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56 Seiten, Note: A
Table of Content
List of Tables
List of figure
1.1. Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General objective
1.3.2 Specific objective
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Limitations of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
2. Review of Literature
2.1 Definition and concept of solid waste
2.2 Types and sources of solid wastes
2.2.1 Types of solid waste
2.2.2 Sources of Solid Waste
2.3. Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries
2.4. Solid Waste Management in Ethiopia
2.5. Solid Waste Management Actors
2.5.1 The Municipality
2.5.2 The Private Sector
2.6. Solid Waste Management Problems in Ethiopia
2.7. Types of Solid waste Management system
2.8. Components of Solid Waste Management Elements
2.9. Transfer and Transport of solid wastes
2.10. Determining factor of solid waste management
1.11. Environmental policy of Ethiopia Related to Solid Waste
2. Materials and Methods
3.1 Description of Study Area
3.1.4 Farming system of the study area
3.2. Sampling sizeand techniques
3.3. Sources of data
3.4. Method of data collection
3.5. Method of data analysis
4. Result and Discussion
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondent
4.1.1 Sex of the respondents
4.1.2.Age of the respondents
4.1.3. Educational status of respondents
4.1.4. Marital status of households
4.1.5. Religion of the respondents
4.1.6. Family size
4.1.7 Households average monthly Income
4.1.8. Employment of the respondents
4.2. Types and sources of solid waste in the kebele
4.2.1. Types of solid waste
4.2.2. Source of household solid waste in the kebele
4.3 factor which affect solid waste management practice in the kebele
4.3.1. Social factors
4.3.2. Economic factors
4.4. Solid Waste Management Practice: Collection and Disposal systems
4.4.1. Collection system of solid waste in the kebele
4.4.2. Ways of waste disposal system of solid wastesin thekebele
4.4.3. Recycling of solid wastes
4.4.4. Compost of solid waste in the study area
4.5. The impacts of solid waste in the kebele
4.6. Vulnerable group of the society as a result poor SWM practice
4.7. The relation between solid waste management and economic levels of individuals
4.8. The beneficiary groups as a result of good solid waste management
4.9. Responsible Body to solid waste management
4.10. Participation of the communities in solid waste management practice
4.11. Level of administration on solid waste Management practice in the Kebele
4.12. Participation of Private Sectors on Solid Waste Management
4.13. Contribution of NGO on Solid waste management
4.14. Evaluation of the problem of solid waste management
5. Conclusion and recommendation
Our deepest appreciation and heartful gratitude towards our God. And also we do not have sufficient words to express our appreciation for our God.Secondly; our deeper gratitude goes to our respected adviser Dr. Abraham Mebrat for his unlimited support and advice starting from the beginning up to the end of this research. Thirdly, we would like to thanks those individuals who has devoted their precious time and helped us during data collection by collecting data and giving the relevant information. Finally even though these few words cannot express your wonderful efforts, we would like simply to say congratulations for the success of our families and you see what “you were wishing to see”.
HISHealth Information System
IHS International Health Service
MSWMMunicipal Solid Waste Management
MSWMunicipal Solid Waste
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
SCATSpecialized Community Area Transit
SWM Solid waste Management UNCHS
UNCHS United Nation Center For Health Settlement
UNDPUnited Nation Development Program
UNEP United Nation Environmental Protection
WHO World Health Organization
Table 1: Sex composition of the respondents
Table 2:Distribution of respondent by age
Table 3: Distribution the religion of the respondents
Table 4: Family size characteristic of the respondent
Table 5 Average monthly income of the households
Table 6: Types of solid waste in the study area
Table 7: Source of solid waste.
