Für neue Kunden:
Für bereits registrierte Kunden:
46 Seiten, Note: 8.5
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Review of Literature
Chapter 3: Materials and Methods
Chapter 4 : Experimental Findings
Chapter 5: Discussion
Among the cereal crops, maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops and ranked third after wheat and rice in the world as well as in India. It is a short duration crop and successively be grown twice in a year as an early and late crops because of its higher adaptability. Hence, it is also known as “Queen of Cereals”. The productivity of maize or any other crops is largely dependent on nutrient management. Maize contains 72% starch, 10% protein, 3.5% fiber, and 1.7% ash. The number of products i.e. oil, cosmetics, wax, and alcohol are prepared from the raw materials of maize. In India, maize covered an area of 9.60 million hectares with the production of 26 million metric tonnes and the average yield of 2.71 metric tonnes (USDA 2016-17). In Punjab, maize occupying 0.12 mega hectares with a production of 0.42 meter at an average yield of 36.81 q ha-1 (Anonymous 2016).
As the chemicals fertilizers play an important role in plants life so that these chemicals should not be avoided completely as they are the potential sources of the high amount of nutrients in easily available forms. These fertilizers greatly affect enzymatic activities in the soil profile (Yang et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008) but poor management of the chemical fertilizers has a key role in lowering the yield productivity and deteriorate the soil health also. So in order to achieve optimum crop production, there is a need to use the combination of organic sources, inorganic sources, bio-fertilizers.
Maize (Zea mays L.) requires the nutrients i.e., macronutrients as well as micronutrients for obtaining the higher crop growth and yield. The micronutrients content in organic manure may be sufficient to meet the crop requirement but the low soil fertility is the major problem to maintain sustainability in production (Ahmad et al., 2011). The application of organic manure do not produce optimum yield due to low nutrient status but they play a direct role in plant growth by the mineralization they provide the essential nutrients which furthermore improves the physical and biological properties of the soil (Abou El-Magd et al., 2006).
The three most vital nutrients that a plant can receive are nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K). The uses of the organic manure along with the chemical fertilizer, plays an important role for the maintenance of physico-chemical properties and fertility of the soil.
Nitrogen is directly concerned with the physiological process occurring within the plants. Although nitrogen is the most important element which plays a vital role in wheat nutrition as it is required throughout the growing period of the crop. Nitrogen aids in the plant's growth above ground. Phosphorus is the second most important major plant nutrient after nitrogen for crop production. It has been called the “key of life for the plants”. It is a structural component of cell membranes, chloroplast, and mitochondria. It is necessary for such a life process of the plant as photosynthesis, development of plant cell as well as synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and transfer of energy within the plants. Potassium plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular organization by regulating the permeability of cellular membranes and keeping the protoplasm in a proper degree of hydration by stabilizing the emulsion of high colloidal properties; Potassium has a great buffering action and stabilizes various enzymes system. It plays a role in photosynthesis and translocation of food from leaves to seeds.
FYM is also an important component of sustainable agriculture. It contains 0.5% N, 0.2%P2O5 and 0.5% K2O respectively. Besides its manorial properties, it has a valuable physical effect on soil texture and improves water holding capacity of the soil. The quality of FYM available to the farmer could cover only 50 to 10% of the area every year which means that a field can receive FYM application after a gap of 8 to 10 years. The recent concept of integrated nutrient management (INM) is very important for sustaining the production and improved soil health. The basic concept underlying the principle of integrated nutrient management is to maintain or adjust plant nutrient supply to achieve a given level of crop production by optimizing the benefits from all possible sources of plant nutrients. The basic objectives of INM are to reduce the inorganic fertilizer requirement and to restore organic matters in the soil to enhance the nutrient use efficiency and to maintain soil health in terms of physical, chemical, and biological properties.
