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ACRONOMYIES AND ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF TABLES
LISTS OF FIGURES
CHAPTER ONE :INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Objective of the study
1.3.1 General Objective
1.4. Research Questions
1.5. Significance of the study
1.6. Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8. Definition of Terms
1.9. Organization of the thesis
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Urban Environmental problems
2.2. Sources and Types of Solid Wastes
2.3. Components of Solid Waste
2.4. Functional elements of municipal solid waste management Systems
2.4.1. Waste generation
2.5. Sanitation practices
2.6. Waste Water Disposal
2.7. The Effect of Poor Waste Disposal System on Water Quality
2.8. Conventional Water Quality Parameters
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLGY
3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.1.2. Topography and Drainage
3.1.4. Geology, Soil and Vegetation
3.1.5.Socio-Economic Background of Sawla Town
3.1.6. Demographic Characteristics
3.1.7. Settlement patterns
3.1.8. Economic Activities
3.1.9. Social and Physical Infrastructures
3.2. Research Design
3.2.1. Data Sources
3.2.2. Sampling Techniques and Sample Size Determination
3.2.3. Water Sample Stations and Sampling Techniques
3.2.4. Survey Data Collection Techniques
3.2.5. Household Survey
3.2.7.. Field Observation
3.2.8. Data Analysis and Presentation
CHAPETR FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Demographic and Socio-Economic Data Analysis
4.1.1. Sex Distribution of participants
4.1.2. Age Distribution of Participants
4.1.3. Educational Status of the Sample household Heads
4.1.4. Household’s Average Monthly Income
4.2. Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in Sawla Town
4.2.1. Municipal Solid Waste Sources in Sawla Town
4.2.2. Municipal Solid Waste Compositions in Sawla town
2.3. Municipal Solid Waste Management Practices
4.3.1. Solid Waste Storage and Handling Activities in Sawla Town
4.3.2. Solid Waste Collection in Sawla Town
4.3.3. Households Solid Waste Disposal System in Sawla Town
4.3.4. Sanitation facilities in Sawla Town
4.3.5. Potential Pollutant loading to Womba River
4.3.6. Water Quality Data Analysis and Presentation
4.4.1. Average Concentration of Pollutant Loads at Each Sampling Location
4.4.2. Comparison of Mean Variation between Sampling Stations
4.4.4. Measures to be taken to ontrol nappropriate waste disposal practices
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
First, I would like to give all the glory, honours, and praise to the almighty God for all he has done and his endless help, guidance and fatherly love in all circumstances to complete the whole course work as well as this thesis successfully.
My deepest appreciation and sincere thanks goes to my research advisors Dr . Yechale Kebede and Mr. Abren Gelaw for their certainty to provide the necessary information, read the whole paper at all stages and given their sincere guidance, constructive comments, correction, and suggestion to bring the study to this form.
My special and heartfelt thank extended to my lovely wife W/ro Mulunesh Gullie for your inspiration, moral encouragement, family love, commitment, and financial support and being patient throughout my study time.
I also forward my appreciation to Demba Gofa Woreda administration office and Demba Gofa woreda human resources and public service office that gave me salary scholarship opportunity to pursue my post graduate program for last two year.
I also want to extend my special appreciation to individuals and friends those who have helped me in many way in accomplishing this work successfully. Without the support of people acknowledged, the accomplishment of this research would have been impossible.
Therefore, I would like to thank my friends particularly, Bayu Belihu, Gebre Gallo, Temesgen Lombe, Daniel Data, Negussie Guise and Mulugeta Wata for their sweet friendship, supporting and encouragement of each other in all circumstances for last two years
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Table 3.1 Kebele Specific Total Number of Households and Sample Household Head
Table 3.2 Description of Water Sampling Site and its GPS Coordination
Table 4.1 Age Distribution of Sample Households
Table 4.2 Educational Status of Sample Households
Table 4.3 Frequency Distribution of Monthly Income of Households
Table 4.4 Physical Composition of Municipal Solid Waste in Sawla Town
Table 4.5 Illustrates the Agents Responsible for Household Municipal Solid Waste Collection and Disposal in Sawla Town
Table 4.6 Potential Sources of Pollutants to Womba River
Table 4.7 Reasons for inefficient waste collection and disposal practices
Table 4.8 Comparison of the Mean Value of All Sample points with Permissive Standard Value of WHO/EUEPA/EPA and Elala River Water Quality North Ethiopia
Table 4.9 Waste Management Measures Perceived by the Residents of Sawla Town
Figure 3.1. Location Map of the Study Area
Figure 4.1. Sex Distribution of Sample Households
Figure 4.2. Partial View of Solid Waste Physical Composition in Sawla Town
Figure 4.3. Distribution of Response up on Waste Storage Equipment
Figure 4.4. Description of Solid Waste Disposal Mechanism in Sawla Town
Figure 4.5. Partial View of Improper Solid Waste Disposal Practice at Road Sides
Figure 4.6. Partial View of Illegal Waste Disposal Sites nearby Womba River
Figure 4.7. Distribution of Households Response up on Types of Latrine
Figure 4.8. Distribution of Households Response up on Enffuelts Disposal
Figure 4.9. Partial View of Pollutant Loading to Womba River
Figure 4.10. Perception of Intervention on Waste Disposal by Respondents