Table 8: Type of solid waste container at sources of generation
Table 9: Recycling activity done in the area
Table 10:Frequency distribution of households that use compost
Table 11: the major impact of solid waste in the kebele
Table 12 the relationship between solid waste management and economic level
Table 13the beneficiary groups if there is proper solid waste management practice
Table 14: Responsible body to solid waste management
Table 15: Frequency distribution of the communities’ involvement in solid waste management Practices
Table 16: the level of administration on solid waste management practice
Table 17: Participation of NGO on the process of solid waste management
Figure 2: Educational status of the respondent
Figure 3: Marital status of the respondents
Figure 4 Employment of the respondents
Figure 5: Different type of solid waste in the kebele
Figure 6: Social factor for the prevalence of solid waste
Figure 7: Economic factor for the prevalence of solid waste
Figure 8: Different type of collection system for solid waste
Figure 9: Frequency distribution and percentage of way of waste disposal
Figure 10: ways of solid waste disposal system of the kebele
Figure 11 Vulnerable groups in case of solid waste
Figure 12: the level of private sector in proper solid waste management
Figure 13: Evaluation of the problem of solid waste management
Faster growth of population and increasing of urbanization results the rising up of solid waste throughout the world. There are two major reasons why we are conducting our research in zenzelima kebele. First study area have great problem on the mana gement practice of solid wastes, s o we needs conducting this research on th e site to identify the factors. Second researches have not been conducted on the issue related to the factor affecting solid waste management practice in the study area. The aims were to assess the socio-economic factors which affect solid waste management practices in Zenzelima kebele.The study area is located in Amhara regional state, Bahir Dar zuria worda which is 7.8km far from Bahir Dar town in north-east direction and569km from Addis Ababa. Descriptive research methods were used to realize the objectives of the study. ATotal 50 respondent’ samples were selected by using proportional simple random sampling technique. In order to accomplish the objectives, both primary and secondary sources of data were used.After the primary data collected by using different data collection instrument and the secondary data by referring to different written materials, the data were processed and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The study findings indicated the major types of solid waste are chat plastic, the main source are household waste and the disposal system of the community is throwing near the street.Thecontribution of administration, individuals, private sector and NGO on proper solid waste management practice in the area is very low .Generally we can concluded socio economic factor have a great influenceon solid waste management in the study area. In order to improve solid waste management practice in the kebele both administration and individual sho uld be develop their awareness and increase their participation.
Key words : Solid Waste, Solid Waste Management, Municipal Solid Waste Management
Now a days an ever increasing of industrialization and faster growth of urbanization challenges the natural environment and the public health, utmost environmental degradation such as contaminated water sinking ground water level, unhealthysoils and polluted air becomes harsh reality in parts of the world.Urban solid wastes are generated to the environment from the daily activity of the human being and other animals’ activities that getting from different areas such as various industrial plants, household, hospitals, floods and others. In general most human activities are intensively concentrated in urban areas; as a result of this an appropriate and safe Solid Waste Management (SWM) are at most important to allow healthy living condition for the population. These play important role in manufacturing processing, commercial activities, employment and income creation. In majority of nation, cities generate the lion share of economic activities. They consume most of the natural resource and ultimately producing most of the pollution and wastes (UNEP, 2003).
The rapid urbanization that has been taking place during the 20th century virtually transformed the world into communities of cities and towns facing similar challenges on environmental issues in which most of them have to be addressed at international level. Among those environmental issues solid waste management is a critical one because as long as humans have been living in settled communities, solid waste generation has been unavoidable and critical issue both in developed and developing nations. As a result, solid waste management became a worldwide agenda at United Nation conference on environment and development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 with a great emphasis on reducing waste and maximizing environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling at first step in waste management (UNEP, 1996).
Dealing with the environmental costs in rapidly growing economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste, representing a phenomenal challenge. This is particularly true in the area of solid waste management at the household level. While cities are generating an ever-increasing volume of waste, the effectiveness of their solid waste collection and disposal systems are declining (UNDP 2009).
The rapid increase in urbanization in cities has resulted in an increased volume of waste generation. Municipalities all over the world and especially those from the developing countries are faced with the problem of effective solid waste management. It is explained that solid waste problems are global, everywhere collection and handling of garbage is not adequately executed. With the current rate of urbanization and industrialization, solid waste collection, transportation and disposal has been a major problem of most municipalities of the developing countries. Most previous studies looked at the characteristics of municipal solid waste at final disposal sites with management strategies shifted towards more recycling, determining the quantity and composition of waste at the source of generation and extensive recovery of solid waste before disposal (Blight, 1996).