Therefore making of integrated nutrient management (INM) more effective, there is a need to consider the organic manures. Some organic manure viz. farmyard manure and vermicompost and Preesmud are important constituents of the integrated plant nutrient management system. However, one of the demerits of the FYM is that it may carry weed seeds although its nutrient content is quite low. Whereas vermicompost is free from weed seed. Incorporation of vermicompost, farm wastes as well as practices of green manuring are viable alternative to FYM and compost for improving soil fertility and sustaining the productivity of crops. Vermicompost is being a major component of organic manure has attracted the attention of scientist word wide since it is an entirely natural product which maintains the soil ecosystem and leaves no adverse effect on it.
Vermicompost is the compost that is prepared with the help of earthworms during the process of vermicompost a strong heat is not generated so the soil holds nutrients, beneficial bacteria, valuable enzymes, and vitamins. This helps in better vegetative growth, heavy flowering, and insect. In U.P., vermicompost is emerging as a major practice for recycling of residues and wastes. Vermicompost is a rich mixture and minor plant nutrients. It contains 3 % Nitrogen, 1% Phosphorous and 1.5% Potash. Vermicompost is an excellent base for the establishment of beneficial free-living and symbiotic microbes. Application of vermicompost increases the total microbial population of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The use of vermicompost has been advocated as a part of integrated nutrient management (INM) in various field crops. Vermi-composting has been developed for increasing the availability of organic resources of nutrients. Recycling of organic wastes through biological agents such as microbes and earthworms is well-established practices. It is also advantageous in conserving soil moisture, nutrients, bacteria, and valuable enzymes and in preventing leaching of nutrients. Poultry manure (PM) is an excellent organic fertilizer as it contains high N, P, K, and other essential nutrients (Farhad et al., 2009).
The use of organic plays an important role in maintaining soil health due to the buildup of soil organic matter, beneficial microbes. “Biofertilizer” is a substance that contains living organisms. It promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. These are not fertilizers because fertilizers directly increase soil fertility by adding nutrients. They add nutrients through the natural processes of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth promoting substances. Azotobactor is dominant among the free-living forms of nitrogen fixers. It has been used extensively as a production technology in many countries and there were 20-29 percent increase in yield.
Hence, the judicious application of these combinations can sustain soil fertility and productivity. In general, scheduling of fertilizers are based on the individual nutrient requirement of the crop and the carry-over effect of manure and fertilizer applied to precede crop is ignored (Panwar, 2008).
Aims and objectives
The aims and objectives of the work were as follows:
1. To study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth of kharif Maize.
2. To study the effect of integrated nutrient management on yield of kharif Maize.
3. To work out the economics of different nutrient management treatments.
Application of 150 kg N ha-1 was found significantly effective over 100 and 50 kg N ha-1 in increasing cob length, total grain number cob-1, and 1000 grain weight on vertisols of Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (Suryavanshi et al., 2008).
To evaluate the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and quality of baby corn that the cob length and baby corn yield was higher with the application of 100% of the recommended dose of N through fertilizer, which was however statistically at par with the application of 75% of the recommended dose of N through fertilizer along with 25% N through poultry manure or sheep manure or farmyard manure (Kumar et al., 2008). There was a significant increase in plant height and total dry matter production in maize at harvest due to integrated nutrient management practices (Mahesh et al., 2010).
Kumar and Dhar (2010) reported that maximum leaf area index and dry weight plant-1 with application of 60 kg N ha-1 (urea) +60 kg ha-1 (FYM), 90 kg N ha-1 (FYM) + cowpea (green manure) and 60 kg ha-1 (FYM) + cowpea (green manure) + Azotobacter. These treatments were at par but significantly superior over control and 90 kg N ha-1 (FYM) + Azotobacter during two years of study.