Poor waste disposal is a characteristic features of most urban areas in Ethiopia. So, Sawla town is not also differentfrom others. In Sawla town, roads, diches, open places, Womba River banks and its surrounding areas become dumping site for rubbish, waste water and human waste. Thus, the study was aimed at assessing poor waste disposal practices of Sawla town impacts on Womba River water quality. To accomplish the objective, the descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. So, both purposive proportional and simple random sampling produces were utilized. In this case, 217 respondents and ten informants were used. To supplement and bridge household survey data, interview, field observation and water quality analysis were utilized. Study identified residential area, commercial area and street sweeping activities as main sources of waste having dominant biodegradable waste proportion. indiscriminate open dumping refuses, discharging untreated enffuelt, open dumping animal waste and open defecating of human excreta at open space, low laying area, drainage channels and even on body of receiving water identified as anthropogenic cause of poor waste disposal of the town. Water quality test result shows that womba River water was polluted since it had acceded WHO and EPA water quality guidelines for turbidity, TSS, TDS, EC, BOD and Faecal coliform. Faecal count for water sample collected at all sampling station was serious above 467/100L and had acceded the WHO/USEPA water quality guidelines of 0/100l and 126 indicates pollution from human sources. The pollution of river reduces its water quality and has human health effects who consumes it. Institutional and social familiarities were identified as cause of poor waste disposal problem. Logistic and human power strengthening of institutions, public education, provision of waste collection container and enacting laws were proposed to improve poor waste disposal practices of the town.
Keywords : Sawla, Womba, Contamination, Poor Waste disposal, Sanitation, waste water, water quality parameter.
A waste refers to any material or product that has been considered useless by the owner and needs to be discarded or has been discarded. Solid waste is any organic or inorganic materials generated from various human activities which have been considered unwanted or useless therefore disposed treated or untreated (Birute, 2012).
On the other hand, the term household’s solid waste management has been defined differently by different writers and Authors. For instance, (Getahun et al, 2012), defined it as all activities that seek to minimize the environmental, aesthetic and human health impacts of households solid waste.
A much more comprehensive definition of has been provided by (Tchobanglous et al, 1993), which stated that solid waste management is a discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection , transfer and transporting, processing and disposal of it. So, it is a manner in accordance to the best principle of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental conservations responsive to public health. Inherent in this definition, solid waste management is a processes which includes waste generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of wastes in accordance to the principles of household’s solid waste management.
The rapid urbanization and growth of urban population that has been taking place during the 20th century virtually transformed the world in to communities of cities and towns. These developments imposing challenges on environment in which most of them have to be addressed at international level (Smith, 2014). Among those environmental challenges, municipal waste management is a critical one. This is because as long as humans have been living in settled communities, solid waste generation has been an unavoidable in both developed and developing nations.
The issue also got great attention at united nation conference on environment and development in Riodejieneiro in (1992) with a great emphasis on reducing wastes and maximizing environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling at first step in waste management, United Nation Environmental Program (UNEP, 2009).
On the other hand, globalization is the starting points of high level of production of solid waste and increasing concern of its management in cities especially, in developing countries. Globalization translates in to economic transformation and poverty alleviation etc. However, it has an impact on urbanization and ramification that go with it and other various challenges. In developed countries, the daily life of people can generate greater quantity with high chemical content of waste than developing countries. However, most parts of developed nations are more efficient in handling waste generated than those compared in developing countries. Because the former have developed technologically complex, institutionally efficient financially strong and cost effective solid waste management strategies (Srinivas., 2015).
On the other dimension, compared to developed countries, developing countries produce less per-capita amount of municipal solid waste. However, the capacity of the developing countries to collect, process and dispose waste is limited due to inadequate infrastructure, finance, political instability, inefficient institutional capacity and structure, and low level of awareness (Solomon, 2011).
Because of this limitations, about 30 to 50 percent of the solid waste produced in urban areas of low- income countries and in poorest parts of middle-income countries has been left uncollected. This situation has introduced numerous discomforts to communities and threatens human health through direct contact, or through contamination of surface water, ground water and soil (Asnani, 2006).
These environmental contaminants can alter physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the environment, surface and ground water, places human health at risk, as well as reduces the potential that the environment has to assimilate those contaminants. Now a days, most of environmental contaminants resulting from inefficient urban waste disposal practices, poor state of sanitation, and release and discharging effluent reached high level and it has adverse impact on urban dwellers, aquatic Fauna and Flora in developing countries (Tchobaglous, 2002).
Ethiopia has also characterized by rapid urbanization coupled with increased urban population in the last decades brought great pressure on management of over increasing municipal waste generated in the country (Melaku, 2008).
The current situation of municipal solid waste management service in different towns of Ethiopia is becoming a challenge for municipalities. For instance, according to (Degnet, 2003), municipal solid waste disposal mechanism which has practiced in 15 regional cities of Ethiopia, a controlled solid waste disposal system was practiced only in two of them. That implies, small proportions of urban dwellers were served and a large quantity of solid waste left uncollected. In addition to this, a study conducted by (Gebrie, 2009), revealed that, high percent of solid wastes are left uncollected and disposed anywhere without due attention regarding their consequences on environment and human health in different towns of Ethiopia is serious waste management challenges.