In most African cities the situation of solid waste management is insignificant and inadequate that could associate with different factors. Solid waste management practice in Africa is often weak due to lack of appropriate planning, inadequate governance, poor technology, weak enforcement of existing legislation and the lack of economic incentives to promote environmentally sound development. The practice of solid waste management in the region is mostly open dumps without proper control over ecologically or hydrological sensitive areas. According to UNEP (2004), solid waste generation has become an increasing environmental and public health problem everywhere in the world, particularly in developing countries. Consequently, solid waste is not only increasing in quantity but also changing in composition from less organic to more paper, packing wastes, plastics, glass, metal wastes among other types, a fact leading to the low collection rates (Bartone and Bernstein, 1993).
In Ethiopia, alike developing countries, the increase of solid waste generation is resulted from rapid urbanization and population booming. The amount of solid waste in Addis Ababa and other fast growing areas in the country has been increasing over time, largely attributed to rapid population growth rate. The same authors indicated that from the total solid waste released by the population in the City, about 50-60 % was collected and the rest was unattended. Recently the municipality has increased its coverage to about 85 % (Lemma, 2007).
This facts has been accepted by the municipality of zenzelima kebele with the major goal of solid waste management has been to reduce the amount of solid waste that is being produced i.e. 3to reduce per capital solid waste generation, however in case of zenzelima kebele municipal solid waste collection service is inadequate and inefficient. As a result people dispose their waste on open space, on street, in ditches, which turn affects the public health and the environment.
Now days the population growth and the rate of urbanization are alarmingly increasing throughout the world including Africa. These population growth and urbanization are the major factor for the raising of solid waste in a country. There is also another factor such as cultural, social, economic and institutional for the increasing of solid waste in the world. Ethiopia also one of the country to the faces of these factor and different researchers conducted their research on cause, impact and its management of solid waste. Hence, the study area is one of the most potential sold waste sites that affect environment and health status of the community; it is observed that various environmental problems, such as water pollution, air pollution and health problems, such as asthma and influenza.
Besides, the solid waste sites in the study area have great problem on the management practice which can be characterized by administration weakness, Careless of individual, Low initiative of private sector, Low participation of NGO, low educational level of the society and low level of awareness of the communities in the area, so it needs conducting research on the site to identify the factor and to take remedy measures. It is difficult to take a sustainable mitigation measure without detail investigation of the factors. Also researches have not been conducted on the issue related to the factor affecting solid waste management practice in the study area. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the factors which affect solid waste management practice in the kebele.
The general objective of this study was to assess the socio-economic factors which affect solid waste management practices in ZenzelimaKebele.
1. To describe the current status of solid waste management practice in zenzelima Kebele.
2. To assess the correlation between income and educational level of zenzelima Kebele andtheirsolid waste management practice.
3.To examine the associations of household size of the respondents on the Solid Waste Management.
This study has been the following importance: Firstly, the study has contribute a bettertheoretical understanding of the overall features of solid waste and socio-economic factors on the process of solid waste management on the whole population; Secondly, the studywill give some guide line information to policy makers, solid waste managers and researchers about the preexisting situationof solid waste management in the Kebele. Thirdly, it may also important in putting base line information to the next work who would like to conduct detailed and comprehensive studies in theKebeleand other study area. Fourthly, the study will contribute better to understand the present status ofsolid waste management and handling practices in the Kebele and all in all the study has the following important
- Point out some alternative mechanism to bring solid waste management system.
- Pointed out the problems related with solid waste management of the Kebele.
The major problem which faces during in the course of conducting this research work has been as follows:
1. The absence of enough secondary data regarding solid waste management in theKebele.
2. There are no data about the amount of solid wastes generated and collected in this Kebele of considerable number of years to make a trend analysis.
3. Insufficient budget and the acute shortage of local research for references and has been documented evidences in theKebeleand health offices.
4. Resistance of some household to give accurate information due to lack of awareness.
The study was being tried to examine and assess socioeconomic factors affecting solid waste management practice in west Gojjam Zone, BahirDarZuriaWoreda of zenzelima kebele. And studies try to give highlights on the major issue for further investigation. Of course there are different factors that determine the disposal and management aspect of solid waste at household level, but this thesis delimited to general ; namely, socio - economic factors. This study highly concentrated on how the households try to manage their solid waste in the source and what factors they are facing to do so.
