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81 Seiten, Note: 3.71
List of Tables
List of Figures
Chapter One. Introduction
1.2. Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Organization of the thesis
Chapter Two. Related Literature Review
2.1 Theory of Airports wildlife strikes/accidents
2.1.1 Direct and Indirect cost of wildlife strike
2.1.2 Wildlife appealing features at aerodrome
2.1.3 Wildlife accident on aircraft
2.2 Airport Wildlife hazard management system
2.2.1World Wildlife Strike Association
2.2.2Ethiopian wildlife hazard management legal frame work
2.3 Conceptual framework
Chapter Three. The study area
3.1 Description of the study area
Chapter Four. Methodology
4.1 Research design
4.2 Research approach, data sources and methods of data collection
4.3 Tools and Technique of primary data source
4.4 Field Observation
4.5 Focus group discussions (FGDs)
4.6 Key Informant Interview (KII)
4.7 Secondary data source
4.8 Sampling techniques
4.9 Method of data analysis
4.10 Data validity and reliability
Chapter Five: Results and Discussion
5.1.1 Wildlife Observed in Addis Ababa Bole international airport
5.1.2 Wildlife attractants inside Addis Ababa Bole international airport
Grass and vegetation
Buildings and Structures
5.1.3 Addis Ababa Bole international airport wildlife strike
Wildlife strike vs aircraft type at AABIA (2014-2019)
Wildlife strike vs Number of flights
Total wildlife strike vs weather at AABIA
5.1.4 The Effect of wildlife hazard on aircraft at Addis Ababa Bole international airport
5.2.1 Wildlife strike at AABIA
5.2.2 Diversity of wildlife in the Airport
5.2.3 Wildlife attractants in the Airport
5.2.4 Effect of wildlife strikes
Chapter six-Conclusion and Recommendation
Effect of wildlife hazard on aviation industry at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Addis Ababa university,2007
Different wildlife’s commonly causes damage to aviation industry around the world. This study assessed the effect of wildlife hazard on the aircraft operation at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Focus group discussion, key informant interview, point count and transect count method were employed to gather relevant data. The study findings recorded about 70 species of wildlife including plants during the study period. The study results illustrated that some of the wildlife animals (e.g., wildlife, mammals, reptiles and amphibians) either living in or visiting the airport have often caused threats to aircraft operation in the airport directly or indirectly. Only between 2014 and 2018, 416 strikes were reported at the airport. Highest number of strikes recorded in November during sunny days. The total amount of cost due to wildlife strike for the last six years was estimated at 4, 768,310.00 USD. Thus, it is recommended that Addis Ababa Bole International Airport should establish proactive systematic approach to deal with wildlife hazard than reactive or traditional approach.
Keywords: Aircraft, Airport ,Aviation, Wildlife, Hazard, Wildlife strike
First, I would like to say Glory to the Almighty God forever. My heart full salutation goes to my parents and friends that exerted their maximum effort and for what they did while I was on study. I would like to forward my acknowledgement to my advisor, Dr Feyera Senbeta, for his guidance from the foundation of this paper till the end.
I also forward my heartful acknowledgement to those who helped me in giving materials and information that is critical for my research. To mention: The different departments of the Ethiopian airport enterprise /EAE (all environmental and safety officers), the Ethiopian civil aviation authority ECAA, Safety departments of Ethiopian airlines/ EAL.