An application of either RDF (120 kg N + 90 kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O ha-1) or 50% of RDF + FYM 10 t ha-1 + bio powder resulted in significantly greater plant height of maize over control and other doses level and combination of fertilizers and organics (Dilshad et al., 2010). The effect of farm-yard manure and inorganic fertilizers depends on maize production. He reported that the maximum plant height (1.9m) was observed under the optimal fertilizer dose (N, P, K, and Mg) all other nutrient management treatments either organic or inorganic both differed non-significantly among them (Achieng et al., 2010)
Verma (2011) reported that all round improvement in growth and development characters such as, plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant were found significantly maximum on 25 October sowing date. The highest rates of the PM and N produced the tallest plants, whereas the plant height, recorded at 10 and 15t ha-1 PM rates and 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 rates were statistically similar but taller than the other rates. The LAI of 2.69 and 3.01 obtained at the 15t ha-1 PM rate for early and late plantings respectively, were significantly higher than those recorded at other treatments (Uwah et al., 2011).
Ravi et al., (2012) reported significantly higher plant height (187.8cm), leaf area index (4.7), total dry matter production (309.4 g/plant), weight per cob (122.2 g), cob length (15.8 cm), cob girth (11.52 cm), and seed index (29.1 g) in maize with the application of FYM 10 t ha-1 + 100 percent recommended dose of fertilizer (150:75:37.5 kg NPK ha-1+ 25 kg ZnSO4 ha-1).
Samsul et al., (2012) reported that application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (90:45:45 NPK kg ha-1) + vermin-compost @ 2 t ha-1registered tallest plant (240 and 219 cm), more Leaf Area Index, dry matter production, testing and silking and effective number of cobs per plant at the Tarai region of West Bengal. It was revealed from a field trial conducted at College of agriculture, Shimonga during kharif 2009 on maize that application of 100% nitrogen along with FYM @ 7.5 t ha-1 significantly increased plant height (55.58, 206.12 and 218.85 cm) at 30, 60 and harvest as compared to 100% NPK and control (Shilpashree et al., 2012).
Lone et al., (2013) reported that significantly increased in length of cob was observed due to the application of 150% RDF (225:90:60 kg NPK ha-1) compared with the rest of treatments used in the trial. Tetrawal et al., (2014) reported that the recommended dose of fertilizer (40 and 15 kg ha-1 NP)+ FYM 10 t ha-1 produced the higher plant height, dry matter, number of cobs plant-1 in comparison to control plots.
Rajasingh et al., (2014) observed that the effect of organic manure and fertilizer levels with foliar spray on hybrid maize during winter season 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 and observe the application of vermicompost significantly recorded the highest cob length (18.01 and 17.67 cm), cob weight (231.40 and 226.77 g), grain yield (9293 and 8393 kg ha-1), and shelling percentage (68.88 and 68.88).
Bharvand et al., (2014) reported that the effect of urea and vermicompost on maize and found significantly greater plant height, no. of leaves per plant, stem diameter with the application of 100% N through vermicompost as compare to 100 % N.
Roy et al., (2015) reported from a field trial conducted at Jaguli Instruction Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Jaguli, India, during 2011-2012 that plant height (62.75, 143.08, 185.62, and 198.99 cm), and leaf area index (1.37, 3.72, 3.41, and 3.02) at 30, 45, 60 and harvest were significantly improved under the application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizers along with farmyard manure at the rate of 6 t ha-1 (Tonne per Acre) over 75% recommended dose of NPK and 100% recommended dose of NPK. Amyanpuri et al., (2015) reported the significantly higher plant height and dry matter accumulation with application of 10 tha-1 vermicompost as compare to the control. Manan et al., (2016) concluded that there was an increase in number of grains per row and the values varied from 25.7 to 33.2 in the case of PMH 1. It conduct a field study at research farm university of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2010 and revealed that maximum plant height (188.9 cm) was recorded under FYM which was significantly higher as compared to control treatments (Niaz et al., 2016).