Solid wastes are unwanted solid materials such as paper, plastic products, battles, can, food, and garden waste and left over materials from industrial, agriculture and mining process. It can also defined as “any garbage, refuse, sludge, and other discarded solid materials resulting from industrial, commercial, agricultural operations, and community activities, but does not include dissolved materials”(Samuel, 2006). Solid Waste Management is defined as the control, generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste consistent with the best practices of public health, economics and financial, engineering, administrative, legal and environmental considerations (Jamal, 2002).
According to Medina, (2004) three general categories of solid wastes are municipal waste, industrial waste and hazardous wastes.
1. Industrial wastes : are wastes arising from industrial activities. Industrial process wastes include a very wide range of materials and the actual composition of industrial wastes in a country will depend on the nature of the industrial base. Composition of industrial waste depends on the kind of industries involved. Examples of the wastes which may be found under this category are general factory rubbish ashes, organic wastes from food processing, packaging materials, plastics, papers, acids, and alkalis, metallic sludge’s, demolition and construction waste, hazardous waste and tarry residues.
2. Hazardous wastes : a waste or combination of wastes which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or pathogenic characteristics may: cause an increase in serious illness, morbidity and mortality.
3. Municipal solid wastes : urban solid waste Medina, (2004) also commonly referred as municipal refuse is defined as: material for which the primary generator or user abandoning the material within the urban area requires no compensation up on abandonment.
According to UNCHs, 1985; the solid waste generated in urban area is derived from various sources these includes household (residential) wastes, institutional wastes, street sweepings, commercial areas wastes, as well as construction and demolition debris.
1. Resident (household) waste: derived from residential neighborhood is the largest component of urban solid wastes. It consists of a large number of different elements, difficult to separate such as food, garden waste, paper, plastic, card board, glasses, and leather, ceramic and other. It is also referred to as residential refuse or domestic waste, this category comprises wastes that are the consequence of household activities. These include: food preparation, sweeping, cleaning, fuel burning and gardening wastes. In addition to this it includes: old clothing, old furnishing, retired appliances, packaging and reading matter.
2. Institutional waste : waste from schools, hospitals, clinics, and government offices, police, barracks, religious buildings, military bases etc., and comprise hospital and clinical wastes including potentially infectious and hazardous materials. Where the institution involves residents, such as in camps, the wastes are similar to those from households.
3. Street sweepings : This type of waste always includes dust, dirt, litter, soil, paper, etc. However, in developing countries it may also contain appreciable amounts of household refuse, street sweeping also include fruit and vegetable residues, household wastes dumped along roads, drain cleanings, human fecal, animal manure and plant remains. Construction and demolition wastes: its composition depends on type of construction materials used, but it typically includes soil, brick, stone, concrete, ceramic materials, wood, packaging materials and the like.
Solid waste management in developing countries has received less attention from policy makers and academics than that paid to other environmental problems, such as air pollution, waste water treatment. Nevertheless, the improper handling and disposal solid waste constitutes a serious problem; it contributes to high morbidity and mortality rate in many developing country cities (Martin, 2004). Currently, collecting, transporting and disposing of MSW represent a large expenditure for cities of developing countries. Usually in low income community residents tend to gather and dump their garbage at the nearest vacant lot public space, near river or simply burn it in their surroundings. These uncollected wastes may accumulate on the street and blocked drains when it rains which may cause flooding (Medina, 2004; Eshuan, 2002).
Although production of solid waste is minimal, environmental problems are possible to occur due to improper handling and luck of service that result from different characteristics of solid waste in developing countries. Besides, collecting, transporting and disposing, solid waste requires high expenditure which is still scarce in the developing world. Even though small amount of solid wastes are produced in the developing countries, responsible authorities do not properly handle and dispose their solid waste (Hog land, 1996).