Today, human activities in urban area have a direct influence on environmental resources like surface and ground water. Human being intentionally or unintentionally pollutes surface and ground water quality with in hydrographic basins because effluent flow in to water way in many cases without passing through any waste water treatment processes. According to Abel, (2007), the most significant contamination route area are those related to direct emission of treated and untreated domestic waste water and runoff waste water in to water bodies.
Sawla town administration like other towns of Ethiopia, is said to have urban waste management problems. These problems seems poor waste disposal practices poor waste which may result in contamination of environment, water quality and human health in to risks. Therefore, this study was focused mainly on the question, what are the solid waste sources and its physical compositions, and how households of Sawla town practices their waste disposal activities and its adverse impact on the water quality of Womba River.
Sawla town is found in Gamo Gofa zone, southern Ethiopia. Characterized by rapid population growth caused by natural increase and migration from nearby woredas and rural Kebeles. Such rapid increase in population together with increasing consumption pattern and expansion of town has generated large volume of solid and enffuelt from various sources.
This in turn demands infrastructural provision, institutional setups and strong community participation. However, Sawla town municipal waste management responsible body such as (SBD) which provided waste management services has not been fulfilling the current requirement for municipal waste management.
In Sawla town SBD has provided services through small group associations organized for door- to-door solid waste collection, street sweeping, and disposal mandates with limited number of workers. In addition to this, there is no nay public waste collection (storage) container and road side dust bins in the town.
However, they are operating their activity without the supply of the necessary facilities and truck for collection, transportation and disposal of households’ solid wastes. To this, instead of trucks for solid waste collection, transporting and disposal activities, human and animal power driven (Donkey carts) were used. As a result, the town has been suffering from shortage of municipal waste management infrastructures and faced unmatched burdens of collection, transportation, and disposal of both solid and effluent (Sawla Town Sanitation and Beautification Department, 2016).
Furthermore, small group associations are responsible only for collecting, transporting and dumping solid wastes from street, centrally located residential area to open dump fields located approximately 2.5 to 3 km distance from residential area. Hence, large volume of solid waste generated from different sources in Sawla town were not properly collected and disposed at legally constructed landfill sites.
As a result, most of the solid waste which left over on streets and within community reduced the aesthetic value of the town environment and contaminated the water of Womba River. These situation was contributed largely by lack of waste management facilities and inadequate service provision for waste collection, processing, transportation, and disposal. Lack of effluent disposal infrastructure and indiscriminate open disposing of all streams of household’s solid waste in to open space, diches, gully, river banks, and even on body of receiving river by residents were some of constraints worsening the problem of waste disposal.
The above limitations led not only to deterioration of the town environment but also reinforce incorrect disposal habits to the residents.
Most of solid waste generated in the town remain uncollected and simply dumped in open areas, roadsides, storm drainages river banks, gully, gorges, and water body. Thus, disposal practices carried out in sufficient and improper manner.
The environmental and sanitary conditions of the town have become a more serious problem from time to time, and people are suffering from living in such conditions.
When the wastes are put in to open dumps, they ruin the attractiveness of the surrounding areas and would potentially endanger the healthy environment and water quality which necessary for human existence. Ecological phenomena such as water and air also attributed to improper disposal of both solid wastes and enffuelt (Monroe, 1997). Solid waste management requires among other things effective local planning and citizen participation backed by clear, integrated and comprehensive strategy towards effective and safe solid waste disposal mechanisms ( Aanroe et al., 2008).
The most obvious environmental damage caused by inefficient household’s solid waste disposal practices, poor enffuelt disposal and low status of sanitation may contribute to contamination of surface water, aesthetics of the ugliness of street and beauty of town. More serious, however, and often unrecognized is the transfer of pollutant to stream water and pollution of it. Rain carries materials from the dump in to water supplies for community consumption (Sawla Town Sanitation and Beautification Unit 2016).
Furthermore, the sanitation and effluent disposal practices of Sawla town seems poor and does not followed scientific procedure. People in the town practices open defecation and improper disposal of enffuelt together with non- point sources of pollutant may also contribute for physicochemical and bacteriological contamination of womba river water.
Detail study conducted on urban waste management systems, like collection, processing, disposal practices, and its physical compositions as well as sanitation status of Sawla town seems to be rare. In addition to this, indiscriminately open dumping of all types of waste on the banks of river, storm drainage, road sides, and on body of ware and its adverse impacts on water quality was not was not well assessed. Because of this, it is difficult to explicitly assess the condition and nature of household’s waste disposal practices and its adverse impact on water quality of Womba River. Therefore, this requires rigorous investigation on the matters under investigation.
The general objective of the study was assessing the impacts of household’s poor waste disposal problem on the water quality of Womba River in Sawla town.
Based on the general objective set, the following specific study objectives were designed.
