen little of the rural development witnessed by many other regions in India. yet each day (Rozgar Duniya) jobs-for-youth website, and sends mobile alerts to young villagers, who then come to his Internet kiosk to apply. Once selected they get a call letter alert also on their mobile. This was a great help in the development of employability. Same scenario in Dhar district followed with the help of Gyandoot project vision is simple to providing connectivity and Rozgar to the women development through ICT approach. These are many approaches developing the nation economy.
Started in 2000 e-Choupal is a rural networking initiative of ICT. A large business conglomerate in India. Derived from the Hindi word "Choupal", which literally means "rural meeting place" e-Choupal provides computers with Internet access in rural areas to directly link the farmers with the company for sourcing farm produce and providing farmers up-to-date agricultural information It was created on the basis of a market-based business model where the farmer did not need to pay for accessing information and knowledge" said S. Sivakumar, ICT's Chief executive of agribusinesses.
Who crafted the e-Choupal concepts-Choupal was conceived to tackle the challenges posed by the unique features of Indian agriculture, characterized by fragmented farms, weak infrastructure and the involvement of numerous intermediaries. The intermediaries were, in fact, the biggest concern of the archaic supply chain of the country's agricultural sector because they often deprived farmers of correct market prices in order to get a bigger margin for themselves. This system still exists in many parts of the country which is one reason why Indian farmers continue to live below the poverty line, said Sivakumar.E-Choupal begins with a computer, typically housed in the residence of the farmer who has agreed to become a host and is called a Sanchalak. The computer is linked to the Internet via phone lines or, increasingly, by a VSAT connection, and serves an average of 600 farmers in 10 surrounding villages within about a five-kilometer radius.Each e-Choupal costs between sixteen lacks fifteen thousand rupees minimum to set up, which is usually borne by ICT, while the six lacs yearly running costs is borne by the Sanchalak's. For this, the Sanchalak's return is a commission for all e-Choupal transactions and the social recognition.
The Sanchalak is also obligated by a public oath to serve the entire community and provide free access to the farmers the e-Choupal kiosk serves. The farmers in turn use this infrastructure to access daily closing prices of their produce on local markets as well as to track global price trends or gather information about new farming techniques. E-Choupal has an e-commerce model built in as well that is used for procuring farming inputs, and even consumer products from ICT or its partners, at prices lower than those available from village traders. In the setup, the Sanchalak typically functions as an aggregator, who gathers the information on the availability of the community's harvest and conveys it to the company. On harvest, a farmer has the option to sell it directly to ICT at the previous day's closing price.Unlike the traditional system, it is also the farmer's responsibility to deliver the harvest at an ICT processing center, where the crop is weighed electronically and assessed for quality. Moreover, in contrast to the traditional - where the middlemen pays after as much as three month's delay - the farmer is paid directly and instantly by ICT. "The biggest contribution of this concept is that using ICT, e-Choupal brought price discovery to the farmer" said Sivakumar. This not only empowered with knowledge of correct market price but also on where to market the harvest - an ICT hub or the nearby local According to Sivakumar, e-Choupal has helped transform the traditional, low- value agricultural marketplace into an open arena, enabling more people to participate and succeed in the rural economy. According to ICT, e-Choupal has reached out to over Four million farmers in over 40,000 villages through 6,500 kiosks across 10 Indian States since its inception.
While the farmers benefited through enhanced farm productivity and higher farm prices, the company also benefited from lower cost of procurement (despite offering better prices to the farmer), and eliminating costs in the supply chain that do not add value. The latest version also provides employment opportunities to rural youths and has helped fill 1,200 job openings from 52 companies. But Version 3 has gone beyond just helping rural India to reduce its pressure on land. "E-Choupal” next goal is to try and insulate Indian farmers from the country's still government-supported farm sector says Sivakumar. Although the farm sector contributes 23 percent of the country's economy, feeding 1.2 billion people, and employing 66 per cent of the country's workforce, its functioning methods are still archaic heavy government intervention in most.
According to this phrase “Necessity is the mother of all invention” we know that when complexity in bus Grameen Village Phone System (Digital Wireless technology) make the phones available to all users in the village on a fee paying basis with the help of Grameen Bank. The study based on it reveals that village Pay Phone programmed yields significant positive social and economic impacts, including relative large consumer surpluses and immeasurable quality of life benefits. A call that replaces a physical trip from village to the city making real saving for the poor rural people.