Solid waste management is becoming a major public health and environmental concern in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, the raising of solid waste generation is resulted from rapid urbanization and population booming. “The average solid waste generation rate is about 0.221kg per person per day and it is also estimated that only 2% of the population received solid waste collection services” (Zebenay, 2010). This shows that the operational condition of MSWM service and efforts made to change the situation are low. As a result, small proportions of the urban dwellers are served and large quantity of solid waste left uncollected. “The public sector in Ethiopia is unable to deliver services effectively, as result illegal dumping of solid waste along road sides and open areas is a common practice due to inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers”.
The involvement of private sectors are also very limited, but currently a number of micro and small scale enterprises are emerging to participate in primary solid waste collection i.e. collect garbage at source from households and transport it to the municipal waste containers and transfer points. To sum up the real situation of MSWM in Ethiopia indicates that the problem of solid waste cannot be solved only by mere effort of municipal government, there should be large involvement of the private sectors in general and participation of micro enterprises and community in particular (Abebe,2006).
The three major actors, which played role in causing the success or failure of any solid waste management or improving the solid waste situation in city or towns are:-
- The private sector
- The resident
Solid waste management is a service for which local government is responsible the service is non-exclusive, meaning that once it is provided to some portion of commonly it benefits the overall public welfare not only the resident that specifically receive service. Service is non rivaled, meaning that any resident can enjoy the benefits of the service without the diminishing the benefit to anyone else. This quality of being excessive, non-rivaled and essential place solid waste management squarely within public Doman as public good (Cocteau, 2003).
The fundamental concern for private sector in providing public goods is weather the delivery of service will make a profit (Cocteau, 2003). Basically private sector divided in to formal and informal.
1. Formal Private sector
The formal private sector is all individual firms of lioness which has license for provision of solid waste management service in the sector has a great role in solid waste management service such as creating job opportunity, supporting to fill gap of municipal mobilizing private investment reduction or government activities on the sector has many opportunities to involve in SWM.
2. Informal sector
The informal sector, according to different studies made on Ethiopia provides solid waste collection service to low income neighborhood especially in Latin America. The collector in the informal sector do not have equipment’s to travel for the official landfill and are also outside the officially sanctioned system, the collectors are prone to dump solid waste illegally.
Even though the executing body is some agency, not much can be achieved without the help of public, the residents, their awareness and participation (HIS, 2001).Since community has different role, there are also various ways in which they can participate in solid waste management. At individual level residents as responsible as well. This involves action like storing wastes in a proper way in bang of bin separate recyclable or organic waste materials from other wastes offering wastes at the night place at the proper time for collection and cleaning the area around the house (Bulle, 1999, cited by Abera, 2001).
The quantity of waste generated is increasing because of rapid population growth, economic development, urbanization and improved living condition in cities and towns. However, in most developing countries like Ethiopia the increasing of solid waste generation is resulted from rapid urbanization and population booming. This has outpaced financial and man power resource of municipalities to deal with provision and management of service solid waste. In most cities of the developing world in- appropriate handling and disposal of municipal solid waste is the most visible cause of environmental degradation, which means air pollution, soil contamination, surface and ground water pollution, etc… resulted from improper disposal of MSW (WHO, 1996).
According to Cointreau, (1992) Developing countries have 40-85 percent waste made up of household’s organic matter with a high density of 450-500 kg/m3 with a high proportion of moisture content (40-80 %) and small particle size ranging between 5-35%. A Varity of financial, institutional technical and social reasons are responsible for the coverage and poor services, common in many urban centers of Ethiopia. These included inadequate resources mobilization, over reliance on imported equipment, in appropriate method of finance and inequality in a serious provision (Robert, 1994).
1. Insufficient Resource Mobilization
Most of local government experiences serious short fall in meeting their revenue needs from their tax bases. Municipal revenue rose municipal tax assessed on the size or value of the proper being served is the usual source of funds for sustaining solid waste management services. Municipal tax collection systems are inadequately and poorly administrated in most countries and insufficient funds, are therefore not made available to provide an adequate level services.
2. Incapability of Existing Institutions
Municipal solid waste management service is usually limited to only parts of the population and has considerable operational deficiencies. The root causes of the problem are inefficient arrangement. Most of agencies responsible for solid waste management do not have organizational structure with qualified staff for proper planning and operational management (IHS, 2004).