Table 1 Wildlife strike data for the period 2014- 2019
Table 2 Wildlife strike vs aircraft type at AABIA (2014-2019)
Table 3 Total wildlife strike vs weather at AABIA (2014-2019)
Table 4 Months of Wildlife strikes at Addis Ababa Bole international airport
Table 5 Wildlife species involved in strike at AABIA (2014-2019)
Table 6 List of wildlife species recorded from Addis Ababa Bole International Airport
Table 7 Summary of Wild life strike cost at AABIA
Figure 1 Conceptual framework
Figure 2 Location map of the study area with satellite image (source google earth)
Figure 3 Bole airport new face (source engineering division of EAE)
Figure 4 Number of wildlife strike vs Years (2014- 2019)
Figure 5 Wildlife strike vs Number of flights
Figure 6: Wildlife strike vs location
Figure 7 wildlife species recorded from Addis Ababa Bole International Airport source google earth
Figure 8 Wild life attractant inside AABIA
Figure 9 Grass land
Figure 10 Adey Ababa Tough grass and other flowering vegetation inside the airport
Figure 11 Patch of vegetation
Figure 12 Stagnant water created by quarry activity
Figure 13 Water way inside the airport
Figure 14 Artificial pond in the airport
Figure 15 Waste disposal area in the airport
Figure 16 Garbage handling in the airport
Figure 17 Bushes, Trees and other low growing vegetation
Figure 18 Buildings, Hangars, Towers in the airport
Figure 19 Grass management in the airport
Figure 20 Dich management activity in the airport
Figure 21 Waterways in the airport
Figure 22 Approach light masts in the airport
Figure 23 Signage (perching opportunity) in the airport
Figure 24 Lighting structures
Figure 25 Old aircrafts
Figure 26 Landscaping activity in the airport
Figure 27 Jet engine damaged by wildlife strike
CAA Civil Aviation Authority
CLUP Compatible land use planning
EAE Ethiopian airport enterprise
EAL Ethiopian Airlines
ECAA Ethiopian Civil aviation authority
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
AABIA Addis Ababa Bole International Airport
ICAO International Civil Aviation Authority
TWR Air traffic control Tower
WHMC Wildlife Hazard Management Committee
WHMP Wildlife Hazard Management Plan
People have always tried to enhance their comfort. In so doing, they intervene in natural habitats and greatly decreased the area of naturally functioning ecosystems worldwide (Hannah et al., 1994; Remes, 2003). Diversity and extent of natural habitats was continuing to decline as human populations increase and alter landscape for development (Petit et al., 1999). Such activities transformed natural areas by establishing towns, building houses, gardens and public parks, which create entirely artificial environments.
The development and the continual expansion of urban areas have not only destroyed natural habitats, but also have drastically changed the environmental and ecological conditions of these areas. Consequently, species that have settled in these new man-made ecosystems are exposed to considerable alternations in environmental conditions (Parteckeet al., 2005). For example, wildlife is important for the ecosystem as they play various roles as bio-indicators of different kind of environmental changes like urbanization (Padmavathyet al., 2010). Urban environments provide wildlife with considerable quantities of food and roosting sites especially in gardens and parks (Dorst, 1974).
Factors determining which species can coexist with human settlement include the presence and patch size of native vegetation as well as competition with exotic species and non-native predators. The structure and floristic attributes of planted vegetation as well as supplementary feeding by humans affect the level of such coexistence (Chace and Walsh, 2006). The effective management of human activities in wildlife areas is an important conservation issue, as the footprint of human influence continues to expand, and incidental impacts of human activities spread into more areas. Such expanding anthropogenic activity is widely perceived to lead to negative consequences for the wildlife beyond habitat loss alone. Understanding how animals respond to anthropogenic activities is fundamental to resolving potential conflicts between humans and animals. There are numerous ways in which it is possible to study animal responses, but changes in an animal’s behavior are often the most obvious consequences of anthropogenic activities (Beale, 2007).
The history of the aviation industry has its root in the year 1783, when the first human lighter - than-air flight in a hot air balloon but the most remarkable year was 1903when the Wright brothers fly in a powered and controlled aircraft. Due to the development of designing larger and reliable aircrafts, air transport has begun for passengers and cargo transportation. After this remarkable period, the aviation industry has shown an immense and dramatic development till these days by which air transport is the most reliable, fastest and safest mode of transportation for passengers and cargo compared to other modes of transport (Crouch, 2008).
Aviation and associated activities are one of the areas where human footprint significantly visible. Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier- than-air. Without airports aviation industry is unthinkable. An airport is a location where aircrafts such as fixed wing aircraft, helicopters and blimps takeoff and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and land, a heliport or water for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminal buildings. Airports are vital part of the entire air transport system and key for the economic growth of every nation. This 21stcenturyprovides the aviation industry a great deal of opportunity for long term growth. The industry has a complex nature that has a likelihood of an anticipated success with fastest technical and organizational changes that are redefining the practice of airport systems, planning and design, service offerings and customer and cargo handling manners (Neufville, 2003).