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Figure 1.4.1 Need of ICT for Farmers
The another model of ICT provision in rural areas of developing countries and one which attempts to combine phone access with access to other ICTs (In particular the Internet), is that of so called telecentres. A telecentres is a common point of access for multiple users (often an entire community) providing a range of ICT services including internet, fax, word processing and even specialized information retrieval or applications (e.g. distance education).Telecentres may be small, bigger, donor-funded, private.
Privately run telecentres are often financially self sustaining but are thus usually restricted to areas where they expect to be viable (usually urban centers) and are usually neither with physical nor financial reach of the poor. Externally funded telecentres are rarely financially sustainable but can focus more on specific development aspects including access specially targeted at rural communities and the poorest in general, as well as focus on training. Commercial telecentres resembling internet cafes NGOs involvement to run the telecentres targeting the poor and rural areas According to finding of some researcher on ICT and rural Market they introduce this research. Renald Lafond (2000) has made a study on the impact of information technology in rural areas. He illustrated that in the developing countries, the information age has yet to reach the rural population except where entertainment is concerned. The rural population requires at least some of the tools of the information age to take advantage of knowledge-intensive techniques involved in sustainable crop and animal husbandry; to get better value-added for their product via information links to markets; and to obtain up-to-date, accurate information on entitlements, such as health or welfare benefits.
He assessed the impact of information and communication technologies ICT on the transition to sustainable agriculture and rural development. He has also documented the role of IT in promoting knowledge-empowerment in rural families. Six village information shops providing e-mail and World Wide Web (www) access operated by educated youth, especially women has been taken for the study. The operators were responsible to identify and disseminate locally-relevant information using an appropriate blend of modern and existing channels of communication. The impact of the information shops was measured through surveys, and determined that how such information services can be made sustainable. Chaube and Santosh has mentioned that Gyandoot is a synonym of literacy movement. The entire system has close relationship with the endeavors made for development of the rural life. He raised some basic question regarding the sustainability of the model. He expressed their views that some sort of services should be provided free of charge to the rural society. According to Modak, Manoj has made a study on IT-enabled services. He highlighted the importance of India in global outsourcing market for IT enabled services. Such services include business process and services provided over internet and telecom networks from a location different from that of their users or beneficiaries. He is of the view that population has been the single largest factor which was responsible for poor economic development of India. This was true until the beginning of the information technology (IT) revolution a few years back. A large talent pool of highly qualified people has enabled India to play a major role in the transformation of the global IT scenario. India can make use of its large literate population to its advantage if it has to emerge as the intellectual super power of the world.
It is not secret that the future belongs to knowledge workers who will contribute extensively in creating wealth of the world. Rajan, M.A.S. (2003) has made a study on “information Technology for the village and the digital divide”. He mentioned that although there is a tremendous proliferation of information technology in the country but its penetration in the rural areas must be meticulously studied to decide what needs to be done more and what strategies are to be adopted for putting it to the practical uses by the common men. There are some factors that play a big role in bridging the digital divide technologies for rural citizens and farmers.
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Figure 1.4.2 Digital divide for farmers
He stated that although IT has made its mark in rural areas but it has not aimed at the poor and underprivileged but targeted primarily those echelons of the rural area that are part of the market economy or close to the interfaces of governance. P. Chidambaram (2004) has recognized the importance of information and Communication technology sector and expressed their views to encourage and disseminate IT facilities to remote corners of the country by making exemption on excise duty on IT and its related goods. Yunus Muhammad has described information technology and the poor of Bangladesh. He expressed that globalization and information technology has the potential to bring unprecedented opportunities for the poor. But in order to harness these opportunities, the poor have to be properly equipped. The IT companies created around Grameen have been designed keeping the very poor in mind. Grameen phone has been created in collaboration with telenor of Norway, and Marubeni of Japan, to provide mobile telephone service in Bangladesh. Grameen phone is taking their services into rural areas of Bangladesh through Grameen bank borrowers. Grameen communication is taking internet services to rural areas to bring education, knowledge, and business opportunities in Bangladesh for the benefit of the poor.