3. Excess Reliance on Imported Equipment
Solid waste project that were heavily reliant on foreign exchange, have solid provide capital intensive and have encountered problem in, obtaining continued sources of foreign exchange to operate and maintain assets. The use of labor intensive indigenous technologies has however, enabled the foreign exchange component of solid waste management projects to be restricted to 18 %in developing countries use of unsuitable technology (Contreau, 2003).
4. Unfairness of Services Provision
The urban poor have been excluded from access to solid waste disposal services. Even a service is provided in poor area of the level of service is much lower than that provided to middle and higher income area.
5. Societal problem
The waste workers have a very low social as well as financial status in the society. Those who are involved are looked up on with doubt and dissent; through they work in most hazardous conditions (Contereaus, 2003).
Solid waste comprises two types of material refuse and trash.
1. Refuse: includes garbage and rubbish. Garbage contains putrescible or highly decomposable food wastes such as vegetable, meat, scarps, most present of refuses in developing countries is garbage. Rubbish contains mostly dry, non-putrescible materials such as glass, rubber, metal, cons and slowly decomposable or combustible material such as paper, textiles, wood objects.
2. Trash: include bully waste material that generally required specially handling and therefore not collected on a routine basis. An old couch matters, television or refrigeration and extra-large uprooted tree slum are examples of trash items (Gerry, 2005).
Solid waste is stored in each generation site in different equipment until picked up to collection site such as card board, plastic bag, plastic bean, box and sack. The other storage facilities are community storage such as bulk, containers or dumpsters which are advised to be used where large volumes of refuses are generated such as slapping, centers, restaurants apartment building and hotels (Nuthensaon, 1997).
- Factors determining on site storage of waste
Important considerations in the site storage of wastes are effects on storage itself on the characteristics of the waste being stored. The effects of storage waste including biological decomposition the absorption of fluids and the contamination of waste components.
a .Types of Container: to a large extent the types and capacities of the container and depends on the characteristics and types of solid wastes to be the types of collection systems in uses, the collection frequency and the space available for the placement of containers.
b. Container storage locations: public storage locations depend up on the type of dwelling or commercial and industrial facilities, the availability of space and access to collection services.
c. Public health and aesthetics: public health concerns are related primarily to the infestation of areas used for the storage of solid wastes with vermin and insects that often serve as potential disease vector (Technobanglous, 2001).
2. Collection of solid waste
Collection involves the process of picking up of wastes from collection points, loading them into a vehicle, and transporting it to processing facilities, transfer stations or disposal site. Solid waste collection systems vary from country to country. Solid waste collection system in generally classified under four categories;
I. The first one is households discharge their waste at a predetermined location containing the same types of communal storage facilities refuses collection vehicle visiting the sites of frequent intervals to remove accumulated wasted, this types of waste collection system is known as communal collection.
II. The second collection system is one in which a collection vehicles at predetermined route at prescribed interval and types at selected location, where a best is sounded and upon fearing the bell households brings their refuse containers and hand them over to crew, usually consisting of two men which empty the containers and return to the householder this types of collection is known as block collection (Elasson, 2003).
III. The third types of collection system is one in which the collection crew collects bins bags, and other containers of refuses which are deposited at curbside at fixed container, when collection takes place, this type of collection system is known as curbside (entrance) collection (Glasson,2003).
IV. The last types of a collection system are known as a door to door collection. In this system the collection crew enters each premise take out the containers and set it back after empting the waste in to the collection vehicle (Glasson, 2003).
3. Disposal of Solid waste
The stage and reliable long term disposal of solid waste resources is an important component of integrated waste management. Solid waste residues are waste component that are not recycled the remains after processing at materials recovery facility or that remains after the recovery of conservation products and or energy (Technobangous, 2001). The most commonly recognized method for the final disposal of solid waste are; Open dump, Controlled dump, Sanitary land fill Incineration.
a. Open dumps: where the waste is unloaded in piles make very economical uses of the available space, all free access to waste picker, animals and files and other produced unpleasant and hazardous smoking from slow burning fires.
b. Controlled dumping : depositing solid waste in pile under controlled conditions the detail description of the controlled dumping is presented on the table.
c. Sanitary land fill : -is a site where solid waste are placed on or in the ground at carefully selected location by means of engineering techniques that minimize pollution a fair , water and soil and other risks to man and animals. As therefore consideration also taken into account (SCAT, 2003).
d. Incineration: one of the most effective methods to reduced volume weights of municipal waste solid waste is to burn in a properly designed furnace under suitable temperature in and operating conditions .This process is called incineration; it disadvantage is expensive primary because expensive air pollution control equipment is required .It also require a high level of technical supervision and skill employed for proper operation and maintenance.