1. To investigate the sources and its physical compositions of households’ solid waste of the town
2. To assess the current households waste disposal practices of the town.
3. To assess the potential pollutant loads to the Womba river water
4. To determine the extent of contamination of Womba river in relation with improper waste disposal practices of residents
5. To assess mitigation measures to control inappropriate households poor waste disposal practices of the town.
Based on the problem stated and objectives set, the following basic research questions were developed:
1. What are the main sources and its physical compositions of household’s solid waste of the town?
2. How households of the town currently practice waste disposal activities in their residential area?
3. What are the potential pollutant loads to Womba rives and their main sources?
4. To what extent does Womba River contaminated associated with poor waste disposal practices of the residents?
5. What measures are preferable to control inappropriate waste disposal practices in the town?
After accomplishment of this study, the following outcome were expected from the study:
- The government body such as SBD can understand explicitly the effects of poor households waste disposal practice on water quality of Womba River. Hence, the mitigation strategies to reduce the amount of contaminant loading to Womba river can be understood
- It can serve as the main sources of information for waste management body of Sawla town, decision makers, and researchers on the current solid waste sources, its composition, and the existing household’s waste disposal practices of the town.
- The study is also vital to confirm the claims and initiates the decision makers to plan for monitoring action to maintain water quality and to be bench mark for future research on the same problem in the town.
Spatially, the study was conducted in Sawla town. It constitutes two sub-city and six Kebeles. Because of time constraints, limitation of resources (research budget and manageability of data) three Kebeles were being selected for this study. Temporally, the study include only the current (2015/2016) household’s poor waste disposal practices impacts on water quality of Womba River. Finally, the main research problem addressed in this study was the existing households waste disposal practices effects on the water quality of Womba River.
The writer did not finish this research without short comings. The major limitations which faces the writer in the course of conducting this research work in all stages includes:
- Lack of recorded data about the amount of solid waste that has been generated in per capita per day per person to calculate waste generation rate and the quantity of waste per annual at household and municipal level for trend analysis.
- Some of respondents like, official in the municipality of the town and sanitation and beautification department workers were refused to give detail information related to existing waste disposal and sanitation practices of the town.
- Financial problem due to lack of sponsorships. As a result transportation and other problems occurred which adversely affected the data collection process.
Waste it is any substance which constitutes scrap materials, an effluent or other unwanted surplus arising from application of any substances or article which requires to be disposed of, has broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled.
Toilet is a sanitation fixtures used for the storing and disposing of human urine and feces Open defecation is the practices of people defecating outside not in to a designated toilet Sludge is a row or partially digested, semi-solid sludge waste resulted from the collection, storage of excretion and black water with or without grey water.
Solid waste any garbage, refuse, sludge, and other discarded solid materials resulting from industrial, commercial, agricultural operations, and community activities, but does not include dissolved materials
Municipal solid waste refers to materials discarded in urban areas for which municipalities are usually responsible for collection, transportation, and final disposal.
Sanitation the means of collecting, disposing of excreta and community liquid wastes in a hygienic ways so as not to endanger the health of human being and environment as whole.
Domestic waste water is waste water from baths, showers, hand basins, washing machines, and dishwashing, laundries, and kitchen sinks.
Municipal solid waste management is an activity of planning and implementation of solid waste management components such as collection, transfer and transportation, recycling, resource recovery, and disposal under jurisdiction of local government.
The study is organized in five chapters. First chapter is an introduction section, including background, statement, objectives, research questions, significance, scope, limitation, and definition of terms. In chapter two, an overview of literatures of various scholars about the topic under study lies. In chapter three, study area particularly physical and socio-economic condition of the study area of research methods were employed. Whereas, chapter four consisted of results and discussion of the thesis. Finally, the study has been concluded by forwarding conclusion and possible recommendation.
Today, urban environment has been facing several challenges and difficulties. Concerning this, different research articles describes uncontrolled growth of urban population, proliferation of slums, deficits of clean water supplies, shortage of sanitation coverage, and in adequate municipal waste collection and disposal services provisions are the most visible sign of an urban environment problems. These problems have resulted in adequate living condition, urban environment resource pollution, sewage defects, and which affects the living and productivity of urban population in low and middle income countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Carlos, 2003). Official statistical data recognized that, throughout developing countries, at least 120 million urban population lack access to clean water supply, sanitation, and more than 420 million population do not have proper west collection and disposal services for cities and an average waste collection coverage between 50 to 70 percent of the total population (United State Environmental Protection Agency, 1994).
The provision of urban waste management services like waste collecting, transporting and disposing in Sub-Saharan Africa is a function of inefficient collection, transportation, availability of unsafe, unsuitable, inaccessible disposal methods and existence of disposal sites around urban areas recolonized as waste management challenges of the regions and minimal involvement and participation by private waste management companies. This has led to a call for more efficient, environment friendly options of urban waste management such as locally developed collection and disposal equipment, recycling and adoption of less polluting incineration technologies where feasible.
In addition to these, lack of access to safe potable water supply, sanitation services and drainage facilities because of low per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of most developing countries and their limited governance capacity at local levels. Due to these, waste disposal, sanitation and drainage facilities have been unable to keep pace with rapid urban growth (Pelling, 2003).