Hargilas (2016) revealed that plant height (285 cm) and dry matter per plant (324 g) was recorded with 250 kg N ha-1 which was significant and superior over control treatments. It was observed that application of 120 kg N ha-1 through FYM increased plant height (165.2 cm ) and dry matter accumulation (153.09 g) which was significantly higher than other doses of nitrogen viz., 100, 80, and 60 kg ha-1 (Pal et al., 2017). Ali and Anjum (2017) observed that maximum plant height (210.230cm) was recorded with 180 kg ha-1 which was significantly superior over control treatments. Damor et al., (2017) concluded during 2015-2016 on maize that plant height was found significantly more when nitrogen was applied @ 200 kg ha-1 then other treatments like control. Higher dry matter accumulation per plant 30,60 DAS and at the stage of harvesting by fertilizing the crop with application @150 kg N ha-1 over the control treatments (Kumari, 2017). Reddy et al., (2018) carried out the research work at the college farm of Agricultural college, Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh during kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015 and reported that significantly higher values were recorded in respect of plant height with the application of N @300 kg ha-1 than other levels of Nitrogen i.e. 200 kg ha-1 as compared to the control treatments. Gill et al., (2018) revealed from a field trial conducted at the crop research farm, Dayanand college Ajmer, Rajasthan, during rabi season on maize that plant height (64.8, 128, and 224.3 cm), dry matter accumulation (36.6, 119.5, 431.4 g plant-1) at 30, 60, and 90 DAS were significantly increased with the application of nitrogen @ 60 kg ha-1 along with Azotobacter and nitrogen through vermicompost @ 30 kg ha-1 over nitrogen @ 60 kg ha-1.
Sheeba and Chellamuthu (2000) studied the effect of the application of fertilizers and FYM at Coimbatore and observed that the application of 100% NPK with FYM gave the highest grain yield (3875 kg ha-1) of maize. Chandrashekhar et al., (2000) observed the application of poultry manure with RDF gave the highest grain (50.8 q ha-1) and fodder (74.4 q ha-1) yields in maize. The percent increase in grain yield was 33, 16 and 14% with poultry manure, vermicompost, and FYM, respectively as compared to control. It was also reported that yield attributes, viz. cob plant-1, cob length of maize was found maximum in the treatment getting 75% of the recommended dose of NPK in organic fertilizer forms and the balance 25% N substituted through FYM (Pathak et al., 2002).
Kataraki et al., (2004) reported that 100% recommended rate produced higher grain yield (49.19q ha-1) compared to 75 and 50%, which produced 44.74 and 40.20 q ha-1, respectively. Application of inorganic fertilizer + poultry manure (Each fertilizer source supplied 54 kg N plus 25 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O5 ha-1.) produce the highest grain yield (2.89 t ha-1), dry matter (72.3 g plant-1) at harvest, LA (1969.5 cm2 plant-1) and chlorophyll content (2.63mg g-1) of maize in Nigeria (Amujoyegbe et al., 2007). A significant increase in cob length, grains cob-1 and grain yield of maize with the application of FYM over no organic manuring. The application of the highest rate of urea N (150 kg N/ha) recorded the highest grain yields (3763 kg ha-1) of maize. The proportional increase in maize yield for Urea Nitrogen (90 kg N ha-1) + poultry manure (30 kg N ha-1) and Urea Nitrogen (60 kg N ha-1) + poultry manure (60 kg N ha-1) was 85 and 83%, respectively (Panwar, 2008; Abbasi et al., 2010).
Maize yields significantly increased (4.73 folds) with continuous application of balanced inorganic (100% NPK) + lime + biofertilizer + FYM as compared to the control plots in the maize-mustard sequence. Poultry manure application significantly increased the number of cobs plant-1 especially at the application rate of 10t/ha during the two seasons (Saha et al., 2010; Uwah et al. 2011). A recommended dose of NPK through fertilizers recorded higher grain and stover yield (4374 kg and 668 kg ha-1) on sandy loam soils of some states like Karnataka and banglore (Seerat et al., 2011).