The year 1944 was the most important year in the history of the aviation industry by which the foundation of the International Civil Aviation Organization was realized at Chicago, USA. It is a special part of the United Nations aimed at promoting safe and orderly development of the sector throughout the world (Mackenzie, 2010). The Organization has responsibility of formulating rules and regulations regarding safety, security, efficiency, regularity and environmentally friendly of the sector. In addition, it gives standards for airports, licenses for operators and aircraft manufacturers and coordinates with the national aviation authority of its members with the compliance of the rules set by the organization in line with the national laws to bring uniformity. It also inspects and audits the civil aviation of the member states (Huang,2009).
Air Traffic was almost certainly continuing to grow substantially. Most of the world rarely flies, and the market is far from saturated. Plausible increase in population, national wealth, the length of paid vacations, and the tendency of members of younger generations to fly, even if only a few percent per year, was led to more traffic. Increased globalization was impelling long-distance travel for business and personal reasons, in general only realistically feasible by air. (Neufville, 2003).
Airports are one of the structural features in urban environments. The natural environment and other human activities inside and near the vicinity of airports attract a good range of wildlife including wildlife. Airports provide a good sort of natural and human made habitats that provide food, water and canopy. Most airports support ample and diverse food items such as seeds, leaves, insects, earthworms and small mammals in the vicinity. Airport areas provide certain wildlife with nesting, roosting, food, shelter and other facilities (Brown etal., 2001: Sutherland et al., 2004).
Due to the availability of wildlife appealing features inside the airport Wildlife have been a potential hazard to aircraft since the beginning of air travel. Wildlife strikes were a negligible risk in the early days as there were few airlines in the air flying at comparatively low speeds. Damage to aircraft was, consequently, restricted to crushed windshields, smashed leading edges, and some impairment to the fuselage. The price of repairs was minor and airplanes operators and airdrome authorities recognized wildlife strikes as an ordinary hazard of aviation. As population of wildlife in and around airport increase, collisions between aircraft and wildlife have been acknowledged since the primary aircraft started flew over 100 years ago. Wildlife strikes still be a significant safety concern for aviation regulators, airlines and airports.
Occasional high-profile incidents, like the crash of Flight 1549 into the Hudson river, bring the problems to the eye of passengers and therefore the public, but for the most part this is a risk that is not fully appreciated, even within the industry itself. It is not just the high-profile incidents that make the headlines that are of concern. Thousands of minor incidents, most causing no damage to aircraft, result in precautionary turn backs, engine checks, delays, cancellations and minor repairs that add up to at least $1.2 billion per year in operational costs to the world civil aircraft fleet. http://wildlife.faa. gov.
Air transport in Ethiopia has started in the year 1929 on Gefersa, 18 kilometer west of Addis Ababa. In addition to previously mentioned area Janmeda, Lideta and Akaki were a place for remarkable airstrips and spots that have contributed more for the development and construction of more airports throughout the country and which has increased the role of air transport for the domestic use. (EAE, 2010)
Addis Ababa Bole International Airport was established at the beginning of the 1960’s. The construction of the runway was commenced in 1961 and completed in 1964.As time goes on expansion carried-out and the runway becomes 3,800 meter in length and 60meter in width plus 100 meters stop ways at both ends of the runway. Thus, now the airport has the potential to accommodate huge, modern aircrafts as big as Boeing 747 and MD-11. Currently the Apron can accommodate 53 large aircrafts at a time excluding the cargo apron capacity, the General Aviation parking area of the many small aircrafts and the Ethiopian Airlines Hanger capacity. (Ethiopian Airports Journal, 2010)
The present study focuses on gathering information on the species composition, and abundance of wildlife during this area. Monitoring wildlife numbers, activity pattern and abundance within the study area generates a complimentary source of data, which is more suited to the management of wildlife control programs. The survey administered also assessed the strike risk posed to aircraft by wildlife and other wildlife.