Infrastructural installation has been inadequate and inequitable; utilities and social services have not been provided in advance of new settlements or in many newly developed areas; and service delivery continues to be unreliable due to poor maintenance, low charges in comparison with operating costs, and often, limited technical and administrative expertise (Kebede, 2004). As a result, many urban residents in developing countries are subjected to increased health hazards and adverse environmental impacts, including pollution of rivers, coastal areas and groundwater. The current concern of the study is mainly focused on municipal waste sources, its compassion and basic management activities like, solid waste collecting, processing with due attention on waste disposal and sanitation practices effects on water quality of study area.
In order to categorize what exactly municipal solid waste constitutes, there have been different attempts of categorization based on numerous classification criteria. Some of those criteria are source from which solid waste emanates, and nature of solid waste components.
On the basis of the nature of items that constitute solid wastes, it can be classified into organic or inorganic, combustible or non-combustible, and putrescible or non-putrescible as stated in (G/Tsadkan, 2002). With respect to source from which solid waste emanates, (Solomon, 2011) categorized municipal solid waste as household (residential) refuse, institutional wastes, street sweepings, commercial areas wastes, as well as construction and demolition debris. In developing countries, MSW also contains various amounts of industrial wastes from small scale industries. In these sources there are diverse types of solid wastes. It is important at this stage to further distinguish between food waste, rubbish, special waste, and ashes and residue as illustrated by Tchobanglous et al. (1993). Food waste, these are wastes resulting from the handling, preparation, cooking and eating of food.
They are more generally referred to as garbage. These wastes are highly putrescible and decompose rapidly, especially in warm weather and give off very offensive odor. The putrescible nature of these wastes has strong bearing on the design and operation of wastes collection services. Rubbish, according to Puopiel (2010) consists of combustible and noncombustible solid wastes from household, commercial and institutional activities. It however excludes food waste and other highly putrescible materials. Combustible materials include paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, rubber, leather, wood, furniture, and garden trimmings.
The domestic solid waste stream also contains different components which are used to classify them into such types as organic or inorganic, biodegradable or non- biodegradable.
For example plastic, paper, glass, ceramics, textiles, metal and inert wastes as a study conducted by Surrey County UK in 2002/2003 (Baabereyir, 2009), analyzed the 7 composition of the solid waste stream in the County as containing : paper/card, plastic film, dense plastic, textiles, miscellaneous combustibles, glass, ferrous metal, garden waste and food waste. The organic matter (paper, wood, food waste) is that aspect of the waste stream that is compostable. The inorganic matter on the other hand, is non compostable (rubber, leather, plastic, metal, glass, fabric and battery, among others). The other classification is into biodegradable and non- biodegradable.
The biodegradable waste matter is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. For example, Green waste, food waste, paper waste, biodegradable plastics, human waste and sewage. Non-biodegradable waste will not break down (or won't for many years). Examples are plastics, metal and glass. Dangerous chemicals and toxins are also non-biodegradable, as are plastic grocery bags, Styrofoam (polystyrene), and other similar materials.
The total household wastes by weight. Studies also showed that large portion of solid wastes of developing countries is food wastes (Tchobanglous et al., 1993). For example, 36% in Makurdi-Nigeria, (Sha’ Ato et al., 2006), 40.7% in Guadalajara, Mexico (Perez et al., 2001) but food waste accounts 59.17% by weight of the 27 total wastes in Arada Sub-City, Addis Ababa (Yitayal, 2005) this is higher than the present study.
Waste from low and middle- income countries contain fewer paper products and non-food items than waste from industrialized countries. The composition of solid waste is a key determinant in decisions concerning types of vehicles needed for collection and transfer, requirements for final disposal, and resource recovery alternative (Corrales, 2003). Increase of food waste in household with increase in income level is common in less industrialized countries (Fernandez, 1996).).
Waste generation encompasses activities in which materials are identified as valueless and either thrown away or gather together for disposal. This functional element is very important because all activities that lead to identification and understanding of solid waste generation rate, volume, composition, area specific variations of waste generation and their expected changes overtime are belong to this component solid waste management. So, this functional element is a vital stage for acquiring accurate information that is necessary to monitor existing management system and to make regulatory, financial and institutional decisions (Gebrie, 2009).
The UNEP (2009) further states that in 2006, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW generated globally reached 2.02 billion tones, making for a 7 percent annual increase since 2003. It estimates that between 2007 and 2011, the generation of solid waste globally will rise by 37.3 percent, representing an eight percent increase per year. (Srinivas, 2006) states that municipal solid waste represents about 14-20 percent of all 445 wastes generated. Generation rate has direct relationship with in-come level when income level increases generation increase too. And it observed in some city and town of Ethiopia Arada Sub-City Addis Ababa (Yitayal, 2005; Solomon, 2011), and Adama town (Asfaw, 2007)
Tchobanglous et al. (1993) explain waste handling to comprise activities associated with managing wastes until they are placed in the containers used for their storage, before collection or return to recycling centers.
The specific activities associated with handling wastes material at the source of generation will vary depending on the types of wastes materials that are separated for reuse and the extent to which these materials are separated from the waste stream, they stated.
They also noted that handling may be required to move the loaded waste from the collection centers to the final disposal sites; this however depends on the type of collection services available (Zebenay, 2010). Waste handling involves activities associated with management of wastes until they are placed in storage containers for collection.