Balai et al., (2011) reported 56.7 to 162.8 percent increase in grain yield and 57.7 to 160.0 percent increase in stover yield of maize by applying various INM treatments to fortify soil over no nutrient application. Application of 100% NPK (120: 60: 30) + FYM 10 t ha-1 resulted in highest grain (3722 kg ha-1) and Stover (544 kg ha-1) yield. Ramasamy et al., (2011) found that the highest length of the kernel was 1.71 cm and the maximum number of kernels was 598.55 per cob on 75% vermin-compost concentration whereas the maximum circumference of 3.07 cm per kernel, kernel breadth of 1.40 cm per kernel, the weight of 0.41 gm. Per kernel and weight of total kernels 232.43 gm. Per cob was noticed on 50% vermicompost. These values were significantly greater than the control treatment.
Ravi et al., (2012) conducted a research trial at agricultural research station Arabhavi of Karnataka confirmed that the use of 75% RDF with other organic and bio-fertilizer significantly increases the grain yield of quality protein maize. Islam and Munda (2012) their field experiment was conducted during 2003-04 and 2004-05 to study the effect of conjunctive use of organics and inorganics on growth, productivity. The application of FYM 2.5 t ha-1 + Alnus 2.5 t ha-1 recorded the maximum grain yield of maize (31.18 q ha-1).
The effects of nitrogen on grain yield and harvest index in maize and they reported that nitrogen fertilization increased grain yield and dry matter (Pagani et al., 2012). Kannan et al., (2013) concluded that significantly higher cob weight of maize achieved by the application of treatment involving RDF+FYM and number of grain per cob was found to be a maximum with the application of RDF +FYM.
Combining organic sources with 50% of recommended NPK fertilizers produced the highest grain and biological yields of maize over the 50% NPK treatment and were statistically at par with those receiving 100% NPK fertilizers (Ahmad et al., 2013).
Jat et al., (2013) conducted a two-year experiment at seven locations, under different agro-ecological conditions of India and concluded that Integrated application of total nutrient doses from both organic and inorganic sources (225 N+ 105 P2O5 + 90 K2O kg/ha) to maize resulted in maximum grain yield of high-quality protein maize hybrid (HQPM 1) during both the years at all the locations.
Gupta et al., 2014 after the long, term experiment conducted that 50% RDF+50% FYM resulted in a significant increase in cob girth, cob length, and grain yield of maize and also resulted in a significant increase in the yield of gobhisarson. Sanjivkumar (2014) revealed that highest grain yield of 4402 kg ha-1 was recorded in treatment that received vermin-compost @ 5t ha-1 with 75 % Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). Application of vermin-compost @ 5t ha-1+75 percent of RDF recorded the highest calcium and magnesium content.
The significantly higher numbers of rows per cob, number of cobs per plant, number of grains in rows, and grain yield with the application of 10 t ha-1vermi-compost as compare to control (Amyanpoori et al., 2015).
Hashim et al., (2015) undertaken the field experiment during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management in the maize-wheat cropping system and observed that grain yield (42.4 q ha-1) was significantly superior with application of 50% recommended dose fertilizer along with 50% nitrogen through FYM over control.
In case of PMH 1, cob yield was found to be maximum (91.7 q/ha) at 20 cm plant spacing also reported that the number of plants directly affects the grain yield obtained and the maximum grain yield was obtained at 20 cm plant spacing in PMH1 (Manan et al., 2016).
Solanki and Indoriya (2016) conducted his study to investigation the effects of integrated nutrient management on yield of maize and reported that grain yield (43.71 q ha-1) was significantly improved by N: P: K @ 90: 30: 30 kg ha-1 along with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria on maize over farmer’ practice of 35.18 q ha-1.
Singh et al., (2016) conducted his experiment trial at student’s research farm, Khalsa College, Amritsar on baby corn during two kharif years 2014 and 2015 reported that cobs plant-1 (3.00) was significantly increased under the application of nitrogen @ 100 kg ha-1 along with farmyard manure @ 5 t ha-1 over 100% recommended dose of NPK.