4. Resource recovery
Resource recovering means the obtaining of some economic benefits from material that someone has reported as a waste it includes. Reuse being used for the same purpose again (such as refining a soft drink bottle)
A. Recover: Processing the material so that it can be used as the same materials such as processing waste paper to make pulp and then new paper.
B. Conversion: processing the material to make something different (producing padding for cloth and sleeping bags from plastics bottles or producing compost from food waste)
C. Energy recovery: usually referring to the burning of waste so that the heat can be used (for example, for heating swimming pools). Another method of energy recovery is to fills and uses it as a full or to generate electricity (SCAT, 2003).Some key factors that affect the potential for resource recovery are the cost or separated material its purity is quantity and its location.
These activities are associated with transfer of wastes from public storage facilities to collection vehicle and the subsequent transport of wastes to disposal site. Transfer refers to movement of waste or materials from primary collection vehicle to a secondary, larger and more efficient transport vehicle. When location of final disposal site is at a long distance from points of collection, transfer stations may be used. With respect to transfer stations, “there are two basic modes of operation: direct discharge and storage discharge. In storage discharge refuse is first emptied from collection trucks in to a storage pit or to a large platform. While in direct discharge station, each refuse truck empties directly in to larger transport vehicles” (Meenakshi, 2005). Transportation on the other hand covers all types of vehicles under operation to transport solid waste from its generation point to transfer station and then to treatment or disposal site.
1. Income and solid waste management
Income is the major factor, which determines the magnitude of solid waste management at large and solid waste handling in particular. The level of economic is an important determinant of the volume and composition of wastes generated by residential and at the same time the effective demand for waste management service. The willingness and ability to pay for a particular level of service is also influenced by income level of the residents of the country (Kumar, 2002).There is also a positive relationship between community’s income and the amount of solid waste generated and capacity to remove. Economic development plays a key role in SWM. Obviously an enhanced economy enable the community to allocate more for the removal of solid waste, provide a more sustainable financial base (Medina, 2004).
2. Education and solid Waste management
Public awareness and attitudes to waste can affect the whole municipal solid waste management system. All steps in municipal solid waste management starting from household waste storage, to waste segregation, recycling, collection frequency, willingness to pay for waste management services, and opposition to sitting of waste treatment and disposal facilities depend on public awareness and participation. Thus, lack of public awareness and school education about the importance of proper solid waste management for health and well-being of people severely restricts use of community based approaches in developing countries and also crucial factor for failure of a MSWM service in developing countries (Zurbrugg, 2003).
People’s attitude influences not only the characteristics of waste generation, but also the effective demand for waste collection service. According to UNDP, (1996) people’s attitude towards waste may positively affect their interest and willingness to pay for collection service. In addition, through awareness campaigns and educational measures attitude may be positively influenced and in turn it can change the negative impact of inadequate waste handling with regard to public health and environmental conditions.
Therefore, awareness campaigns should be coordinated with improvements in waste collection, reuse, recycle, composting and other integrated approach.
The environmental policy or Ethiopia finalized and approved by councilor of minters of federal democratic republic of Ethiopia in April 2, 1997E.C among these sanitations and solid waste stream policies are:-
- To ensure that improved environmental sanitation be placed higher on the federal and regional agenda for achieving suitable urban development.
- To give priority to waste collection services and to safe disposal.
- To undertake studies which identify suitable sanitary land fill site in the major cities and towns of Ethiopia
- To the extent possible to recycle liquid and solid wastes from homes steeds and establishment for the production of energy fertilizer and for other use (Environmental Police, 1997).
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