It also encompasses movement of loaded containers to point of collection. Storage refers stock up of wastes as soon as they are generated. There are two types of storage activities at source. The first one is temporary storage done at household level as a part of their hygiene. The second type is communal solid waste storage system on public solid waste containers prepared by municipality. While processing at source involves activities such as waste composting and separation of solid wastes for reuse and recycling. All of these components are important for protection of public health and aesthetics and environment (Sood, 2004).
This refers to the place where the generated solid waste is stored until it is collected, as explained by Tchobanglous et al. (1993). They believe that the storage of solid waste is affected by factors such as effects of the storage on waste components, type of container, the container location and the contamination of waste components. These factors have a greater bearing on the storage of putrescible materials, which decompose rapidly and so, must be collected quickly (Solomon, 2011).
Collection involves the process of picking up of wastes from collection points, loading them in to a vehicle, and transporting it to processing facilities, transfer stations or disposal site. In most municipal solid waste management systems, cost of collection accounts a significant portion of total cost. For instance, “in industrialized countries collection accounts about 60-10 70% of total cost, and 70-90% in developing and transition countries” (UNEP, 2006). Collection is structurally similar in developing, transition, and industrialized countries, but there are important technical and institutional differences in implementation.
In most cases, industrialized countries have more efficiency and effectiveness than developing ones in terms of their approach of collection, role of municipal governments, private-sector participation, and demographic and social factors relevant to collection. In developing countries, collection often involves a face to face transaction between generator and collector. The level of service is low, and generators often have to bring their wastes long distances and place it in containers. As a result many collection activities in developing countries carried out by informal sectors (UNEP, 2009).
The final element in the solid waste management process is disposal. (Tchobanglous et al,1993) believe that land filling or land spreading is the final destination of all solid wastes, whether they are residential wastes collected and transported directly to a landfill site, residual wastes from recovery facilities, residue from combustion of solid wastes, compost or other materials. (Rainer, 1990), articulated this idea when argued that landfill would always be needed as a final destination of residue from wastes incineration. It is must be said here that a sanitary landfill is not a ‘dump’ but an engineered facility used for disposing of solid wastes on land or within the earth’s mantle without creating nuisances to public health or safety, such as breeding of rodents and insects, and the contamination of groundwater (Degnet, 2003).
Sanitation usually defined as “the means of collecting, and disposing of excreta and community liquid wastes in a hygienic ways so as not to endanger the health of human being and environment as whole (WHO, 1998). Most of developed countries are well-equipped with flush toilets. However, in developing countries, sanitation is based around much more basic facilities that are often little more than a hole in the ground (Nkosinathi, 2012). Recent reports indicate that, worldwide more than half of the population of less developed countries does not have access to sanitation and more than 80% of the waste water produced is directly discharged into surface and ground water bodies.
In developing countries, like Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa more than 80% of the diseases are caused due to inadequate and unsafe water supply, and improper disposal of human waste.
In these regions, open defecation is still most widely practiced by 44% in Southern Asia and 27% in Sub-Saharan (UN, 2001). In Ethiopia, sanitation facility coverage gap remains insufficiently large and collection and emptying mechanisms are one of the challenges. The practice of open field disposal of liquid waste is one of the main causes of soil and water pollution and consequently a cause of many communicable disease (MoWR, 2015).
A domestic waste water is an effluent released from cleaning activities such as, washing clothes, home furniture, kitchen equipment, laundry activity, showering and others to environment. The principal sources of domestic waste water are residential districts and predominantly public institutional facilities. Other important sources of waste water include commercial facilities and recreational areas. It is mainly composed of black water, used to describe wastewater containing fecal matter and urine (Teklemariam, 2007).
Recent reports indicate that worldwide more than half of the population of less developed countries does not have access to sanitation and more than 70% of waste water generated is directly discharged into surface and ground water bodies (MoWR, 2015).
In Ethiopian towns, management of liquid waste at household level is very poor. About half of the households handle grey water openly discharging into any accessible public properties, such as streets, drainage lines and nearby open space, it is directly contacted and combine with storm water runoff and drained to near water body (Mahamad, 2002).
In fact, improper waste management system particularly, inappropriate disposal and poor state of sanitation in most of low income and middle income countries has been affecting ecological phenomena such as water, soil, and air. Rivers in the urban areas of developing countries are the end of effluent discharged from urban sewerage networks, uncontrolled and unscientific dumping solid wastes has brought about arising contamination of both surface and ground water resources which in turns creates serious human health risks.
According to Tekilu (2014), indiscriminate dumping of household’s solid wastes, direct discharging of waste water in water bodies’ sources and low laying areas without consideration of its effects on the environmental resources is a common practice in many towns of developing countries.
United State (U.S) public health service has published a research work tracing the relationship between 22 diseases and improper urban waste disposal and sanitation practices. Result of the study highlighted, human excreta and waste water are contains disease causing organisms and causes enteric communicable diseases as well source of many infections.
Therefore, these all situations may result contamination of resources such as, water, soil, and air as well as endanger human health in the study area.