It is expected that shares of all these companies will one day will owned by the poor, once they can establish themselves as financially attractive companies and make good profit. Whether the poor can afford IT or not depends not on the amount of investment needed by the poor or how complex IT is but the appropriateness of the institutional environment around the poor. Grameen phone and Grameen communications are examples of innovative institutions which bring IT to the villages of Bangladesh. Microcredit can be providing an appropriate environment. IT and microcredit both empower individuals, which makes them mutually reinforcing. Mobile phone operators in the villages of Bangladesh have been able to afford mobile phones because of microcredit. The same will apply for other IT services, applications and products. Information Technology plays a significant role in rural development. For this, Information Technology centers have been established in Madhya Pradesh, particularly in Dhar districts Gyandoot is established to achieve its goals. Thus from the review of the available literature it can be stated that there is a need to make a study on the rural development through information technology. The same kind of the projects implemented in Warna district of Goa and Chennai.Thus information technology can play a significant role in the development of rural society. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is used in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh is known as Gyandoot. This study will examine how information technology can be an effective tool for rural development.
The private sector is so far less than keen to invest in ICTs because of lack of experience with rural developing country markets or low purchasing power of the local population especially in rural areas. This means that, if ICT access is to be expanded, public money will have to be spent which in turns means that there are important tradeoffs to be considered. In many areas, there are serious questions about how much money policymakers should spare for the build-up of ICTs instead of investing further in education and health care. There is a need to identify which kinds of ICTs access deliver the best value for money in developing countries, and how the limited resources that can be spent on it can be made to best suit the particular needs of the poor.
The numbers of models for affordable access have so far been tried. There are many challenges to developing ICT and their application like the lack of reliable connectivity in rural areas. The sheer lack of purchasing power in the rural poor literacy level and many more problem road infrastructure weak signal no mobile connectivity as well.
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Figure 1.5 Problems in use of ICT
This would entail personalized crop management advisory services to individual farmers, for which we are taking e-Choupal beyond computers and Internet to integrating the system with mobile phone .To integrate mobile phones with sophisticated analytics ICT has roped in Nokia, which through its Life Tools will offer relevant, personalized agri-services to enhance the potential for sustainable livelihood creation and improving the quality of life of Indian farmers. and developing rural sector. With reference to Shiva Kumar e- Choupal is expected to reach to 16 million more farmers within its existing network upto 2011-12 ICT Choupal define as term Information and Communication and Technology (ICT) in simple term means, any product or system that communicates stores and or processes information. Digital convergence allows the same channel to be used for data, voice and images thereby enhancing potential for human interactions. ICT is playing a multi-face role for changing the model of business transactions. ICT is facilitating new forms of interactions. Internet reduces the transaction cost and increases the market access. These create new windows of opportunity. ICT has an enormous impact on shaping the mindsets and attitudes of the society for adopting the change process. The wider use of ICT will result in new social situations where the ICT applications will be applied to the traditional needs of the society. Madhya Pradesh government has initiated e-governance projects and many of them have been successful. Most of these are essentially for improving the service delivery and improving the government services. Some of the major ICT initiatives taken by the state governments Gyandoot, Gram Sampark, Smart Card in Transport Department, Computerization.
Madhya Pradesh state Agricultural Marketing Board (Mandi Board), Hariyali Choupal etc. Key Points of ICT-and E Choupals Increasing access to ICT infrastructure, including affordable broadband services and rural access mainstreaming ICT Information and Communication Technology to improve the delivery of public and private services across sectors. Promoting innovation through the development of local IT entrepreneurship and industry. As well as rural area ICT and Farmers economy development In the house of a trained farmer Sanchalak Within walking distance of target farmers. Study about e- Choupal farmers in Madhya Pradesh. Now it extends to 10 states covering over 4 million farmers. ICT's first rural mall, christened 'Choupal Saagar' was inaugurated in August 2004 at Sehore. On the rural retail front, 24 Choupal are now operational in the 3 states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh In 2000-2010.