Hashim and Dhari (2016) conducted experimental trail at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 and reported that plant height (183.0 and 189.8 cm), dry matter accumulation (119.0 and 144.4 g plant-1) at 90 DAS were maximum with 50% RDF (60, 30, 20 NPK kg ha-1) along with 50% nitrogen through farmyard manure over control.
Field experiments were conducted at National Agriculture Innovation Project Kupwara during two kharif seasons of 2008-2009 to work out the influence of varying nutrient management practices on maize crop Maximum grain yield (3.26 tonnes per hectare) was recorded with combined application of 100% NPK + Vermicompost @ 3 tonnes per hectare followed by 100% NPK + FYM @ 3 tonnes per hectare. However, the two treatments were found at par with 50% NPK + Vermicompost or FYM 5.5 t ha-1 (Rayees and Wani, 2017). Wailare and Kesarwani, 2017 reported that application of 50% RDF along with PM or FYM or goat manure resulted in significant increased in yield parameters than sole application of 100% RDF.
Significantly highest benefit: cost ratio of 1.27 in maize was obtained with 25% NPK substitution through FYM in maize as compare to control treatments (Pathak et al., 2002). Experiment trial conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka that higher gross returns (Rs. 39964 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 31269 ha-1), and BC ratio (3.60) were significantly resulted in treatment having 100% recommended dose nitrogen over rest of the treatments. The lower gross returns (Rs. 31,970/ha), net returns (Rs.21,287/ha), and B:C ratio (1.99) were noticed with the treatment receiving 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK through chemical fertilizer (150:75:40 kg/ha) (Sujatha et al., 2008; Mahesh et al., 2010).
Combined application of recommended dose of NPK (150:75:40 kg/ha) + FYM 10 t/ha was found most remunerative and gave maximum gross returns (Rs.44,375/ha), net returns (Rs. 32,127/ha and B:C ratio (2.62) followed by application of 75 % recommended nitrogen through chemical fertilizers + 25 % recommended nitrogen through poultry manure (Rs. 40,829, 29,882/ha and 2.61, respectively) (Mahesh et al., 2010).
The treatment which received 7.5 t/ha FYM and 100 per cent RDF (100:50:25 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha) resulted in significantly higher gross return (Rs. 69059 /ha), and net return (Rs. 51659 /ha) which were on par with vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha + 100 per cent RDF with respect to gross returns (66513). The benefit:cost ratio was markebly higher with poultry manure @ 1.0 t/ha + 100 per cent RDF (4.48) (Lingaraju et al., (2010).
The maximum B:C ratio of 1.30 was achieved with 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% N through FYM. This was 11 closely followed by 1.21 with 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% N through green leaf under rain fed conditions of Phulbani, Orissa. The application of 75% NPK along with 2.25 t ha1 vermicompost + biofertilizers significantly increased net returns (Behera et al., 2010; Tetarwal et al., 2011). Mokidul et al., (2012) observed that 100% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF: NPK 80:60:40) to maize followed by 50% RDF (NPK 50:30:20) to toria recorded highest productivity and economics.
The increase in available nitrogen and potassium (280 and 128 kg/ha) and nutrient use efficiency of major nutrients (NPK) up to 40.9% with the application of FYM (5 t/ha) + vermicompost (1.0 t/ha) + poultry manure (2.5 t/ha) + Minimum tillage + thrice weed mulch (20, 40 and 60 DAS) + Palmarosa vegetative barrier in a maize-wheat sequence Ghosh et al., 2012).
Maize crop receiving 50% recommended dose of nitrozen through FYM + 50% recommended dose of fertilizers (30 kg N, 15 kg P2O5 and 15 kg K2O/ha) through chemical fertilizers + Azotobacter (25.0 g/kg of seeds) paid the highest gross (Rs.19905 /ha) and net (Rs. 10115 /ha) returns and maximum B:C ratio (2.02) in rain fed condition at West Bengal (Karforma et al., 2012).