Physical characteristics of water quality can be broken down in too many topics and one needs take in to consideration the nature of the physical parameters of the ecosystem surrounding a water resources to be able to understand the physical appearance of the water quality.
Water bodies shows variation in temperature along with normal climatic fluctuations. These variation occurs seasonally and some water bodies over a pried of 24 hours. Temperature of the surface water influenced by latitude, altitude, seasons, time of the day, air circulation, cloud cover, and the flow and the depth of the water bodies (USEPA, 1994).
According to Tegegn (2008), many of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a water bodies are directly affected by temperature. Temperature affects the sediments and microbial growth among other characteristics of water and it is also known fact that, the rate at which chemical reaction occurs increases with increasing temperature and the rate of biochemical reaction usually doubles for every 10.0C rise in temperature, physically less oxygen can dissolve in warm water than in cold water. This is because increased temperature decreases the solubility of gases in the water. In addition, increased temperature increases respiration leading to increased oxygen consumption and increases decomposition of organic matters (Puapies, 2010).
Turbidity of water is the phenomena where by a specific portion of a light beam passing through a liquid medium is deflected from undissolved particles. It is also a term that refers to the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight line through water. In water it caused by suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silt, finely dissolved organic matters, planktons and other microscopic organisms. Turbidity of water can be resulted either by natural or anthropogenic activities.
Natural phenomena are heavy rains, flooding, spring runoff, landslides, bank erosion and algae blooms. Whereas human activities are, people, animals or boats disturbing the waterbed human activities that disturb land (ex: construction), storm water pollution from urban areas and in appropriate disposal of all stream of wastes in to water body are most important human activities results water turbidity (MPCA, 2008).
Electrical conductivity (EC) of water is the measurement of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. The greater the content of dissolved ionic salts in the water, the more current the water can carry and the higher the conductivity. It is often used as an alternative measure of dissolved solids and it is often possible to establish a correlation between conductivity and dissolved solids for a specific body of water.
Electrical conductivity of water is directly related to the concentration of dissolved solids in the water. Ions from the dissolved solids in water influence the ability of that water to conduct an electrical current, which can be measured using a conductivity meter. When correlated with laboratory TDS measurements, electrical conductivity can provide an accurate estimate of the TDS concentration (Mike et al, 2013).
Higher the amount of EC in river water, less amount of water will be available to plants, even though the soil may appear wet. This is because plants can only transpire "pure" water as the usable plant water in the soil solution decreases dramatically with an increase in EC (Jayalakshmi et al, 2011). Therefore, irrigation water with high EC reduces yield potential.
Total suspended solids (TSS)
Total suspended solids refer to the small solid particles which remains in suspension in water as a colloid to the motion of water (UNEP, 2009). Generally, the mount of particles that suspended in sample water is the total suspended solid (TSS).
Suspended solids are also important as pollutants and pathogens are carried on the surface of particles. The smaller the particles size, the greater the surface area per unit mass of particles, and so the greater the pollutant load that is likely to be carried. In addition to these, the greater the TSS in water, the higher its turbidity, and low its transparency. Suspended solids are present in sanitary wastewater and many types of domestic wastewater. There are also nonpoint sources of suspended solids, such as soil erosion from agricultural and construction and demolition wastes. As levels of TSS increase, a water body begins to lose its ability to support a diversity of aquatic life. Suspended solids absorb heat from sunlight, which increases water temperature and subsequently decreases levels of dissolved oxygen because warmer water holds less oxygen than cooler water (Mark, 2013).
Chemical characteristics of water can affect aesthetic quality such as how water looks like and testes, this can also affect its toxicity and whether or not the water is safe to use for any purpose. Since the chemical quality of water is important to the health of human as well as plants and animals that live in and around streams, it is necessary to assess the chemical attributes of water.
Water pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the water on a scale from 1-14(1 is very acidic 7 neutrals and 14 is very alkaline). The pH of the water affects the solubility of many toxic and nutritive chemicals, therefore, the availability of these substances can affects the aquatic organisms. As acidity increases, most of metals become more in water and this substance can make soluble and more toxic water resources.
Toxicity of cyanides and sulfides also increase with decrease in pH increase in acidity. Ammonia, however becomes more toxic with only a slight increase in pH (Joshi et al , 2009). Runoff, sewerage, geology (limestone is associated with more alkaline condition), high nutrient levels are some of the cause to acidity or alkalinity. PH is important in water quality assessment as it influences many biological and chemical processes of water body.
Total Dissolved Solids
Total dissolved solids (TDS) comprise inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. The principal constituents are usually the cations calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium and the anions carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate and, particularly in groundwater, nitrate from agricultural use (Katherine, 1993).
According to ( (Annalakshmi, 2012), the primary sources for higher TDS in the river water from agricultural runoff, discharge of domestic solid and sewerages from households and town and human activity like washing of different vehicles, at and around the river.
According to (Tegegn, 2012), the amount of oxygen dissolved in water depends on the rate of aeration from the atmosphere, temperature, air pressure, and salinity. While, the actual amount of the oxygen that can be dissolved in water depends on the relative rate of respiration by all organisms and photosynthesis by plats, oxygen levels are actually low where organic matters accumulate in waters because aerobic decomposers requires and consumes more oxygen. Dissolved oxygen is vital for aquatic life. The decomposing organic matters, dissolved gases, industrial wastes, minerals, and urban waste runoff results to get lower DO value (Srivastava, et al, 2013).