ICT Projects Initiatives taken By Madhya Pradesh
BHU-ABHILEKH Land Records Information System for Madhya Pradesh
Bhu-Abhilekh is an application software product designed and developed by NIC for the office of the Commissioner, Land Records & Settlement, Department of Revenue, Government of Madhya Pradesh to deliver excellent grass root governance within the domain of Land Management. Computerization of Land Records (CLR) is a joint venture of National Informatics Centre (NIC), Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) and State Government. Bhu-abhilekh aims to facilitate delivery of citizen services as well Creation of master database storing plot wise and owner wise details of land, crop, revenue, irrigation, demand, collection, land type, tenancy and to computerise two major documents i.e. Khasra & Khatauni features included in these projects some examples are likes
AGMARKNET: Agricultural Marketing Information System Network in this project focuses to increase the bargain capacity of farmers by establishing an intra net of all Agricultural Produce Marketing Centre (APMCs) of the country status summary : In order to minimize the role of middle man in marketing of Agricultural produce, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India has started an innovative central sector scheme (AGMARKNET) which facilities connectivity of Directorate of Marketing & Inspection, GOI, State Agricultural Marketing Boards, Directorate Agricultural Marketing APMCs in phased manner. To facilitate the implementation of the scheme, Computer Systems were provided to Madhya Pradesh as per following Project implementation by successful installation of Computer systems, AGMARK Software, providing e-mail connectivity, training of nominated staff of all mandies.
To find out various Information related Farmer's Economy or concentration in rural sector it is found that from the nation's earliest days, farming has held a crucial place in the Indian economy and culture. Farmers play an important role in any society, of course, since they feed people. But farming has been particularly valued in the India. Early in the nation's life, farmers were seen as exemplifying economic virtues such as hard work, initiative, and selfsufficiency. Moreover, many Indian particularly immigrants who may have never held any land and did not have ownership over their own labor or products found that owning a farm was a ticket into the Indian economic system. Even people who moved out of farming often used land as a commodity that could easily be bought and sold, opening another avenue for profit. The Indian farmer has generally been quite successful at producing food. Indeed, sometimes his success has created his biggest problem the agricultural sector has suffered periodic bouts of over production that have depressed prices. For long periods, government helped smooth out the worst of these episodes.
But in recent years, such assistance has declined, reflecting government's desire to cut its own spending, as well as the farm sector's reduced political influence. Indian farmers owe their ability to produce large yields to a number of factors. For one thing, they work under extremely favorable natural conditions. The Indian farmer has some of the richest soil in the world. Rainfall is modest to abundant over most areas of the country; rivers and underground water permit extensive irrigation where it is not. Large capital investments and increasing use of highly trained labor also have contributed to the success of Indian agriculture. It is not unusual to see today's farmers driving tractors with very expensive, fast-moving plows, tillers, and harvesters. Biotechnology has led to the development of seeds that are disease and drought-resistant. Fertilizers and pesticides are commonly used (too commonly, according to some environmentalists. Computers track farm operations, and even space technology is utilized to find the best places to plant and fertilize crops. What's more, researchers periodically introduce new food products and new methods for raising them, such as artificial ponds to raise fish. Farmers have not repealed some of the fundamental laws of nature, however. They still must contend with forces beyond their control most notably the weather. With the help of this diagram we show the flow and conceptual framework of ICT .
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Figure 1.7: Conceptual Framework of ICT
Despite its generally benign weather, Indian agriculture also experiences frequent floods and droughts. Changes in the weather give agriculture its own economic cycles, often unrelated to the general economy. Calls for government assistance come when factors work against the farmers' success at times, when different factors converge to push farms over the edge into failure, pleas for help are particularly intense. The government responded with sweeping agricultural reforms most notably, a system of price supports. This large-scale intervention, which was unprecedented, continued until the late 1990s, when Congress dismantled many of the support programs. By the late 1990s, the Indian economy continued its own cycle of ups and downs, booming in 1996 and 1997, and then entering another slump in the subsequent two years. But it was a different farm after 2000 -2010 the production of crops has changed.
Agriculture is the backbone of Indian Economy. Earlier used as 66 percent of Indian population depends directly on agriculture and it accounts for around 23 Percent of GDP. Agriculture derives its importance from the fact that it has vital supply and demand links with the manufacturing sector. During the past five years agriculture sector has witnessed spectacular advances in the production and productivity of food grains, oilseeds, commercial crops, fruits, vegetables, food grains, poultry and dairy. India has emerged as the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world in addition to being the largest overseas exporter of cashews and spices. Further, India is the highest producer of milk in the world. has Monsoon climate in which a year has been divided into two distinct seasons of summer and winter. Rainfall occurs mainly in summer.