The present study aimed to assess the effects of wildlife hazards at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Monitoring wildlife numbers and other wild animals, activity pattern and abundance within the study area generates a complimentary source of data, which is more suited for developing efficient hazard management mechanisms.
With aviation industry predicted to grow for the foreseeable future, and increasingly successful efforts being put into wildlife conservation, it's likely that the danger posed to aircraft by wildlife also will increase, unless simpler measures are put in place to manage the matter. Available data supports this view, with reported wildlife strikes increasing in frequency year by year. There is clearly a need to prevent wildlife strikes, but opinion is split about whether new technology is that the solution, or just proper application of long-established wildlife hazard management methods. This research reviewed airport community understanding on wildlife hazard management and therefore the latest developments in wildlife strike prevention and assesses several the explanations why we still struggle to urge on top of such a long-standing flight safety risk.
In Ethiopia, occasional high-profile incidents, like the crash of a Boeing 737-200 in September 1988 ranks, with 35 fatalities, out of 104 people on board, bring the problems to the eye of passengers and therefore the public, except for the foremost part this is often a risk that's not fully appreciated, even within the industry itself. It's not just the high-profile incidents that make the headlines that are of concern. Thousands of minor incidents, most causing no damage to aircraft, end in precautionary turn backs, engine checks, delays, cancellations and minor repairs that add up to a minimum of $1.2 billion per annum in operational costs to the planet civil aircraft fleet(Sharing the Sky,2008) and millions of dollars annually in Ethiopia(ECAA,2020). Thus, there is a need to assess the patterns of aircraft accident at Bole International Airport for designing a proactive management intervention. Although the problem seems serious but there has been limited studies conducted in this regard. The two studies conducted so far focused on ecological aspect meaning the abundance and distribution of avian species in the airport and bird strike. whereas, this study addresses the pattern of wildlife incidents in the airport for the last five years, wild animals including avian and their role in the wildlife hazard, wildlife attractants inside the airport, and finally it has addressed the effect of wildlife hazard on the aviation sector.
The overall objective of the study was to assess the wildlife Effect on aircraft operation at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport.
More specifically, in this research it was planned to :
- assess the major wildlife and their attractants inside the airport.
- investigate the patterns and trends of wildlife strike on aircraft at the Airport.
- examine the effect of wildlife hazard on aircraft at the airport.
The research questions include:
- How the patterns and trends of wildlife strike looks like on aircraft operation at Bole International Airport?
- Which contributing factors are there for wildlife hazard on aircraft operation?
- How does wildlife hazard affect the aviation sector?
- Identifying wildlife hazard on aircraft operation?
Thematic area of the study focus was on the wildlife hazard on aircraft operation at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport and the distance is approximately 4430m from east to west and 1867m from north to south extent and it covers about 900ha. This is because the airport is one of the busiest airports in Ethiopia as a result yearly there are several wildlife strikes reported to aerodrome safety department. The study covered the whole area of the airport. Its major targets were assessing the major wildlife and their attractants inside the airport, investigating the patterns and trends of wildlife strike on aircraft operation plus to that examining the effect of wildlife hazard on aircraft strike. Reviewing wildlife strike reporting data base and recording local wildlife species based on their strike rate in Addis Ababa Bole international airport.
The finding of this study provides several significances. First it provides ecological information regarding the wildlife hazard related issues for the government (Ethiopian civil aviation sector stake holders) or policy makers(ministry of transport) and it also provides the reader what a wildlife hazard poses to an aircraft operation and helps to understand the cause and effect of this aviation safety dilemma. It will help an aerodrome operator in the preparation of an airport wildlife hazard management plan so that they can save millions of dollars.
It helps civil aviation stakeholders to contribute their part in an airport wildlife hazard management program. It will contribute for the civil aviation sector safety management system improvement by providing information regarding the status of wildlife hazard and its trend in Addis Ababa Bole International Airport. It will provide an input to the preparation of Addis Ababa Bole international airport wildlife hazard management program . Finally, it provides an idea for those who want to carry out further studies on aviation safety and wildlife hazard issues at different nation.