Ravi et al., (2012) reported that the application of FYM 10 t/ha +100% RDF (150:75:37.5 kg NPK/ha + 25 kg/ha ZnSO4) to maize crop resulted in highest grain (71.79 q/ha) and stover (98.28 q/ha) yields, gross (98,727Rs/ha), and net returns (69,100 Rs/ha) and B:C ratio (3.33). Priya et al., 2014 reported that recommended dose of NPK along with Farmyard manure at the rate of 10 t ha-1 significantly improved net return (32698 rs/- ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.54) over 100% NPK + azotobacter and 100% NPK.
Maize at research farm of Amar Singh post graduate college, Bulandshahar, during kharif 2009 and 2010 and observed that net returns (Rs. 26273 ha-1) and B:C ratio (0.85) improved by application of 75 % recommended dose of NPK along with vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 over 75% NPK and control (Yadav et al., 2016). Chehtri and Sinha (2017) reported that net returns (25800 Rs. ha-1) and B:C ratio (.93) were significantly higher under 75% RDF + Phosphate solubilising bacteria + azotobacter + vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 than rest of the treatments.
Field trial conducted at crop research centre of SardarVallabhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, India, on maize for two consective years during kharif season that economics viz., net return (Rs. 36073.5 ha-1), B:C ratio (2.86) were significantly improved in the treatment having 100% NPK along with farmyard manure @ 5 t ha-1 + Azotobacter + Phosphorus solubilzing bacteria over 100% recommended dose of NPK and control (Tomar et al., 2017).
Masih et al., (2018) reported from an experiment trial carried out on integrated nutrient management of maize at Sam Higgin bottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during kharif season of 2015-16 and reported that B:C ratio (2.85) was significantly improved under application of N: P: K @ 120: 60: 60 ha-1.
The experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm of Dolphin (PG) College of Science and Agriculture, Chunni Kalan Fatehgarh Sahib (Affiliated to Punjabi University Patiala) Punjab. It is situated on Chandigarh, Landra Fatehgrah Sahib road at the distance of 18 km from Chandigarh. Geographically experimental site falls under sub tropical climate in of Indo-gangetic plains having alluvial soil and is located at 260 47′ N latitude and 820 12′ E longitude and an altitude 260 meters above mean sea level.
It represents sub-tropical and semi-arid climate with very hot and dry summer from April to June, hot and humid conditions from July to September, cold winters from November to January and mild climate during February and March. Most of the season’s rainfall is received from southwest monsoon, which remains active during June to September. The normal value of total rainfall during June to August is 478.2mm and normal maximum and minimum temperature vary from 37.30C and 24.20C in June to 32.60C and 21.40C in August. The normal mean temperature is 39.2, 35.01, 35.2 and 330C for the month of June, July, August and Sept. respectively. The normal humidity is 65, 74, 76 and 76 per cent for the June, July, August, and September, respectively.
Mean weekly meteorological data for the season during experimentation period 2017-18 based on the observations collected at the meteorological observatory of IMD, Chandigarh, are depicted in Table-3.1 and Fig.3.1.
Table-3.1: Meteorological data recorded during the Kharif crop season (2017) at meteorological observatory.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Fig.3.1: Meteorological data recorded during the Kharif crop season (2017) at meteorological observatory.
Masterarbeit, 102 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 109 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 6 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 73 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 105 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 30 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 84 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 75 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 64 Seiten
Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veröffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bücher spezialisiert. Der GRIN Verlag steht damit als erstes Unternehmen für User Generated Quality Content. Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte wie Hausarbeiten, Referate, Bachelorarbeiten, Masterarbeiten, Diplomarbeiten, Dissertationen und wissenschaftliche Aufsätze einem breiten Publikum zu präsentieren.
Kostenfreie Veröffentlichung: Hausarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Diplomarbeit, Dissertation, Masterarbeit, Interpretation oder Referat jetzt veröffentlichen!