Weather Forecasting System: India has a strong weather forecasting system developed and maintained by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). Apart from weather forecasting and severe weather warning, it also gives agro meteorological services to farmers in India. Agro Climatic Zones India has diverse agro-climatic zones from north to south and from east to west. It has been divided into fifteen different agro-climatic zones, which signifies its diversified agricultural production from tropical to temperate crops.Major Crops:Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Pulses, Cotton, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Tea, Coffee, Coconut, Cashew, Rubber, Spices, Cauliflower, Onion, Cabbage, Mango, Banana, Sapota , Acid lime Agricultural Finance Credit: Availability of adequate credit is vital for every sector and agriculture is not an exception. In India, Commercial Banks, Cooperative Banks, and Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) are responsible for smooth flow of credit to agricultural sector. But a huge unorganized market exists for credit to agricultural sector in India, which provide timely fund to this sector but at the exorbitant rate of interest. Among organized credit disbursement to agriculture commercial banks play a vital role with a share of about 70 percent where as cooperative sector and RRBs contribute 20 percent and 10 percent respectively. Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme was introduced to provide adequate and timely support from the banking system to the farmers for their cultivation needs. This scheme has made rapid progress and more than 645 lakh cards issued up to October 2006.The 'Farm Credit Package' announced by the Government of India in June 2004 stipulated doubling the flow of institutional credit for agriculture in ensuing three years. Annual targets for this package are being surpassed in the two consecutive years from its introduction and it is likely to surpass in the third year also. Insurance is a prime necessity to mitigate uncertainty that persists in agriculture. In India agriculture is still affected by such factors, which are beyond control of human being. So, there is a great need for agricultural insurance in India. Keeping this in mind Government of India in coordination with the General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC), had introduced National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) from rabi 19992000 season.
The main objective of this scheme is to protect the farmers against losses suffered by them due to crop failure on account of natural calamities.
Agricultural Insurance Company of India (AICIL) which was incorporated in December 2002 took over the implementation of NAIS.AICIL introduced Rainfall Insurance Scheme called 'Varsha Bima' during 2004 southwest monsoon period. VarshaBima provided for five different options suiting varied requirements of farming community rainfall distribution insurance with the weight assigned to different weeks June and September. Agronomic index constructed on the basis of water requirements of crops. A catastrophe option covering extremely adverse deviation of 50 percent and above in rainfall during the season. During kharif 2006, this VarshaBima scheme is being implemented in around 150 districts covering 16 states across the country .AICIL is also piloting another weather related insurance product for mango and wheat (RIDF) Rural Infrastructure Development Fund. RIDF was announced by the Government of India in 1995-96 to boost public sector investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure.
The Fund is raised from the commercial banks to the extent of their short fall in agricultural lending as priority sector. The activities, which have been made eligible for loans from RIDF, include rural roads and bridges, irrigation, mini and small hydel projects, community irrigation wells, soil conservation, watershed development and reclamation of waterlogged areas, flood protection, drainage forest development, market yard, god owns, apnamandi, rural haats and other marketing infrastructure, cold storages, seed agriculture horticulture farms, plantation and horticulture, grading and certifying mechanisms such as testing and certifying laboratories, fishing harbors jetties reverie fisheries, animal husbandry, modern abattoir, drinking water supply, infrastructure for rural educational institutions, public health institutions, construction of toilet blocks in existing schools and 'pay and use' toilets in rural areas, village knowledge centers, desalination plants in coastal areas, infrastructure for information technology in rural areas, and construction of anganwari centers. Micro Finance Micro finance scheme has been introduced by (NABARD) National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) the apex bank for agriculture and rural development in India, to improve the access of the rural poor to formal institutional credit and other financial products.