The basic limitation of this study was the problem to get many aviation communities due to Covid- 19 pandemic. But the researcher figured it out by communicating representative aviation safety personnel from all stakeholders (Civil aviation authority, Ethiopian airlines and Ethiopian airports)before the pandemic. Therefore, the researcher is forced to use only focused group discussion and key informant interview for few people to abide to the state emergency that follows the spread of the Covid 19.
The sector had difficulties in calculating all expenses caused by wildlife strike so that it is difficult to get the total cost of the wildlife strike. For instance, it can be easy to calculate the cost associated with maintenance, but it is difficult to calculate customer’s dissatisfaction on aircraft operators and loss of liability due to wildlife strike encountered. So, such expenses can be calculated roughly than clearly so that was the limitation during the research. Even if the above limitations were in place during the study period the researcher tried to address the research questions and exerted maximum determination to accomplish the study in a very prolific manner to accomplish the objectives stated.
Aerodrome: A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. (ICAO, 2001)
Aerodrome Control towers: A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic. (ICAO, 2007)
Aircraft: Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface. (ICAO, 2001)
Apron: A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fueling, parking or maintenance. (ICAO, 2001)
Operator: A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in an aircraft operation. (ICAO, 2001)
Runway: A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft . (ICAO, 2001)
Taxiing: Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding take-off and landing. (ICAO, 2007)
Wildlife: Living things neither cultivated nor domesticated. (ECAA, 2015).
Wildlife hazard: Potential danger due to wildlife to aircraft. (ECAA, 2014).
Wildlife attractant: They are the source of cover, shelter, food and water in the local environment. (ECAA, 2013).
Wildlife strike: when wildlife and a moving aircraft collide. (ECAA, 2013).
This thesis is organized in to six chapters. The present chapter is about the Background, the statement of the problem, the objectives, the research questions, the significance, the study area, the scope ,the limitations of the study and organization of the thesis . The second chapter deals with the related literature about wildlife hazard on aircraft operation near airports, policies to protect airports and other related points. The third chapter of this thesis discusses on issues related to the study area and its features.
The fourth chapter of this thesis discusses on points related with data types, Source, the sample size and sampling techniques, the instruments used to collect Data, the method of data analysis and presentation are illustrated. How wildlife activity affects the aircraft operation and data is collected using the instrument is also having a part in this chapter. In chapter five, the analysis of the data is presented. Thus, the data collected through observation, key informant's questionnaire, accident incident database review and document analysis are analyzed, presented and discussed with their findings at last. Finally, in chapter six the conclusion of the study and the recommendation of the researcher is presented.
Wildlife encompasses animals and plants even other forms of life which are living without the direct control of human beings. Wildlife hazard on aircraft refers to a potential danger due to wildlife’s (mostly wildlife and mammals) on aircraft operation in and around an aerodrome. The wildlife occurrence on the aerodrome had a negative consequence on aircraft operation ((MacKinnon et al. 2001).
For this study there is one theory related with air traffic accident and incident related concepts which is Normal accident theory. It is a 1984 book by Charles Perrow which provides a detailed analysis of complex system. It was the first to propose a frame work for characterizing complex technological system such as air traffic ,marine traffic and especially nuclear power plant according to their risk ness .Perrow says that multiple and unexpected failures are built into society complex and tightly coupled systems. Such as accidents are in evitable.
Perrow arguments based on human error, big accidents tend to escalate, and technology is not the problem ,the organization are. Normal Accident contributed key concepts to a set of intellectual developments in the 1980s that revolutionized the conception of safety and risk. It made the case for examining technological failures as the product of highly interacting systems and highlighted organizational and management factors as the main causes of failures. Technological disasters could no longer be ascribed to isolated equipment malfunction, operator error or act of God.
Per row identifies three conditions that make a system likely to be susceptible to Normal Accidents. These are:
- The system is Complex
- The system is tightly coupled
- The system has Catastrophic potential
Air traffic by nature fulfill all their conditions identified by Perrow which the system is complex, tightly coupled and it has catastrophic potential.