DO level represents one of the most important measurements of water quality and is a critical indicator of a water body's ability to support healthy ecosystems. Levels above 5 mg/L are considered optimal, and most fish cannot survive for prolonged periods at levels below 3 mg/L. Microbial communities in water use oxygen to breakdown organic materials, such as manure, sewage and decomposing algae. Low levels of dissolved oxygen can be a sign that too much organic material is in a water body.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand5
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is a measure of the amount of oxygen that bacteria will consume while decomposing organic matter under aerobic conditions. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is used as index for determining the amount of decomposing organic material as well as the rate biological activities in the water. This is because oxygen is required for respiration by microorganisms involved in the decomposition of organic materials. Thus, high concentration of BOD indicates the presences of organic influents and hence oxygen requiring microorganism (UNEP, 2009).
According to (USEPA, 1998), phosphorous is an essential plant nutrient and most often controls plant (algae and saprophytes) growth in the freshwater. It is also found in fertilizers, human wastes, animal wastes, and yard wastes.
There is no atmospheric (vapor) from of phosphate. Because there are few natural sources of phosphorus and the luck of atmospheric cycles of phosphorus is often limiting nutrients in aquatic systems. Phosphorus most often transported into the water bodies via urban runoff, and soil erosion because many form of phosphorus tend to be absorbed to soil particles. Excess amount of this element in aquatic system (particularly fresh water, Lakes, Rivers, Reservoirs, and ponds) leads to proliferation of microscopic algae called phytoplankton.
Nitrate (NO3-N) is a compound made up of nitrogen and oxygen. It is formed when nitrogen from ammonia or other sources combined with oxygen in water (Wisconsin, 2016) According to his description, nitrate also naturally found in plant and vegetables at varying concentration. It is often in ground water depending on the amount of fertilizer and manure applied to crop fields. Pollution of nitrate -Nitrogen (NO3-N) is a major problem in the Earth’s surface environment, especially in arid and semi-arid regions.
River system are vital to terrestrial transformation and transportation of nutrients. Most of the surface water pollution is accompanied by excessive chloride, sulfate, nitrate and other pollutants. Nitrate has been one of the dominant form of increased loading since the 1970s. According to Global Environmental monitoring System Database, concentration of nitrateNitrogen (NO3-N) in most rivers of the world polluted in more populated area more than standard of 10mg/L suggested by the (patil,2012).
Coliform bacteria are described and grouped based on their common origins, or characteristics are either total or fecal coliform.
The total coliform groups includes fecal coliform bacteria such as Escherichia (E. coli) as well as other types of coliform bacteria that area naturally found in soil.
Fecal Coliform bacteria exist in the intestines of warm blooded animals and humans, and are found in bodily waste, animal droppings, and naturally in soil. Most of the Fecal Coliform in fecal material (feces) is comprised of E. coli, and the serotype E. coli known to cause serious human illness (WHO, 2008).
The sources of fecal coliform bacteria originates as organisms in soil or vegetation and in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals (fecal coli). This group of bacteria has long been an indicator of water contamination and possible presence of intestinal parasites and pathogens. Coliform bacteria are relatively simple to identify, are present in much larger numbers than more dangerous pathogens, and react to the natural environment and treatment processes similarly to pathogens. By observing coliform bacteria, the increase or decrease of many pathogenic bacteria can be estimated (Dagnew, 2013).
Sources of bacterial pollution include runoff from woodlands, pastures, and feedlots; septic tanks and sewage plants; and animals and wild fowl. Domestic animals contribute heavily to the bacterial population. Many coliform bacteria may be directly deposited into natural streams from waste in water and runoff from areas with high concentrations of animals or humans population (Ayebo et al., 2006).
This study was conducted in Sawla town administration which is found in the Gamo Gofa Zone, SNNPRS of Ethiopia. It is bordered by Dakisho Subo and Karcho Mella Kebele in north, Zenith river in the South, Turga keble in the East, and Tsala Tsaba keble in the West. Generally, Sawla town has encircled by Demba Gofa Woreda which is one of woreda in Gamo Gofa Zone. It covers 12.7 square kilometer of area. Sawla town had its name after the local name from which the name of town (Sawla) is derived “Sa7a WulcT. It has equivalent meaning with the English word “the Gate of land”.
This name was given to Sawla town because, it has been serving as the center of business and information for the surrounding districts. Sawla town is astronomically located between 6° 18’ N to 6° 21’N latitude and 36° 53’E to 36 °58’E longitudes. The altitude of Sawla town varies between 1000 meter above sea level and 2000 meter above sea level. It is situated at 513 km south west from Addis Ababa, 253 km from Hawassa, the regional capital and 235km from Arba Minch, the zonal capital (CSA, abstract, 2014).
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 19 Seiten
Projektarbeit, 79 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 265 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 113 Seiten
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 50 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 139 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 61 Seiten
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 19 Seiten
Projektarbeit, 79 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 265 Seiten
Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 113 Seiten
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 50 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 139 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 61 Seiten
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