In all 547 banks, which include 47 commercial banks, 158 RRBs, 342 cooperative banks are now actively involved in the operation of Self Help Group (SHG)- Bank Linkage Programme to spread the facility of micro finance to the needy small and marginal farmers and tiny entrepreneurs. The programme has enabled nearly 329 lakh poor families in the country to gain access to micro finance facilities from the formal banking system. Capital Formation in Agriculture: The share of the agriculture sector's capital formation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Declined from 2.2 percent in the late 1990s to 1.9 percent in 2005-06. Stagnation or fall in the public investment in irrigation is partly responsible for this fall. However there is indication. of a reversal of this trend with public sector investment in agriculture accelerating since 2002-03.The share of public investment in gross investment in agriculture increased by 6.5 percentage points from 1999-2000 to reach 24.2 percent in 2005-06. Marketing of Agricultural Products form of Markets exists in India. Agricultural markets in India are dominated by the existence of unorganized and unregulated agricultural mandies with the presence of a large number of middlemen and widespread prevalence of malpractices .Absence of proper warehousing facilities in the villages, lack of proper transportation facilities and infrastructure such as rails and good quality all weather roads and ignorance about the market prices of their products are some of the important factors for exploitation of farmers from middle men. They are forced to sell their products to these middlemen at the farm gate at throw away prices. Agricultural Market Reforms in India: Ministry of Agriculture had formulated a model law on agricultural marketing in consultation with State/Union territory Governments to bring about marketing reforms in line with emerging trends. This model act enables establishment of private markets/yards, direct purchase centers, consumers/farmers markets for direct sale, and promotion of public-private partnership (PPP) in the management and development of agricultural markets in the country. It also provides for exclusive markets for onion, fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Regulation and promotion of contract farming arrangement has also been made a part of this legislation.
A provision has also been made for constitution of State Agricultural Produce Standard Bureau for promotion of grading, standardization, and quality certification of agricultural produce. So far, 15 States and 5 Union Territories have amended their Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Act to derive the benefits of market reforms. After finding a lot of review the Indian economic system following various phases of agriculture protocol in which agriculture play a crucial role in the development of nation economy In India .The Indian Council of Agricultural research (ICAR) is an apex body in India at the national level, which promotes science and technology programmes in the area of agricultural research, education, and extension education. Agriculture and Employment: About 65 percent of Indian population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. This sector has strong forward and backward linkages and its performance affects each and every sector of the country Sustainable Agriculture: Organic farming in the recent decades, there is an increasing demand of organic foods in the developed world. Organic farming is an important pillar of sustainable agriculture, which is beneficial for producers and consumers both India has a great potential for organic farming using traditional wisdoms prevailing in the villages of India. In fact, a large section of Indian agriculture uses more or less organic method of farming using minimum level of chemical inputs. Promotion of organic farming in India could prove beneficial to increase share of Indian agricultural export in the world export.
The Madhya Pradesh Economy an overview the State Finance Commission is expected to recommend its scheme of devolution of resources from the state government to local bodies against the background of is view of finances of the state government. Such a review needs to make against the backdrop of the state economy, in terms of its growth in different manifestations. The state economy and its growth would provide the economic base for generating resources to be mobilized and deployed by the state government and local bodies, for the socio-economic development of the people of the state. The quantum of resource generation, both tax and non-tax revenue is inextricably linked with the process of growth of the economy in different directions. The demands for public expenditure are largely to be met by the availability of resources for achieving a normative level of economic development. It becomes, therefore, necessary to make a quick review of the performance of the state economy and also of the constraints on the process of development and change in the state.
After the research and discussion about Madhya Pradesh - A Less Developed State and it presents a spectacle of under-development and widespread poverty along with tremendous potential for development, manifesting a case of missed opportunities for development. A miscellaneous corporation of former princely states and tribal societies, dating back almost pre-historic times, the present state had inherited much of its backwardness at the time of its birth on 1st November, 1956 - its feudal character, its large size, its large population of socially and economically disadvantaged people and its poor social and physical infrastructure despite more than 50 years of planned development, not much progress could be achieved to overcome its under-development and improve its relative position among the states of Indian Union. The state continues to be reckoned among the five major states of India which are nick named as "BIMAROU" states of India, these being, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.. The state was bifurcated into Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, on 1st November, 2000.The re-organized state of M.P. has a population of 6.03 crores as per 2001.census. The state occupies 7th rank in terms of population and second in terms of area, next to Rajasthan. The growth rate of population has come down from 27.24 percent in the previous decade to 24.34 percent during 1991-2001. The average population density of the new state of M.P. has been placed at 196 per sq.km. According to these facts the process of growth in the composite state of Madhya Pradesh, since our major concern is to make a review of the state economy during the period 199091 to 1999-2000. However, attempt has been made to present separate information regarding Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, depending upon its availability. Causes of Under Development. The huge potential of the state in terms of its forest, mineral and land resources, beyond large, has remained under-utilized due to lack of integrated efforts, gradual erosion of political commitment to long term perspective of development, frequent deviations from plan priorities, lack of trade-off between different objectives of planning, weak and dysfunctional planning machinery and inadequate and poor social and physical infrastructure.
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