Calbraith Rodgers on 3 April 1912, was the first man to fly across America, was killed in the first crash resulting from a gull along California (Cleary and Dolbeer 2005). Despite this tragic event, strikes with wildlife and other wildlife were of little concern for the primary 50 years of aviation. In fact, only three civil aircraft were destroyed, and two human fatalities were documented worldwide between 1912 and 1959 (Fig. 1.1). But in October 1960, a turboprop-powered Lockheed Electra crashed in Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, shortly after takeoff, following the ingestion of over 200 European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) into the air intakes of three of the aircraft's four engines. Sixty-two people died, a fatality counts which so far remains the very best for a wildlife ~ induced plane crash. During 1960-2010, wildlife and other wildlife strikes destroyed 160 civil aircrafts (ICAO Airport Services Manual, Part 3).
Why numerous Wildlife Strikes? There are multiple reasons for the dramatic increase in wildlife strikes since the 1960s. First, the arrival of turbine powered passenger aircraft within the 1960s revolutionized aviation, but it also magnified the matter of wildlife strikes. Early piston powered were slow and has huge noise from their engine. Wildlife could usually avoid these aircraft, and human intrusion were experienced but it did not amplify that much. whereas, contemporary aircrafts have relatively low sound and swift flight due to this there is limited chance for wildlife to escape from this machine. The aircrafts affecting 9 1.8 kg (4 Ib) and thus are more likely than smaller species to cause damage to aircraft when struck and exceed certification standards for many air frame components and engines (Dolbeer et al. 2000, 2012; Dolbeer and Eschenfelder 2003; DeVault et al. 2011). Thus, the rise probability of damaging wildlife strikes since the 1960s is primarily associated with the increase in traffic by two-engine, large-inlet, turbine-powered aircraft concurrent with major increases in populations of the many large-bodied wildlife species. Dolbeer, Richard A., "The History of Wildlife Strikes and Management at Airports" (2013). USDA National Wildlife research facility - Staff Publications. 1459. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu
Wildlife hazard on aircraft
Wildlife hazard is a potential danger on aircrafts due to wildlife. Wildlife strikes were a negligible risk in the early days as there were few airlines in the air flying at comparatively low speeds. Damage to aircraft was, consequently, restricted to crushed windshields, smashed leading edges, and some impairment to the fuselage. The price of repairs was minor and airplanes operators and airdrome authorities recognized wildlife strikes as an ordinary hazard of aviation. In time, the swiftness of airplanes amplified, and apparatus sound levels dropped with the development of novel generation turbine engines. Airplanes simply became too swift and too silent for wildlife to sense and escape. Wildlife unintentionally became a grave threat to the safety of aviation as strikes became more common and graver.
Collisions between wildlife and aircraft are known to cause significant negative impact to the aviation industry in direct and indirect costs annually. (John.R,2004). Sometimes it is impossible to get the accurate figure of the cost of wildlife strike due to the commercial airlines system that does not segregate cost incurred by wildlife with other costs and the culture of reporting is not a such developed worldwide. (Cleary et al.,2000).Wildlife strikes force an operator to spend millions of dollars on several direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are costs related with direct expense related with the wildlife strike and Indirect costs are influenced by the degree of danger to the airplane, how far from the operator’s nearest maintenance facility, number of flights the airline and the operator’s type operation which means either it is international, domestic or both. (Sharing the Sky,2004)
According to ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), Most of the wildlife strike inside the airport. This is because airports provide water (artificial pond, stream, rive, puddle), food (grain, organic waste, insects, worm, grass, vegetation) shelter and cover (patch of vegetation, over grown grass, buildings and structures) as well as tranquil environment.
There are several major accidents due to wildlife one of the well-known strikes were occurred On October 1960, the deadly wildlife-strike accident occurred when Starlings were ingested into three of the four turboprop engines. The number-one engine had collapsed; numbers two and four lost power. The aircraft lost control and crashed into Boston. Of the 72 persons on board, 62 died and 9 were injured (Sharing the Sky,2004).
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